Material deprivation is the idea that working class children fail because of a lack of financial reosurces such as living in poverty, poor housing, poor diet etc.
They cannot afford school uniform, school trips, transport to & from school, classroom materials & school textbooks. This leads to children being isolated, bullied and stigmatised.
Older working-class students might need to work part-time to support their studies.
Transport costs mean most poorer pupils go to local schools which may not be high in League tables, so poorer pupils become concentrated in increasingly unpopular, poorly resourced schools due to martketization.
Smith and Noble list a number of 'barriers to learning' resulting from material deprivation, inlusing not having a computer, a desk, educational toys, books, a quiet space to do homework and a heated home. Ridge said that older pupils in poverty take on jobs such as cleaning which negatively effects their school work especially at A-level.
Diane Reay (2005) showed how working class pupils are more likely to attend local universities to save money. Joan Payne studied A-level students and found that wealthy middle-class parents pushed their children of moderate intelligence further than bright working class children. They paid for exam re-sits and hired tutors to help them.
An ethnicity or ethnic group, is a social group of people who identify with each other based on common historical, social, cultural or national experience.
Ethnicity has shared cultural traits and a shared group history. Some ethnic groups also share a common language or religion. There may be particular rituals, cuisine and dress associated with an ethnic group.
Therefore, when we talk about how ethnicity affects education, we are considering cultural differences of ethnic groups, not biological differences.
Ethnicity affects a student's educational achievement. The ethnic group you belong to is likely to have a bearing on how successful you are. There seems to be clear 'winners' and 'losers' in terms of education successes, Indians, Chinese and Whites tend to do well; Afro-Caribbean's, Pakistanis and Bangladeshi's less so. Also ethnic group seems to influence whether a person continues into further education and their chances of being permanently excluded.
• Chinese pupils had the highest proportion of A*-C GCSE grades in 2004. (79% of girls, 70% of boys)
• Indian pupils 72% of girls and 62% of boys)
• Lowest levels of attainment were among Black African-Caribbean pupils, 44% of girls 27% of boys
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