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geography exam #3 (australia & oceania)

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australia and new zealand
what countries are highly urbanized in the australia and oceania region?
pap new guinea
what country stands out as being the least developed in the australia and oceania region?
urbanization of the australia and oceania region
all of the following describes what?
subsistence affluence: low income decent standard of living:
-reasonable diet from local resources
-extended family support systems
-decent health and education systems
overexploitation
the island nation of Nauru illustrates the vulnerability of many Pacific Islands to what?
-no arable land remaining after phosphate mining ended in 2003 (mined all of it, destroyed soil, could no longer grow food, 100% urbanized)
-all food for pop. of 13,000 must be imported
-national finances been taken over by australia
describe the story of Nauru.
globalization
the integration into the global system occurred because of what?
income from sugar exports, remittances, and tourism
how are the islands affected by globalization, for example, the economic development of Fiji?
subsistence affluence
low income decent standard of living
aborigine
an indigenous inhabitant of australia
aborigine
what groups of people are particularly disadvantaged in this region?
maori, new zealand-landholdings greatly reduced to only 3%, low rates of education, high rates of unemployment
where do the aborigines reside and how are they disadvantaged?
-recently gained more rights, land claims, and recognition of bicultural society
-persistent racism, poverty, and alienation
how is life for the aborigine today?
higher incidence of cancer-radioactive pollution due to nuclear testing
what is one of the primary health concerns in the region? what has contributed to this?
marshall islands
the u.s. government changed life in what islands?
nuclear testing in the pacific ocean which lead to radioactive pollution which also leads to cancer
how did the u.s. government change life the in marshall islands? what damages resulted from our activities?
prevailing winds
what caused the shift of radioactive fallout to eastern Marshal islands?
radiation sickness, thyroid disease, reproductive problems, and cancer
what health issues developed as a result of the radioactive fallout to eastern marshal islands?
u.s. awarded the marshall islands $300 million to the marshallese
how did the u.s. help the marshal islands with the physical and social damages of the nuclear testing?
a hospital on island for radiation-related health problems, and medical training to care for own people
what did the marshall island people prefer instead of the money from the u.s. for the social and physical damages of the nuclear testing?
isolation
why is the region of australia and oceania so vulnerable to environmental degradation?
sea level rising-predicted to rise 15-24in over next 100 years
what is the impact of global climate change in the australian and oceania region?
< 8ft above sea level
what is the average elevation of marshall islands?
global climate change-rise in sea level
what is one of the grave environmental threats facing the Pacific Islands?
numerous extinctions, damaged crops, and spread disease
how has the introduction of non-native species impacted the region of australia and oceania?
rats
what is one example of a non-native species?
-european rabbit-overgrazing= soil erosion, mammals became threatened or extinct
-can toad introduced to destroy pests in sugarcane crops-destroyed frogs, reptiles, small marsupials, and native birds; highly toxic to predators
what are examples of non-native species and the damages in australia alone?
atoll
a low, sandy island made from coral. often oriented around a central lagoon
volcanos
how are coral atolls formed?
erosion, build up of coral
what makes islands so vulnerable to rising sea levels and storms?
white australia policy
before 1973, a set of stringent australian limitations on nonwhite immigration to the country, it has been largely replaced by a more flexible policy today