60 terms

Geography First Semester Final Study Guide 2017

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compass
allows sailors to find their location at sea. invented in China/improved by Europeans
lattitude
distance north or south of the equator. Is a set of imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator.
longitude
distance east or west of the prime meridian.
An imaginary great circle on the surface of the earth passing through the north and south poles at right angles to the equator
prime meridian
0 degrees longitude. An imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England.
equator
0 degrees latitude. An imaginary circle around the middle of the earth, halfway between the North Pole and the South Pole.
map key
explains the lines, symbols, and colors used on a map
language
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning, includes gestures and other nonverbal communication.
arts and literature
products of human imagination teach us about a cultures values, strengths, and a cultures identity
religion
A system of beliefs shared by a group with objects for devotion, rituals for worship and a code of ethics. Helps people answer basic questions about the meaning and purpose of life.
monotheism
Belief in one God
polytheism
Belief in many gods
government
the system or form by which a community or other political unit is governed. -keeps order in society -protects from outside threats -collect taxes -administer justice -enforce laws
economy
A system for producing and distributing goods, and services to fulfill people's wants. People make, exchange and use things that have value.
social organizations
groups that are formed in order for people to live and work together. Include social service,health, philanthropic, cultural, and religious groups
nuclear families
a family consisting of a husband, wife, and child(ren)
extended families
Households made up of several generations: aunts, uncles, grandparents, as well as parents & children
customs and traditions
The behaviors that the people of a culture engage in, including holidays and everyday rules for behavior (norms)
movement
migration-people travel from one place to another
trade-movement of goods between areas (import/export)
ideas-occur with movement of people and goods
interdependence-dependence on goods, resources, knowledge from other parts of the world
region
A territory that encompasses many places that share similar attributes (may be physical, cultural, political, religious) in comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere.
location
A specific place on the Earth
absolute location
Exact location of a place on the earth described by global coordinates
relative location
The position of a place in relation to another place
interaction between people and their environment
people change the world around them (clear forests, blast tunnels, plow fields...)
place
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character. land forms, soil, animal life, activities (transportation, religion, language) physical (rivers, stores, roads, ...)
jerusalem
A city in the Holy Land, regarded as sacred by Christians, Muslims, and Jews.
5 pillars of islam
1. belief in one God, Allah, and Muhammad his prophet2. daily prayer; pray 5 times a day facing Mecca- mosques- Jewish places for worship 3. alms (offering) for the poor 4. fasting (sunrise to sunset) during Ramadan (September-October) 5. hajj- pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in your lifetime (and visit Kaaba)
Jihad
A holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal. A holy war waged by Muslims against infidels.
Torah
"the law" of the Jewish faith; first five books of the Hebrew Bible
OPEC
An organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum.
Refugees
People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
Muhammad
Arab prophet who founded Islam
Abraham
Father of Isaac and Jacob for Jewish, Christian, and Islamic religions
Robinson Projection Map
Distances, sizes, and shapes are more accurate but edges of map are distorted
Mercator Projection Map
a cylindrical map projection
Interrupted Projection Map
dictatorship
A form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority.
democracy
government by the people
republic
A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting
market economy
a system based on private ownership, free trade, and competition
traditional economy
an economic system in which custom decides what people do, make, buy, and sell
command economy
An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.
mixed economy
an economic system that combines private and state enterprises
interdependance
mutual reliance on each other for information, resources, goods and service
First World Country
developed country
2nd world country
developing country
3rd world country
a country with a less productive economy and a lower quality of life
fourth world country
least developed counteries
modernization
the transformation of traditional societies into industrial societies
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada.
cash Crops
A cash crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit. It is typically purchased by parties separate from a farm.
literacy
the ability to read and write
ethnocentrism
Belief in the superiority of one's nation or ethnic group.
GDP
Gross Domestic Product.
the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time
Infant mortality
the number of deaths under one year of age occurring among the live births in a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 live births
life expectancy
the number of years a person can expect to live
diaspora
the movement, migration, or scattering of a people away from an established or ancestral homeland
Us interests in israel
relationship is based on tangible, steadily increasing security and economic interests, not just shared values.
holocaust
a large-scale destruction, especially by fire; a vast slaughter; a burnt offering
Canaan
An ancient name for the land of Israel
Mecca
the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace

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