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43 terms

AP Human Geo. Vocab. Unit 5

Ch. 14, 15, 16, 17
STUDY
PLAY
Political Geography
the subdivision of human geography focused on the nature and implications of the evolving spatial organization of political governance and formal political practice on the Earth's surface
Political Culture
The widely shared beliefs, values, and norms concerning the relationship of citizens to government and to one another.
Nation
a politically organized body of people under a single government
Nation-State
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
State
a politically organized body of people under a single government
Microstate
A state or territory that is small in both size and population.
Nationalism
a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
Sovereignty
ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
Boundary
invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory
Boundary Delimination
The lines indicating where individuals are allowed to go.
Boundary Demarcation
The actual placing of a political boundary on the landscape by means of barriers, fences, walls, or other markers.
Enclaves
countries surrounded or almost surrounded by another country.
Exclaves
A bounded (nonisland) piece of territory that is part of a particular state but lies separated from it by the territory of another state.
Geometric Boundary
Political boundaries that are defined and delimited by straight lines.
Physical-Political Boundary
boundary defined by a physical land mark like a river or a lake
Cultural-Political Boundary
boundaries that mark breaks in the human landscape based on differences in ethnicity
Antecedent Boundary
a boundary that existed before the cultural landscape emerged and stayed in place while people moved in to occupy the surrounding area...
Superimposed Boundary
a boundary that is imposed on the cultural landscape which ignores pre-existing cultural patterns (typically a colonial boundary)...
Relict Boundary
A political boundary that has ceased to function but the imprint of which can still be detected on the cultural landscape.
Geopolitics
study of government and its policies as affected by physical geography
Organic Theory
The view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include all stages of life.
Heartland Theory
Hypotheses proposed by Halford Mackinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world
Rimland Theory
Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest.
Centrifugal Force
Forces that tend to divide a country.
Centripetal Force
A force that causes an object to move in a circle
Colonialism
the process by which some nations enrich themselves through political and economic control of other nations
Core Area
the portion of a country that contains its economic, political, intellectual, and cultural focus.
Multicore Area
A state that possesses more than one core or dominant region, be it economic, political or cultural.
Federal State
An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
Unitary State
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
Forward Capital
Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory.
Electoral Geography
The study of the interactions among space, place, and region and the conduct and results of elections.
Gerrymander
To draw a district's boundaries to gain an advantage in elections
Supernationalism
when 3 or more countries join to form a union for economical or military reasons
Law of the Sea
laws establishing states' rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the Earth's waters and their resources.
Truman Proclamation
Policy of the United States With Respect to the Natural Resources of the Subsoil and Sea Bed of the Continental Shelf
Median-line Principle
lines made to distribute water ways when states are within 200 miles of each other
International Sanctions
Actions taken by countries against others for political reasons, either unilaterally or multilaterally.
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
a zone of exploitation extending 200 nautical miles seaward from a coastal state that has exclusive mineral and fishing rights over it
Globalization
actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
Devolution
the process of declining from a higher to a lower level of effective power or vitality or essential quality
Ethnonationalism
The identification and loyalty a person may feel for his or her nation.
Gateway State
A state that absorbs cultures and conditions without being dominated by them