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137 terms

Urban Geography Unit

ESSAYS: Gentrification, Smart Growth
STUDY
PLAY
urban hearths
area where cities first arose--river valleys in Southwest Asia, Mesopotamia, Nile, Indus, Wehuang, Middle Europe, Mesoamerica, West Africa, Andean America
urban origins
theories of _____ ______: 1. irrigation led to agricultural surplus; 2. king as central political power led to increased demand for labor, which led to surplus; after one of these theories, the area moved away from agriculture to writing, then to codification of laws
hydraulic civilizations
civilizations that construct irrigation and/or water systems
site
physical character of place
situation
location of a place relative to other places
cities
_____ needed these site/situation factors: dependable food and water supply, trade routes, building materials, defensibility
relative location
Position on Earth‟s surface relative to other features. (Ex: My house is east of I-75)
functions
the _______ of early cities included: religious center, irrigation, protection
Greek city-states
800BC-500BC; these cities were miserable and its citizens had poor health; interconnected cities, urbanized, theater (center for philosophical and artistic showcasing), grid system to allow wind to blow through city, agora, acropolis; built by slaves
Acropolis
high place for impressive (usually religious) buildings
agora
market, designed by Miletus, focus of economic activity
roman urban system
cities linked together; transport systems; sites chosen for defensibility, trade, religious significance, grid system (Greek influence), aqueducts (carried water daily), underground sewage systems
Forum
Roman combination of Greek agora and acropolis
roads
this system served as the Roman transportation system; very effective; "all ____ leads to Rome"
Colosseum
some Greek influence; Roman theater
Silk Road
early non-European cities often developed along this and/or an oasis
city
people and buildings together for center of politics, culture, and economics
formative
5000-7000 years ago; the _______ period of cities
Mesopotamia
in this area of ancient cities, the poorest lived on the outskirts of the city, protected by mud wall, no waste disposal system which led to constant disease that controlled population
Nile
cities here at 9200BC; good irrigation, no walls
Indus
in these ancient cities, intricate plans of cities, equal size homes (before social stratification)
social stratification
this and agricultural surplus led to advent of cities
Medieval
in these times, there were little urban growth, feudal system (very structured); European-style city with high density of development, narrow buildings, and an ornate church at the city center, with high walls for defense (walls proved futile when gunpowder made its way into Europe by the 1300s).
Sahel
in this part of Africa and also Americas there was significant urban growth in ancient times
Islamic
in these cities, there were citadel or casbah (fortified house of government in high part of town; market central located, houses promoted privacy (with walls) as wells as separation of public and private aspects of city life
mercantile city
beginning of downtown part of city; central square is focus; Atlantic maritime trade disrupted old trade routes & centers of power starting in the 1500s (from interior to coastal ports); central square became focus ("downtown"), these cities became nodes of a network of trade; brought huge riches to Europe (e.g. Lisbon, Amsterdam, London, ...).
colonial city
central plaza is focus; sector development radiating out from Central Business District
manufacturing city
grew out of the Industrial Revolution and the "Little Ice Age"; associated w/ mushrooming population, factories, tenement buildings, railroads, ...; poor living & health conditions; cities improved w/ government intervention, city planning, and zoning; late 17th/18th century; tech advances lead to less jobs and people move to US; segregation by economic class; pay determined home
shock city
city that is seen as the embodiment of surprising and disturbing changes in economic, social, and cultural life (Such as Manchester, England during the Industrial Revolution.)
cumulative causation
continued growth due to positive aspects of principle itself; ex: if agglomeration is successful, more agglomeration occurs
functional specialization
some cities are characterized by one specific activity (e.g., Orlando - tourism, Las Vegas - gambling, ...); cities tend to lose their functional specialization as they grow. Typically specialize in management, research and development of a specific industry (motor vehicles in Detroit), or are centers of government and education, notably state capitals that also have a major university (Albany, Lansing, Madison, or Raleigh-Durham).
modern city
no concern for traffic/transport; kind of city
post-modern city
cultural borrowing evident in city design and landscape, shopping
suburban center
usually has mall, department stores, festivals, market place, outlet malls
centrality
the degree of "economic reach" an urban area has into the surrounding area
megalopolis
overgrown urban area created by the gradual merging of several metropolitan areas; also called conurbation; 2 or more metropolitan areas
overurbanization
condition experienced in many LDCs in which the city grows more rapidly than the jobs an housing they can maintain.
gateway cities
"entrance point" which functions as a break-of-bulk and transsipment point.
postmodern landscape
Urban landscape characterized by festival marketplaces and an orientation towards consumerism.
metropolitan area
central city and its suburbs
streetcar suburb
residential community whose growth and development was strongly shaped by the use of streetcar lines as a primary means of transportation
GI Bill
guaranteed home loans to returning veterans after WWII
edge cities
suburban area that has its own employment base (associated with decentralization); have own shopping and job base; characterized by extensive office and retail space, few residential areas, and modern buildings (built since the 1960s); signifies a newer worldwide trend of the movement of the loci of economic activity to the urban fringe (unlike the loci of activity around the CBD - which had dominated the industrial world).
deglomeration
process of industrial deconcentration in response to technological advances and/or increasing costs due to congestion and competition.
counterurbanization
movement of people and industry away from major towns and cities.
exurbia
out of city; suburb that is separated from the city by open space
gated communities
provide comfort and safety for wealthy
Walter Christaller
Geographer associated with central place theory.
Central Place Theory
explains the number, location, size, and spacing of settlements within an urban system; organized by hexagons to eliminate unserved or overlapping market areas; basic conclusions: 1. cities are equidistant, towns are equidistant, etc., cities are furthest apart from each other, towns next furthest, etc; 2. same size places with same function are spaced same distance; 3. larger cities placed farther from each other than smaller towns
central goods and services
part of Central Place Theory; provided only at a central place, or city (available to consumers in a surrounding region).
range
part of Central Place Theory; breaking point; maximum distance people will travel for a good or service (economic reach).
threshold
part of Central Place Theory; minimum number of customers needed to keep the business running
complementary region
part of Central Place Theory; market area; an exclusive hinterland w/ a monopoly on a certain good or service.
urban hierarchy
size and spacing of towns and cities--the basis of central place theory
hamlet
lowest level of settlements (often not urban); offers few if any services; very small settlement that provides a few services to those living closeby.
village
clustered human settlement larger than a hamlet and generally offering several services; provides basic goods and services for inhabitants and those who live in a small hinterland.
town
clustered human settlement larger than a village; may range from a few to thousands of inhabitants (even hundreds of thousands); generally many goods and services are available.
city
clustered conglomeration of people and buildings together serving as a center of politics, culture, and economics; a town may have outskirts, but virtually all cities have suburbs (hinterlands).
hinterland
Literally "country behind"--a term that applies to a surrounding area served by an urban area
assumptions
____________ of central place theory: broad, flat plain, no physical barriers, even soil fertility, uniform transition network, constant "range" in all directions for sale of any good
gravity model
Predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it.
low order goods
perishable/need large quantities; short range
high order goods
costly, required less often; long range; ex: surgery
primate cities
country's largest city--ranking atop the urban hierarchy--most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital city as well.
rank-size rule
model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy.
sun-belt cities
in South; refers to cities that grew due to retirement demand, cheap land, AC invention, immigration
Central Business District
location of skyscrapers and companies (would always be the center of the 3 urban models, many people commute, few actually live there)
Zone in Transition
where immigrants go; ring of land uses (characterized by disinvestment) lying between the CBD and the inner ring of working-class residential areas.
invasion and succession
part of the process of urban growth that involves more intensive land uses outbidding existing use of buildings
bid rent theory
land rent higher closer to Central Business District
peak land value intersection
street intersections where land values are at their highest; 360, IH35
accessibility
ability to reach a place
sectors
follow transportation routes, specifically trains
Multiple Nuclei Model
Harris and Ullman; basic model of urban structure; reflects the settlement patterns of ethnic groups in cities; urban center grows and therefore lose functional specialization; reflects Central Business District losing power; based off of language and race
Concentric Zone Model
Burgess; structural model of the American city that suggests land use rings arranged around a common center; parts include CBD, zone in transition, etc.; SHOWS: older people and families farther from CBD in American cities
Sector Model
Hoyt; Classic model of urban structure developed on the assumption that the internal structure of a city is determined by transportation routes radiating out from the city's center; SHOWS: social/economic status in American cities
Urban Realms Model
loose association of economic subregions bound together through urban freeways that tend to function semi-independently
dinks
slang term; "duel income with no kids"
empty nesters
slang term; "older couples whose kids have moved away"
Ranstad
large urban area of the Netherlands
zone of maturity
shown in American cities; middle income people, good infrastructure, gentrification
in situ
lower income; homes in construction, self-built
peripheral
squatter, few services or schools, self-built
Latin America
in this part of the world, services are more reliable near "spine"
Law of the Indies
only those of European descent were allowed to live in city walls in Latin American cities with this; central plaza with Catholic Church, grid system, wealthy live closer to plaza, middle/lower income further out
McGee Model
Southeast Asian urban model; says colonial port city is focus, central point of economic activity
alien commercial zone
traditional Chinese or Indian enclave
African urban model
found in sub-Saharan Africa; 3 Central Business districts: European/colonial, informal, traditional
Communist
this type of planning has led East European residential parts of cities to be organized into microdistricts
microdistrict
designed to minimize cost by reducing roads and maximizing living space
Basic economic sector
produces exports; earns community money; economic activities that contribute directly to the economy by bringing money in from outside.
Non-basic economic sector
businesses that provide services to basic industries
employment structure
ratio of basic to nonbasic workers (nonbasic is always larger)
multiplier effect
small fluctuations in one sector of the economy have a ripple effect; 1:2 (or 1:3) for most large cities for every worker in the basic sector, there are typically 2-3 workers in the nonbasic sector for most modern cities.
deindustrialization
this occurs in an area when jobs go towards cheaper labor elsewhere.
squatters
on edge of cities; live in favelas (or barrios in Venezuela)
redlining
Discriminatory practice involving the demarcation by financial institutions of ares within which they will not loan money.
blockbusting
Rapid change in the racial composition of residential areas in American cities when real estate agents stir up fears of neighorhood decline after encouraging people or color to move into previously white neighborhoods.
racial steering
Practice in which real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race or ethnicity.
planned communities
cities in which all aspects of development are determined before construction begins. (May be referred to as "new towns" "garden cities" or "greenbelt towns"
restrictive covenants
Deed restrictions that apply to a group of homes or lots in a specific subdivision or development and can include such things as size of residence allowed or landscaping features.
ghettoization
inner cities that become dilapidated centers of poverty, as affluent whites move out of the suburbs (white flight) and immigrants and poorer people vie for scarce jobs and resources.
gentrification
the rehabilitation of deteriorated, often abandoned, housing of low income inner-city areas; trend of mid to high-income Americans moving into city centers and rehabilitating much of the architecture, but also replacing low-income population - changing the social character of certain neighborhoods.
urban renewal
revitalization of run down sections of central cities.
commercialization
transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists.
revitalization
city planners have redesigned their central cities to make them more amenable to people moving in, especially higher income residents.
festival landscape
A safe and trendy attraction intended to serve as a major catalyst for other redevelopment. (Indicative of a post-modern landscape.)
NIMBYism
slang term for "Not In My BackYard"; effort to stop the establishment of certain types of housing or service facilities within or adjacent to a specific community
parkways
central area, often landscaped, which separates opposing lanes of traffic on divided streets, roads, and limited-access highways
beltway
road that encircles a town or city
commuter zone
Area from which a city draws workers each day.
mass transit
this has declined because of livability of central cities
growth poles
industries designed to stimulate growth through establishment of supporting industries
entrepot center
specialized port where goods are held to be shipped to the final destination later on--a "transshipment point"
zoning laws
public regulation of land and building use to control the character of the place.
incorporation
including a new area to a city
annexation
incorporating a new area to a city or area
eminent domain
government privilege to take citizens' lands for the greater good
enterprise zone
area where special policies apply to encourage economic development
Metropolitan Statistical area
groups of counties (or equivalent) with total populations exceeding 100,000 with a central city (50,000+ residents) and surrounding suburbs
census tract
census region designed to represent neighborhoods where possible
urban sprawl
Uncontrolled growth on the urban fringe.
smart growth
Urban planning that concentrates growth in the center of a city to avoid urban sprawl
checkerboard development
When housing tracts jump over parcels of farmland resulting in a mixture of open lands with built-up areas.
infill development
development of sites initially bypassed in the expansion of an urban area.
greenbelts
an area or zone of open, semi-rural surrounding a city (subject to permanent restrictions on new development)
urbanization
CONCERNS: increases risk of flooding, sprawl, loss of soil, less natural landscape, pollution, waste, consumption habits, loss of farm land, heat island effect
heat island effect
microclimate of a city is typically slightly warmer than the temperature of the surrounding countryside.
suitcase farmer
farmer who has farm but works in city
asylum seekers
refugee seeking shelter and protection in one state from another state.
Levitt town
term for "cookie cutter" homes in a town
bootstrapped building
squatter settlement habit of using mismatched and random materials in one building
informal economy
sector of the economy that operates outside official recognition and not measured by official statistics
remittance
money migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries
inner city
loosely defined area close to a city center--sometimes referred to as the "zone in transition."
underclass
Those who suffer from a degree of poverty from which there seems to be no escape
urban village
more urbanized than a village; ex: Westlake