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182 terms

Bio Exam

Bio 216
STUDY
PLAY
In the reaction (H2O + CO2 <---> H2CO3), increasing the concentration of H2O would
A. decrease the concentration of H2CO3.
B. increase the concentration of H2CO3.
C. increase the concentration of CO2.
D. have no effect on either CO2 or H2CO3 concentrations.
B. increase the concentration of H2CO3.
Energy transformations result in a(n) ______________ in entropy. A. increase B. decrease C. no change
A. increase
Oxidizing agents accept electrons from molecules undergoing reduction.
(t/f)
True
A reducing agent donates electrons to a molecule. (t/f)
True
Exergonic reactions proceed with the release of energy. (t/f)
True
A molecule that gains a hydrogen is also oxidized.(t/f)
False
Chemically reduced FAD has __________ extra hydrogen atom(s) bound to it.
A. one B. two C. three D. no
B. two
Oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) has ______________ two hydrogens.
A. lost B. gained C. shared
A. lost
______________ is the opposite of glycogenesis.
A. Glycolysis
B. Glyconeogenesis
C. Glycogenolysis
D. Gluconeogenesis
C. Glycogenolysis
Glucose formed from amino acids comes from the process of glycogenolysis. (T/F)
False
The Cori cycle involves formation of glucose made by gluconeogenesis in the liver from lactic acid produced by fermentation in skeletal muscles. (T/F)
True
The majority of water within the body is found in the
A. intracellular compartment.
B. extracellular compartment.
C. blood plasma.
D. interstitial fluid
A. intracellular compartment.
The extracellular matrix is made up of collagen, elastin, and a gel-like ground substance. (T/F)
True
Active transport does not require the expenditure of energy. (T/F)
False
Proteins that extend from the cytoskeleton within the cell, through the plasma membrane, and into the extracellular matrix are
A. lysosomal proteins.
B. metallo proteins.
C. receptor proteins.
D. integrin proteins.
D. integrin proteins.
Passive transport of water is known as
A. filtration.
B. osmosis.
C. facilitated diffusion.
D. a water pump.
B. osmosis.
Dialysis uses the process of
A. facilitated diffusion.
B. primary active transport.
C. simple diffusion.
D. secondary active transport.
C. simple diffusion
The rate of diffusion increases as the concentration gradient increases. (T/F)
True
What type of intravenous fluid would be given to reduce edema?
A. hypertonic
B. isotonic
C. hypotonic
A. hypertonic
Protein carrier mediated transport of molecules display
A. specificity.
B. competition.
C. saturation.
D. All of these choices are correct
D. All of these choices are correct
Glucose can enter into the cell by facilitated diffusion or countertransport. (T/F)
F; fasc. diff or cotransport
Active transport carriers are also called
A. vesicles.
B. channels.
C. pumps.
D. receptors.
C. pumps
What type of functional complex will prohibit paracellular transport?
A. tight junctions
B. adherens junctions
C. desmosomes
D. gap junctions
A. tight junctions
Movement of large molecules into a cell is called
A. endocytosis.
B. exocytosis.
C. bulk transport.
D. Both A and C are correct.
D. Both A and C are correct
The charge difference across a membrane produces the membrane potential. (T/F)
True
The resting membrane potential is closest to the equilibrium potential for
A. sodium ions.
B. chloride ions.
C. calcium ions.
D. potassium ions.
D. potassium ions.
Hyperkalemia would ____________ the resting membrane potential of the cell.
A. increase
B. decrease
C. have no effect on
B. decrease
A change in the concentration of any ion inside or outside the cell will change the resting potential. (T/F)
True
Which of the following is NOT a general category of cell signaling molecules?
A. endocrine signaling
B. enzymatic signaling
C. paracrine signaling
D. synaptic signaling
B. enzymatic signaling
Which of the following is NOT true of cyclic AMP?
A. It is found on the outside of a plasma membrane.
B. It is a second messenger for polar regulatory molecules.
C. It is made from ATP.
D. It activates enzymes inside a cell to produce the desired effect.
A. It is found on the outside of a plasma membrane.
Where is the receptor for a nonpolar, lipid-soluble regulatory molecule?
A. embedded in the outer surface of the plasma membrane
B. embedded in the inner surface of the plasma membrane
C. in the cytoplasm or nucleus of the cell
D. All of the choices are correct.
C. in the cytoplasm or nucleus of the cell
The brain and spinal cord comprise the
A. central nervous system.
B. peripheral nervous system.
C. peripheral ganglia.
D. spinal nerves.
A. central nervous system.
The study of how disease or injury alters physiological processes is termed
pathophysiology
Negative feedback results in a response that opposes that of the original stimulus. (t/f)
True
An integrating center sends information to a(n)
effector
The endocrine regulation of blood glucose concentration is an example of a(n)
both antagonistic effector and negative feedback loop
____ and ____ are often regulators of effectors in most feedback loops.
Hormones, nerves
A decrease in mean arterial pressure is detected by
a sensor
In positive feedback mechanisms, the action of an effector is
increased
The normal range of arterial blood pH is
7.35-7.45
Contraction of _______ muscle can be consciously controlled
skeletal
These muscle cells do NOT have a striated appearance
smooth muscle cells
The highly branched extensions of a neuron whose function is to receive input from other neurons or receptors cells are called
dendrites
Epithelial membranes that are more than one layer thick are called
stratified
Histological examination of a membrane shows several layers of keratinized flattened cells. This sample most likely came from
the epidermis of the skin
Specialized epithelial cells that line the urinary bladder that allow distention make up
transitional epithelium
____ glands secrete chemicals through a duct that leads to the outside of a membrane
exocrine
___ attach skeletal musckles to bones
tendons
Which type of connective tissue is characterized by a liquid extracellular matrix?
blood
Bone-forming cells are known as
osteoblasts
Which organ system is primarily involved in regulation of blood volume and composition?
urinary system
Tissues are groups of cells that have similar functions.(t/f)
true
Organs involved in carrying out related functions are grouped into systems (T/F)
true
Nervous tissue is specialized to produce and conduct electrical impulses (T/F)
true
One exocrine function of the skin is the synthesis and secretion of melanin from the sebaceous glands(T/F)
false
Enzymes ____ the rate of a specific chemical reaction.
increase
The rate at which a chemical reaction can be increased is by either _____ the temperature or _____ decreasing the activation energy.
increasing, decreasing
The substrate binds to the ______ of the enzymes.
active sites
Digestive enzymes which remove hydrogen atoms from their substrates are referred to as
dehydrogenases
Dehydration synthesis reactions are catalyzed by
synthases
In the reaction (h2o+co2--->h2co3), increasing the concentration of h2o would
increase the concentration of h2co3
Energy transormations result in an ____ in entropy.
increase
Energy transformations increase the entropy of a system is a statement of
the second law of thermodynamics
Energy can change forms, but cannot be created or destroyed is a statement of the
first law of thermodynamics
Free energy is _____ when exergonic reactions proceed.
decreased
A ____ is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one cubic centimeter of water one degree on the Celsius scale.
calorie
_____ is the universal energy carrier.
ATP
NAD is derived from the vitamin
B-3, niacin
FAD is derived from vitamin
B-2, riboflavin
Chemically reduced FAD has ____ extra hydrogen atomes bound to it.
2
If NAD becomes reduced it is an
oxidizing agent
During oxidation, a molecule or atom
loses electrons.
During reduction, a molecule or atom
gains electrons.
FAD and NAD are coenzymes that act as ____ in bichemical reactions
hydrogen carriers
Catalysts increase reaction rates by lowering the activation energy of a reaction.(T/F)
true
Most enzymes are lipids. (T/F)
false
Active enzymes are often called zymogens. (T/F)
false
Another name for the first law of thermodynamics is hte law of conservation of energy. (T/F)
true
Oxidizing agents accept electrons from molecules undergoing reduction. (T/F)
true
Reducing agents donates electrons to a molecule. (T/F)
true
____ reactions require energy to synthesize large molecules from small molecules.
anabolic
Glycolysis converts glucose into two ___ moleclues.
pyruvic acid
Gycolysis results in a net gain of two ATP formed by direct ____of ADP molecules using phosphates taken from glycolytic intermediates.
phosphorylation
____ muscle is better adapted to anaerobic conditions than cardiac muscle.
skeletal
____ cells normally produce ATP exclusively by anaerobic respiration metabolism
red blood
What is the inadequate supply of blood to an organ called?
ischemia
The Cori cycle converts _____ to pyruvic acid
lactic acid
What type of tissue is especially dependent on adequate plasma glucose levels?
nervous
ATP formation in the electron transport system is called
oxidative phosphorylation
The actual yeild of ATP from 1 glucose is
30-32 ATP
Ther electron transport system is a series of ____ reactions.
oxidation-reduction
Each turn of the Krebs cycle produces
1 FADH2, 1ATP, and 3 NADH
Acetyl CoA is
generatied from pyruvate
Aerobic respiration
both uses glucose and generates water
Fatty acid metabolism
occurs via beta-oxidation
The majority of energy within the body is stored as triglycerides. (t/f)
true
How much of the total body water content is intracellular?
67%
Proteins that extend from the cytoskeleton within the cell, through the plasma membrane, and into the extracellular matrix are
integrin proteins
Osmosis and simple diffusion do NOT require the actions of carrier proteins. (t/f)
true
Active transport proceeds when energy is expended.(t/f)
true
____ is a term which describes a membrane that allows only certain molecules to penetrate it.
selectively permeable
Passive trasport of water is known as
osmosis
Simple diffusion is the net diffusion of a solvent. (t/f)
false
A solution consists of a ___ which dissolves the ____.
solvent, solute
The osmotic pressure of a solution is directly related to its ___ concentration
solute
Hyertonic solutions stimulate cellular lysis.
false
Cells placed in hypotonic solutions will
increase in volume
What type of intravenous fluid would be given to reduce edema?
hypertonic
Osmoreceptors are involved in the regulation of blood volume.
true
Facilitated diffusion of a molecule into a cell would be more rapid if
the concentration of the molecule outside the cell increased
The Na+/K+ pumps transport ___ into the cell and ___ out of the cell per cycle.
2K+, 3Na+
In secondary active transport, if the other substance is moved in the same direction as Na+, it is called
cotransport
Desmosomes are a type of junctional complex.
true
Bulk transport is required for the transport of large polar molecules into or out of cells.
true
The charge difference across a membrane produces the membrane potential.
true
The primary intracellular cation is
K+
Ther resting membrane potential is closest to the equilibrium potential for
Potassium ions
Hyperkalemia would _____ the resting membrane potential of the cell.
decrease
Most cells have a resting membrane potential between
-65mV and -85mV
What is necessary for a target cell to respond to a cell signaling molecule?
specific receptor proteins
What molecules pass information from the polar regulatory molecule receptors to activate the enzymes that produce cAMP?
G-proteins
The brain and spinal cord comprises teh
central nervous system
Sensory neurons
are pseudounipolar and carry impulses toward the CNS
The myelin sheaths of CNS neurons are produced by
oligodendrocytes
The myelin sheaths of the PNS neurons are produced by
schwann cells
Cells supporting neuron cell bodies in ganglia are termed
satelite cells
What structure is found around PNS axons that is NOT found around CNS axons?
neurilemma
The gap of exposed axon in the myelin sheath is the
node of Ravier
White matter is
myelinated axon in the CNS
Themost numerous of all cells of CNS nervous tissue are the
astrocytes
The membrane of resting nerve cells is more permeable to ___ ions than ____ ions
Potassium, sodium
Ion channels that open in response to depolarization are called
voltage-gated channels
During an action potential
Na+ influx causes depolarization
The mechanism that allows many Na+ ions to move into the axon is
positive feedback
An axon will depolarize only if the membrane potential reaches between -70mV and -55mV. This follows the _____
All-or-none law
The period of time when Na+ channels are recovering from their inactive state and K+ channels are still open is the
both repolarization and relative refractory period are correct.
Conduction of an action potential in a myelinated axon is called
saltatory conduction
Chemicals that stimulate action potentials in postsynaptic cells are called
neurotransmitters
Both excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials undergo dummation
true
Botulism toxin prevents release of Ach at the neuromuscular junction. This causes
flaccid paralysis
Neurotransmitter release would be inhibited by
blocking Ca2+ influx in the axon terminal
The binding of a NT to its receptor protein causes ion channels to open in the post-synaptic membrane. What type o fgates are these?
both chemicaly-regulated gates and ligand-regulated gates are correct
Acetylcholine usually induces an excitatory postsynaptic potential when binding to ___receptors and an inhibitory postsynaptic potential when binding to _____ receptors.
nicotinic, muscarinic
Cholinergic fibers use ____ as the neurotransmitter.
acetylcholine
Serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid
tryptophan
The _____ dopamine system may be involved in emotional reward and drug addiction.
mesolimbic
Parkinson's disease is associated with the loss of dopaminergic neurons.
true
The nicotinic Ach receptor is a ligand-gated channel.
true
A lack of extracellular Ca2+ would cause increased release of neurotransmitters
false
Most synapses in the body are electrical.
true
____ innervate mucles and glands.
motor neurons
In the cerebrum, the _____ matter is generally superficial and the _____ matter is deep.
gray, white
Which area of the brain contains neurons that are apparently important in learning and memory?
hippocampus
What are the lobes of the cerebrum?
frontal, parietal, temporal, insula, occipital
What type of information is processed in the precentral gyrus?
motor
____ is a technique for visualizing brain region activity indirectly by detecting increases in blood oxygen levels.
functional magnetic resonance imaging
Which type of EEG pattern in an awake adult is indicative of brain damage?
delta waves
What is used to map neuronal activity with scalp electrodes?
EEG
Which type of sleep pattern may aid the consolidation of memory?
nonREM
Impaired motor coordination in Parkinson's disease is often due to
degeneration of the substantia nigra
Cerebral lateralization, in which the ___cerebral hemisphere is specialized for language and analytical ability and the ____ for visuospatial ability, is true for 97% of all people.
left, right
Aphasias are most often associated with damage to ____ and ______ areas.
Broca's and Wernicke's
What type of memory is involved in learning all this material about memory?
semantic
All cranial and spinal nerves are mixed nerves
false
The cerebellum is hte largest brain structure
false
Which cranial nerve is vital for the functioning of the vesceral organs?
vagus
Acranial nerve with only sensory fibers is the
vestibulocochlear nerve
In the spinal cord the gray matter is on the ____ and the white matter is on the ____
inside, outside
What condition is caused by a sudden failure of the RAS?
narcolepsy
The limbic system, especially the ___ and ____, are rich in "stress hormone" receptors.
hippocampus, amygdala
Except for the sense of ___, all sensory information is relayed through the thalamus.
smell
The inability to reach out and touch an object with control and accuracy may result from damage to the
cerebellum
The extrapyramidal tracts
originate in the reticular formation of the brainstem
A positive Babinski sign in adults indicates damage to the pyramidal motor tracts.
true
The spinocerebellar tract would carry information from sensory receptors to the cerebral cortex
false
Autonomic motor nerves do NOT innervate
skeletal muscle
The outonomic nervous system
is not usually under conscious control
The paravertebral and collateral ganglia are associated with the ____ division of the autonomic nervous system
sympathetic
____ ganglia are associated with the parasympathetic division of hte autonomic nervous system
Terminal
Autonomic motor pathways utilize two neurons while somatic motor pathways utilize on neuron
true
Postganglionic sympathetic neurons arise from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord
false
Mass activation is a property of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
false