Regular medical care during pregnancy, desinged to promote the health of the mother and the fetus.
Intrauterine device (IUD)
Small T-shaped deivce that when inserted in the uterus prevents conception.
Contraceptive methods based on physically separating sperm from the female repoductive tract.
Circular rubber dome that is inserted in the vagina before intercourse to prevent conception.
Small, cuplike rubber device that covers only the cervix and is inserted in the vagina before intercourse to prevent conception.
Small polyurethane foam device presaturated with spermicide that is inserted in the vagina before intercourse to prevent pregnancy.
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS)
A rare, life-threatening bacterial infection in the vagina associated with the use of tampons and female barrier contraceptive methods.
Fertility awareness-based methods
Contraceptive method based on abstinence during the window of time around ovulation when a woman is most likely to conceive.
A contraceptive method in which the man removes his penis from the vagina before ejaculating.
Emergency contraception (EC)
A contraceptive method used after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy.
Male sterilization procedure, involving tying off and severing the vas deferens to prevent sperm from reaching the semen.
Female sterilization procedure involving severing and tying off or sealing the fallopian tubes to prevent ova from reaching the uterus.
A pregnancy in which a fertilized egg implants or attaches itself outside of the uterus, usually in a fallopian tube.
Inability to become pregnant after not using any form of contraception during sexual intercourse for 12 months.
Counseling before conception that may include an evaluation of current health behaviors and health status, recommendations for improving health, and treatment of any existing conditions that might increase risk.
Transmission of an infection or disease from mother to child during pregnancy and delivery.
Substances that can cause physical damage or defects in the fetus, especially if they are present during the first trimester, when rapid development of body organs is occuring.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
Combination of birth defects caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol, characterized by abnormal facial apparance, slow growth, mental retardation, and social, emotional, and behavior problems.
Dangerous condtion that can occur during pregnancy, chatacterized by high blood pressure, fluid retention possible kidney and liver damage, and potential fetal death.
Potentially life-threatening disease that can develop during pregnancy, marked by seizures and coma.
Protein produced by the infant and released into the amniotic fluid; AFP measurement is used to screen for some fetal abnormalities.
Chronic villus sampling (CVS)
Technique for testing feal cells for chromosomal abnormalities by removing cells from the chorionic villus, part of the placenta in the uterus.
Technique for testing fetal cells for chromosomal abnormalities by removing a sample of amniotic fluid from the amniotic sac.
Structure that develops in the uterus during pregnancy and links the circulatory system of the fetus with that of the mother.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
Combination of birth defects caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol, characterized by abnormal facial apperance, slow growth, mental retardation, and social, emotional, and behavioral problems.
area of interest within the field of psychology that focuses on positive emotions, character strengths, and conditions that create happiness.
In Maslow's work, the state attained when a person has reached his or her full potenial.
In Golemen's work the kind of intelligence that includes an understanding of emotional experience, self-awareness, and sensitivity to others.
the part of the brain where the executive functions of planning, organizing, and rational thnking are controlled.
Controls planning, organizing, rational thinking, working memory, judgment, moood modulaiton. Undergoes rapid growth just before puberty, followed by pruning and consolidation during adolescence.
controls emotional responses and instinctual, "gut" reactions. Adolescents appear to rely more heavily on this part of the brain to interpret situations than adults do.
relays information between the two hemispheres of the brain and is believed to play a role in creativity and problem solving. Grows and changes significantly during adolescense.
long know to be invollved in moter activity and physical coordination; now understood to coordinate thinking processes, including decision mkakin and social skills .Undergoes dynamic growth and change during adolescence.
according to the DSM-IV-TR, a pattern of behavior that is associated with distress (pain) aor disability (impairment in an important area of functioning, suchas school or work) or with significantly increased risk of suffering, death, pain, disability, or loss of freedom.
Mental state characterized by a depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure in activities and several orther related symptoms.
clear physiological experience of apprehension or intense fear in the absence of a real danger.
mental disorder characterized by recurrent, enexpected panic attacks along with concern about having another attack.
a psychotic disorder in which a person has disorganized and disordered thinking and perceptions, bizarre ideas, hallucinations, and impaired functioning.
treatment for psychological problems usually based on the development of a positive interpersonal relationship between a client and a therapist.
the general state of the body, mind and emotions when an environmental stressor has triggerred the stress response.
stress response or fight or flight response
series of physiological changes that activate body systems, providing a burst of energy to deal with a percived threat or danger.
state of stability and balance in whic hbody functions are maintained within a normal range.
series of physiological changes that calm body systems and return them to normal.
branch of the nervous system that is responsible for initiating the stress response.
branch of the nervous system that is responsible for turning off the stress response and returning the body to normal.
long term, low level stress in which the stress response continues without resolution
general adaptation syndrome
selyes classic model used to describe the physiological changes associated with the stress response. The three phases are alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
effective style of coping with stress, characterized by a tendency to view life evenets as challenges rather than threats, a commitment to meaningful activities, and a sense of being in control.
positive thoughts that you can write down or say to yourself to balance negative thoughts.
autonomic nervous system
The sympathetic branch starts your stress response while the parasympathetic branch-ends your stress response
Major Depressive Disorder
a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities
A person who has this may feel persistent symptoms of mild or moderate depression for an extended period of time.
a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out daily tasks.
A feeling of apprehension and dread, with or without a known cause; accompanied by physical symptoms.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
An anxiety disorder characterized by persistent, intrusive thoughts, ect.; An anxiety disorder where you have to do something to satisfy your obsession.
Substance other than food that affects the structure or function of the body through its chemical action.
Drugs that alter perceptions and thinking, intensifying and distorting visual and auditory perceptions and producing hallucinations; also called psychedelics.
Breathable chemical vapors that alter consciousness, producing a state resembling dunkenness.
Signs of addiction
strong craving for a drug and compulsive use of the drug despite negative consequences
Altered state of consciousness as a result of drinking alcohol or ingesting other substances.
Consumption of five or more drinks in a row by a man or four or more drinks in a row by a woman.
Central nervous System Depressant
Chemical substance that slows down the activity of the bain and spinal cord.
Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)
The amount of alcohol in grams in 100 milliliters of blood, expressed as a percentage.
Period of time during which a drinker is conscious but has partial or complete amnesia for events.
Condition in which the liver swells with fat globules as a result of alcohol consumption.
Thick, sticky residue formed when tobacco leaves burn, containing hundreds of chemical compounds and carcinogenic substances.
Abnormal condition of the lungs characterized by decreased respiratory function and increased shortness of breath.
Respiratory disorder characterized by mucus secretion, cough, and increasing difficulty in breathing.
Respiratory disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing, and thick mucus production.
Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)
Smoke from other people's tobacco products; also called secondhand smoke or passive smoking.
an odorless gas that interferes with the ability of red blood cells to carry oxygen to vital body organs.
Mental representation that a person has of his or her own body, including perceptions, attitudes, thoughts, and emotions.
Using self-induced vomiting, laxatives, or diuretics to get rid of excess calories that have been consumed.
Disorder in which a person peceives his body to be underdeveloped no matter how highly developed his muscles really are.
Disordered Eating Behaviors
Abnormal eating patterns (for example, vomiting, use of laxatives, extreme dieting) that may not fit the rigid diagnostic rules for anorexia or bulimia but affect quality of life.
Conditions characterized by severely disturbed eating behaviors and distorted body image; eating disorders jeopardize physical and psychological health.
Eating disorder marked by distortion of body image and refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight.
Eating disorder marked by distortion of body image and repeated episodes of binge eating usually followed by purging in the form of self-induced vomiting, misuse of diuretics or laxatives, excessive exercising, or fasting.
Eating disorder marked by binge-eating behavior without the vomiting or purging of bulimia.
Excessive or addictive exercising, undertaken to address psychological needs rather than to improve fitness.
Infections that occur when the immune system is weakened. These infections do not usually occur in a person with a healthy immune system.
A set of precautions designed to prevent transmission of bloodborne infections. Blood and certain body fluids of all patients are considered potentially infectious for HIV and hepatitis B and C. Protective barriers, such as gloves, aprons, and protective eyewear. are used in health settings.
Complicated drug combinations used to overcome drug resistance in different strains of HIV.