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57 terms

Sociology

Chapters 5, 6, and 1/2 of 7
STUDY
PLAY
Socialization
A lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture.
Personality
refers to a person's fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling.
Id
is Freud's term for the human being's basic drives.
Ego
is Freud's term for a person's conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society.
Superego
is Freud's term for the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual.
Sensorimotor Stage
is Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses.
Preoperational Stage
is Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals first use language and other symbols.
Concrete operational stage
is Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals first perceive causal connections in their surroundings.
Formal operational stage
is Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critically.
Self
is George Herbert Mead's term for that part of an individual's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image.
Looking- Glass Self
is Cooley's term for a self-image based on how we think others see us.
Generalized other
is George Herbert Mead's term for widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluating ourselves.
Peer Group
is a social group whose members have interests, social position, and age in common.
Anticipatory Socialization
is learning that helps a person achieve a desired position
Mass Media
are impersonal communications aimed at a vast audience.
Cohort
is a category of people with common characteristics, usually their age.
Total Institution
is a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by an administrative staff.
Resocialization
refers to radically changing an inmate's personality by carefully controlling the environment.
Significant Others
are people, such as parents, who have special importance for socialization.
preoperational stage
The stage at which children begin to use language and other symbols is called the
id
according to Freud, this represents the human beings basic drives
self
the part of an individual's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image.
dramaturgical analysis
likens everyday life to a theatrical performance in which people slant their behavior to satisfy the demands of a particular audience?
Ethnomethodology
Harold Garfinkel coined this term, which is the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings.
Conventional and Unconventional Reality
Humor comes from contrast between these two realities.
Emotion Management
The way we socially construct our emotions as part of our everyday reality
Role Exit
process by which people disengage from important social roles
Social Interaction
the process by which people act and react in relation to others
Status
a social position that a person occupies
Status Set
is all the statuses that a person holds at a given time
Ascribed Status
a social position a person receives at birth or assumes involuntarily later in life
Achieved Status
a social position a person assumes voluntarily that reflects ability and effort
Master Status
a status that a society defines as having special importance for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life
Role
A behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status
Role Set
a number of roles attached to a single status
Role Conflict
conflict among the roles corresponding to two or more statuses
Role Strain
tension among the roles connected to a single status
Social Construction of reality
the process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction
Thomas Theorem
the assertion that situations that are defined as real are real in their consequences
Ethnomethodology
the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings
Dramaturgical approach
the study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance
Presentation of self
a person's efforts to create specific impressions in the minds of others
Nonverbal Communication
communication using body movements, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speech
Personal Space
the surrounding area over which a person makes some claim to privacy
Social Group
two or more people who identify and interact with one another
Primary Group
a small group whose members share personal and enduring relationships
Secondary Group
a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity
Instrumental Leadership
is group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks
Expressive Leadership
group leadership that focuses on collective well-being
Groupthink
the tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issues
Reference Groups
social groups that serve as points of reference in making evaluations and decisions
In-Group
a social group commanding a member's esteem and loyalty
Out-Group
a social group toward which one feels competition or opposition
Dyad
a social group with two members
Triad
a social group with three members
Network
Web of weak social ties
Generalized Other
George Herbert Mead's term for widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluating ourselves