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Chapter 5 mastering environmental science
Terms in this set (59)
What is the term that refers to the substances and forces that sustain our society and everyday lives?
What are ecosystem services?
These are essential processes such as soil formation, nutrient cycles, the pollination of plants, etc.
Which of the following groups advocates economies that neither grow nor shrink but remain stable?
What is meant by "market failure"?
This occurs when markets do not take into account the environment's positive effects on economies (such as ecosystem services) or when they do not reflect the negative impacts of economic activity on people or the environment (external costs).
What costs are associated with transactions that can result in damage to the environment, human health, and property?
What type of economic discipline maintains that society, like natural populations, cannot surpass environmental limitations?
Which of the following correctly illustrate the two ways that economic growth can occur?
increased inputs to the economy and improvements in efficiency through technology
The principle that "internal costs," which are the costs and benefits borne by the buyer and seller alone, represent the true and full economics of all transactions is a principle of ________.
Which of the following best explain the "free rider" predicament?
This allows one party to "get away" with an environmental impact while other parties continue to use best environmental practices.
"If domestic gas prices rise to $5 per gallon, conservation will increase, alternative fuels will be developed, and energy efficiency and our quality of life will improve." This view is consistent with ________ economics.
A distinguishing feature of ecological economics is the concept of ________.
steady-state economies that, like natural systems, neither grow nor shrink
Rising per capita consumption of goods and rising population growth lead to ________.
more resource extraction, waste and pollution
What event is credited with leading to the passage of the Clean Water Act?
the Cuyahoga River catching fire
The role of an administrative agency is that of _______.
enforcement and elaboration of laws passed by Congress
What is the title of the book by Rachel Carson that refers to the absence of birdsongs due to the poisoning of birds by pesticides?
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) _________.
gave citizens the right to see and comment on proposed government projects through the creation of environmental impact statements
Which of the following was NOT part of public policy during the early years of the United States?
According to the figure, the basis for government policy regarding environmental issues ________.
comes from the sciences, with additional input from the public and private sectors
Environmental policy aims to ________.
promote fairness among people and groups in the use of resources
Lobbying, legal action, and campaign funding are all means used by ________ to influence governmental environmental policies.
the public sector
Which statement is correct concerning international law?
An example of customary law is the idea that no nation should use its resources in ways that adversely affect its neighbors.
Regarding the issue of global warming, until the hurricane season of 2005, the federal government's official stance was that the information available from the scientific community was neither conclusive nor persuasive. This governmental position was probably due to ________.
the private sector's reluctance to change manufacturing and land use strategies
Which type of advertising assists consumers in choosing products that are grown or manufactured with environmentally friendly methods?
Most of the environmental progress made over the past few decades has come about through __________ methods.
A company that produces household cleaners decides to produce a "green" version of its products, even though the formulas are virtually unchanged compared to the original formulas. This is an example of __________.
Legislation passed by Congress is known as ________.
An environmental impact statement is required ________.
for any federal action that may affect U.S. environmental quality
The social changes in the United States in the 20th century gave rise to environmental laws concerned primarily with ________.
reducing pollution caused by industry
The first national park in the world was ________.
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) ________
required environmental impact statements for any projects funded by the U.S. government
Juanita and Sam attend a beach party and notice that the local beach appears to have a great deal more trash washed up on shore than it did when they were young. The water doesn't appear nearly as clear, and there seems to be less evidence of small water creatures living in the shallows. An afternoon at the local library convinces them that one major cause is the new factory nearby. After some discussion, they decide their next step should be ________.
talking to a local environmental group about solutions
The World Bank was established in 1944 to ________.
fund economic development for all countries, rich and poor, including dams and irrigation in the poorest countries, for the poorest peoples
Which kind of development would be promoted if a government worked on finding a balance between economic security, environmental protection, and social equity?
What does the y-axis show?
the price of a good or service
What does the blue graph line represent?
the supply of a good or service
As the price of a good increases, the quantity of that good that sellers are willing to supply to the market ________.
As the price of a good increases, the quantity of that good that buyers are willing to purchase ________.
When does the equilibrium price of a product (good or service) occur?
when the supply of the product is equal to the demand for the product
What will occur if the demand for a product increases but the supply of that product remains the same?
A shortage of the product will cause the price of the product to increase.
Which of these behaviors is not involved in determining the market price of a product?
consumers seeking to maximize external costs
In 1962 environmental costs amounted to approximately 1 trillion dollars. By 2002 environmental costs had:
Between 1972 and 1992, GDP increased by approximately 2 trillion dollars. In comparison, GPI:
Increased only slightly.
If current manufacturing, consumption, and energy use trends continue, an increase in global population with time will likely result in:
A higher GDP and higher environmental costs
Assume that the GDP and benefits for 2012 are the same as GDP and benefits for 2002. If the 2012 environmental costs increase by 100% but the social and economic costs decrease by 50%, the new GPI for 2012 would be:
Lower than GPI in 2002
Which of the following would lead to a GPI value closer to the GDP value for any given year?
Adopting manufacturing processes with lower energy and resource use.
Farmer, DDT, small aquatic, Fish, Birds eat, Birds with DDT, Few baby
osprey and brown pelican
DDT dieldrin mercury PCBs DDE
According to Gary Sirota, the proposed Bajagua wastewater treatment plant is a beneficial solution because __________.
all contractual obligations must be met before service fee is due
Serge Dedina suggests that the private sector is best suited for __________.
providing innovative wastewater treatment technology for informal housing settlements throughout Tijuana
Both Sirota and Dedina agree that the transborder pollution problems need to be solved. In contrast, they disagree on the issue of ______.
allowing private industry to take a lead role in managing a public resource
Gary Sirota sees the proposed Bajagua Project as a win-win scenario for the public due to the larger treatment capacity of the proposed plant and the lower cost per gallon. How might Serge Dedina respond?
The private sector should never build a plant, regardless of benefits, because water is a public resource that needs public oversight.
If population numbers continue to increase in Tijuana and San Diego, which of the following scenarios are most likely, based on the current situation?
Sewage-contaminated water and beach closures will increase.
Who initially promoted settlement by whites in what is now western Montana?
the fed gov
Which of the following depends on a guaranteed water supply on the Flathead Reservation?
You are a member of the Kootenai tribe of western Montana. What did the government initially say about your tribe's fishing rights in the region?
Your tribe had far-reaching fishing rights.
According to the rules of the water compact, which of the following farmers would get the most water?
a farmer who irrigates 200 acres of potatoes and 400 acres of wheat
Who allowed non-Native American people to move onto the Flathead reservation in the early 1900s?
the fed gov
Why are so many farmers in the Flathead region concerned about access to water?
the soil is sandy
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