area where cities first arose--river valleys in Southwest Asia, Mesopotamia, Nile, Indus, Wehuang, Middle Europe, Mesoamerica, West Africa, Andean America
theories of _____ ______: 1. irrigation led to agricultural surplus; 2. king as central political power led to increased demand for labor, which led to surplus; after one of these theories, the area moved away from agriculture to writing, then to codification of laws
_____ needed these site/situation factors: dependable food and water supply, trade routes, building materials, defensibility
Position on Earth‟s surface relative to other features. (Ex: My house is east of I-75)
800BC-500BC; these cities were miserable and its citizens had poor health; interconnected cities, urbanized, theater (center for philosophical and artistic showcasing), grid system to allow wind to blow through city, agora, acropolis; built by slaves
roman urban system
cities linked together; transport systems; sites chosen for defensibility, trade, religious significance, grid system (Greek influence), aqueducts (carried water daily), underground sewage systems
this system served as the Roman transportation system; very effective; "all ____ leads to Rome"
in this area of ancient cities, the poorest lived on the outskirts of the city, protected by mud wall, no waste disposal system which led to constant disease that controlled population
in these ancient cities, intricate plans of cities, equal size homes (before social stratification)
in these times, there were little urban growth, feudal system (very structured); European-style city with high density of development, narrow buildings, and an ornate church at the city center, with high walls for defense (walls proved futile when gunpowder made its way into Europe by the 1300s).
in these cities, there were citadel or casbah (fortified house of government in high part of town; market central located, houses promoted privacy (with walls) as wells as separation of public and private aspects of city life
beginning of downtown part of city; central square is focus; Atlantic maritime trade disrupted old trade routes & centers of power starting in the 1500s (from interior to coastal ports); central square became focus ("downtown"), these cities became nodes of a network of trade; brought huge riches to Europe (e.g. Lisbon, Amsterdam, London, ...).
central plaza is focus; sector development radiating out from Central Business District
grew out of the Industrial Revolution and the "Little Ice Age"; associated w/ mushrooming population, factories, tenement buildings, railroads, ...; poor living & health conditions; cities improved w/ government intervention, city planning, and zoning; late 17th/18th century; tech advances lead to less jobs and people move to US; segregation by economic class; pay determined home
city that is seen as the embodiment of surprising and disturbing changes in economic, social, and cultural life (Such as Manchester, England during the Industrial Revolution.)
continued growth due to positive aspects of principle itself; ex: if agglomeration is successful, more agglomeration occurs
some cities are characterized by one specific activity (e.g., Orlando - tourism, Las Vegas - gambling, ...); cities tend to lose their functional specialization as they grow. Typically specialize in management, research and development of a specific industry (motor vehicles in Detroit), or are centers of government and education, notably state capitals that also have a major university (Albany, Lansing, Madison, or Raleigh-Durham).
overgrown urban area created by the gradual merging of several metropolitan areas; also called conurbation; 2 or more metropolitan areas
condition experienced in many LDCs in which the city grows more rapidly than the jobs an housing they can maintain.
Urban landscape characterized by festival marketplaces and an orientation towards consumerism.
residential community whose growth and development was strongly shaped by the use of streetcar lines as a primary means of transportation
suburban area that has its own employment base (associated with decentralization); have own shopping and job base; characterized by extensive office and retail space, few residential areas, and modern buildings (built since the 1960s); signifies a newer worldwide trend of the movement of the loci of economic activity to the urban fringe (unlike the loci of activity around the CBD - which had dominated the industrial world).
process of industrial deconcentration in response to technological advances and/or increasing costs due to congestion and competition.
Central Place Theory
explains the number, location, size, and spacing of settlements within an urban system; organized by hexagons to eliminate unserved or overlapping market areas; basic conclusions: 1. cities are equidistant, towns are equidistant, etc., cities are furthest apart from each other, towns next furthest, etc; 2. same size places with same function are spaced same distance; 3. larger cities placed farther from each other than smaller towns
central goods and services
part of Central Place Theory; provided only at a central place, or city (available to consumers in a surrounding region).
part of Central Place Theory; breaking point; maximum distance people will travel for a good or service (economic reach).
part of Central Place Theory; minimum number of customers needed to keep the business running
part of Central Place Theory; market area; an exclusive hinterland w/ a monopoly on a certain good or service.
lowest level of settlements (often not urban); offers few if any services; very small settlement that provides a few services to those living closeby.
clustered human settlement larger than a hamlet and generally offering several services; provides basic goods and services for inhabitants and those who live in a small hinterland.
clustered human settlement larger than a village; may range from a few to thousands of inhabitants (even hundreds of thousands); generally many goods and services are available.
clustered conglomeration of people and buildings together serving as a center of politics, culture, and economics; a town may have outskirts, but virtually all cities have suburbs (hinterlands).
Literally "country behind"--a term that applies to a surrounding area served by an urban area
____________ of central place theory: broad, flat plain, no physical barriers, even soil fertility, uniform transition network, constant "range" in all directions for sale of any good
Predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it.
country's largest city--ranking atop the urban hierarchy--most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital city as well.
model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy.
in South; refers to cities that grew due to retirement demand, cheap land, AC invention, immigration
Central Business District
location of skyscrapers and companies (would always be the center of the 3 urban models, many people commute, few actually live there)
Zone in Transition
where immigrants go; ring of land uses (characterized by disinvestment) lying between the CBD and the inner ring of working-class residential areas.
invasion and succession
part of the process of urban growth that involves more intensive land uses outbidding existing use of buildings
Multiple Nuclei Model
Harris and Ullman; basic model of urban structure; reflects the settlement patterns of ethnic groups in cities; urban center grows and therefore lose functional specialization; reflects Central Business District losing power; based off of language and race
Concentric Zone Model
Burgess; structural model of the American city that suggests land use rings arranged around a common center; parts include CBD, zone in transition, etc.; SHOWS: older people and families farther from CBD in American cities
Hoyt; Classic model of urban structure developed on the assumption that the internal structure of a city is determined by transportation routes radiating out from the city's center; SHOWS: social/economic status in American cities
Urban Realms Model
loose association of economic subregions bound together through urban freeways that tend to function semi-independently
zone of maturity
shown in American cities; middle income people, good infrastructure, gentrification
Law of the Indies
only those of European descent were allowed to live in city walls in Latin American cities with this; central plaza with Catholic Church, grid system, wealthy live closer to plaza, middle/lower income further out
Southeast Asian urban model; says colonial port city is focus, central point of economic activity
African urban model
found in sub-Saharan Africa; 3 Central Business districts: European/colonial, informal, traditional
this type of planning has led East European residential parts of cities to be organized into microdistricts
Basic economic sector
produces exports; earns community money; economic activities that contribute directly to the economy by bringing money in from outside.
small fluctuations in one sector of the economy have a ripple effect; 1:2 (or 1:3) for most large cities for every worker in the basic sector, there are typically 2-3 workers in the nonbasic sector for most modern cities.
Discriminatory practice involving the demarcation by financial institutions of ares within which they will not loan money.
Rapid change in the racial composition of residential areas in American cities when real estate agents stir up fears of neighorhood decline after encouraging people or color to move into previously white neighborhoods.
Practice in which real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race or ethnicity.
cities in which all aspects of development are determined before construction begins. (May be referred to as "new towns" "garden cities" or "greenbelt towns"
Deed restrictions that apply to a group of homes or lots in a specific subdivision or development and can include such things as size of residence allowed or landscaping features.
inner cities that become dilapidated centers of poverty, as affluent whites move out of the suburbs (white flight) and immigrants and poorer people vie for scarce jobs and resources.
the rehabilitation of deteriorated, often abandoned, housing of low income inner-city areas; trend of mid to high-income Americans moving into city centers and rehabilitating much of the architecture, but also replacing low-income population - changing the social character of certain neighborhoods.
transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists.
city planners have redesigned their central cities to make them more amenable to people moving in, especially higher income residents.
A safe and trendy attraction intended to serve as a major catalyst for other redevelopment. (Indicative of a post-modern landscape.)
slang term for "Not In My BackYard"; effort to stop the establishment of certain types of housing or service facilities within or adjacent to a specific community
central area, often landscaped, which separates opposing lanes of traffic on divided streets, roads, and limited-access highways
specialized port where goods are held to be shipped to the final destination later on--a "transshipment point"
Metropolitan Statistical area
groups of counties (or equivalent) with total populations exceeding 100,000 with a central city (50,000+ residents) and surrounding suburbs
When housing tracts jump over parcels of farmland resulting in a mixture of open lands with built-up areas.
an area or zone of open, semi-rural surrounding a city (subject to permanent restrictions on new development)
CONCERNS: increases risk of flooding, sprawl, loss of soil, less natural landscape, pollution, waste, consumption habits, loss of farm land, heat island effect
heat island effect
microclimate of a city is typically slightly warmer than the temperature of the surrounding countryside.
squatter settlement habit of using mismatched and random materials in one building
sector of the economy that operates outside official recognition and not measured by official statistics
loosely defined area close to a city center--sometimes referred to as the "zone in transition."