Chapter 35 Mastering Biology Jan Goerrissen OCC
Terms in this set (40)
Answers to questions about the immediate mechanisms for a behavior are called
The evolutionary explanations for behavior are called the
What type of behavior is illustrated by the bird in this figure? ( con vit ngu ngu )
fixed action pattern
When a nipple is placed in a newborn baby's mouth, the infant will immediately begin to suckle. This is an example of
You are driving down the road in your car and stop to pick up your friend. After a few minutes, she asks, "What is that rattling noise?" You listen closely and then realize it is the sound of golf balls you tossed into your trunk a week ago. You reply, "Oh, it's some golf balls. I guess I tuned out that sound long ago!" Your "tuning out" of that sound is an example of _____.
The modification of behavior based upon specific experiences defines
Just as her eggs start hatching, a mother goose is killed by a fox. A farmer watches the unfortunate event and brings the eggs back to the farm to keep them warm. As they hatch, the farmer feeds the goslings until they can roam free. One day, someone saw the goslings following the farmer and remarked, "Boy, those geese sure do love you!" The farmer replied, "Oh, not exactly, you see, it is really a case of _____."
You are told that the song of males among a particular songbird species has an innate component but is also largely learned. Nestling males imprint on their father's song and then sing it themselves when they reach sexual maturity. Which of the following observations would lead you to doubt this information?
A male chick reared in isolation but introduced as an older juvenile into an aviary containing normal males of his species sings his species' song.
Whooping cranes raised by sandhill cranes were accepted, raised, and taught to migrate by their surrogate sandhill crane parents. When they matured, the whooping cranes showed no interest in breeding with other whooping cranes. This unfortunate desire to mate with sandhill cranes was a fine example of whooping cranes showing _____.
A male turkey that imprinted onto a human at hatching is transferred as an older juvenile to a flock of "normal" turkeys. When this turkey reaches sexual maturity, he will probably try to court
Jacob noticed that a crow in his backyard seemed to be searching under the lawn chairs for something. The crow would toss the leaves and search only under the chairs. Later Jacob learned that his brothers had been eating popcorn outside and that they dropped popcorn under the chairs. Jacob went outside to look under the chairs and could not see any popcorn left. But just out of curiosity, he moved the set of chairs about 20 feet to the back of the yard. Then he watched. What looked like the same crow came back to the yard and searched for food under the chairs that had been moved, and not where the popcorn had been spilled. In this particular situation, it appears that the crow was exhibiting _____.
After many hours of observation, Jennifer noticed that a squirrel in her backyard seemed to retreat up a certain tree every time it was frightened. At the base of that tree was a wheelbarrow. Jennifer wondered how the squirrel found the same tree each time. Perhaps it simply knew to use the tree with the wheelbarrow. That night, Jennifer moved the wheelbarrow a few feet over and placed it against another tree. The next day, the squirrel retreated up the new tree, with the wheelbarrow resting at its base. This experiment suggests that the squirrel was using
A blue jay hides hundreds of nuts throughout the fall and finds them throughout the winter and spring. The blue jay is most likely finding the stored food by using
a cognitive map.
The most extensive study of cognitive maps has involved animals that
Squirrels on a bird feeder seem to be able to figure out how to steal seeds no matter what people do to prevent it. Yesterday, Jeremy hung out a new bird feeder design, and sure enough, by the end of the day the squirrels found a way to get to the seeds. The squirrels most likely figured out how to get the seeds through
In England, at a time when milk was still delivered to doorsteps each morning in foil-capped glass bottles, a songbird called the great tit started pecking through the caps and drinking the cream in the necks of the bottles. This behavior spread through the great tit population in a matter of years. The emergence and spread of this behavior probably depended on
trial and error learning plus social learning.
The baby bobcats watched as their mother stalked a rabbit and pounced, catching a meal that was shared by all. The next day, two of the young bobcats were seen stalking a field mouse, which quickly escaped from the inexperienced hunters. The young bobcats were learning how to hunt by the process of
A big difference between social learning and imprinting is that
social learning is not limited to a sensitive period.
A hawk soars widely over its range, searching for a meal. The mice below are abundant, but the hawk is large and the mice are small. More nutritious, but more difficult to find, are rabbits. On average, rabbits weigh about 75 times more than mice. Based on optimal foraging strategy, we would predict that if a hawk can catch a mouse every 10 minutes, it would be willing to search for one rabbit for up to _____.
An insectivorous bird has the choice of eating (1) meadow beetles, which are abundant and large but expose the bird to hawk predation; (2) under-a-rock beetles, which are large and fatty but hard to obtain; and (3) under-a-leaf beetles, which are easy to obtain but small. The bird has nestlings to feed. As an optimal forager, it will
eat all three kinds of beetles, balancing the energy spent and the risks incurred against the energy gained.
Organisms communicate in ways that are most suitable to their environments. Which of the following forms of communication would be most surprising if true?
a brightly colored bat using its coloration to attract a mate during the middle of the night
Based on von Frisch's work on honeybee communication, which of the following types of information will be communicated to other workers by a honeybee's "dance"?
the direction of the nectar source
During the spring, male sage grouse gather in an open area and strut about, erecting their feathers in a fanlike display. They also make booming sounds using their inflated air sacs. The function of this dance is to
attract the attention of females.
Which of the following mating systems would most likely be monogamous?
The male guards the female closely, and both parents are needed to raise the offspring.
The need for intense parental care of offspring favors mating systems that are
Two male bighorn sheep butt heads to determine who gets the right to breed with a local group of females; a pack of wolves coordinate their strategy to attack a struggling newborn elk; a male peacock displays his feathers to entice a nearby hen to mate; and a school of tuna scatters and then reforms as a shark dashes quickly among them. All of these interactions represent _____.
Which of the following terms broadly describes any kind of interaction between two or more animals?
Territories are typically used for activities such as
feeding, mating, and rearing young.
Which of the following situations represents an example of territorial behavior?
Gannets breed in dense colonies. Each gannet defends the area within the beak's reach of its nest, but gannets feeding at sea are indifferent to each other.
In early spring in western Kentucky, as is true for most parts of the United States, one of the most abundant bird species starts its mating season. Male red-winged blackbirds arrive first to the wetlands and quickly begin to define a place to meet their mate. Any nearby male will quickly be confronted, with the dominant bird claiming the space. As time goes on, males define their own spaces, where they typically mate with three to six females. The behavior of these male red-winged blackbirds best represents _____.
agonistic behavior in the defense of a territory
Bighorn sheep are commonly found in portions of the Rocky Mountains and other parts of the western United States and Canada. Male bighorn sheep, called rams, use their large curled horns in dramatic head-butting rituals that help to determine who is the dominant ram. The dominant ram is more likely to breed with the females in that territory. Amazingly, these rituals usually end with minimal damage to both animals. Resolving conflicts with minimal harm is characteristic of _____.
Which of the following would be an example of agonistic behavior?
A dog raises its hackles, bares its teeth, and stands high to appear threatening.
is typically used to determine access to food, mates, or territories.
From a sociobiological perspective, altruism is a behavior that
has the potential to enhance the altruist's fitness at a later point in time.
My dog gets very excited when he sees a dog cookie. Thus, the cookie is _____.
the proximate cause of the behavior
What type of behavior is performed the same way by all members of a species?
Ants carry dead ants out of an anthill and dump them on a trash pile. If a live ant is painted with a chemical from dead ants, other ants repeatedly carry it, kicking and struggling, to the trash pile, until the substance wears off. Which of the following explains this behavior?
The chemical is a sign stimulus for a fixed action pattern.
Operation Migration is a program that teaches young whooping cranes to migrate. This is an example of _____.
Trout automatically orient themselves to swim upstream; such a behavior is an example of _____.
The movement of monarch butterflies from coastal California to central Mexico and back again is an example of _____.