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ch. 2 psych 101
Terms in this set (85)
What is the main difference between an experiment and a correlational study?
An experiment involves the manipulation of variables, while a correlational study does not.
Dr. Johansen randomly assigned subjects to three different groups during her last experiment. She then proceeded to give all the participants in the experiment a new study technique designed to enhance their learning for the upcoming test. What critical error did she make during her experiment?
She failed to include a control group.
Dr. Fortner is discussing cognitive psychology with his introductory psychology class and says that we act as cognitive misers when making judgments about others or making decisions. What does Dr. Fortner mean with this statement?
We are lazy and conserve mental energy by simplifying the world.
Students of psychology are often frustrated because there are very few, if any, clear-cut answers to many of their questions. What is the primary limiting factor in obtaining first-hand knowledge of questions such as the long-term effects of child abuse or the effects of smoking marijuana on a pregnancy?
Ethical guidelines in research prevent psychologists from carrying out many of these studies.
Correlational research designs are NOT appropriate for purposes of
Sue asked three of her friends after class if they thought the test they just finished taking was as easy as she thought it was. They all agreed that it was. She was surprised to find out the next day that although she and her friends had indeed done well, a majority of the class had failed. Why shouldn't Sue have been surprised?
She did not use random selection when asking people about the test.
Which of the following is one of the two types of statistics that researchers use to analyze the data that they collect?
Professor Golder is studying hyperactivity in preschool age children. She is concerned that differences in child rearing, diet, and so forth may affect her results. To minimize these potential preexisting variables, she should be sure to do which of the following?
use random assignment when forming her groups
Professor Todd decides to test her hypothesis that eating chocolate prior to exams increases students' test scores. She randomly assigns students to two groups at the beginning of the semester. One group receives a bar of chocolate before each test, while the other group receives another type of candy. She compares their scores at the end of the year, and finds that the students who ate the chocolate scored an average of ten points higher on their exams. What is the dependent variable in this experiment?
students test scores
A university president asks her psychology department chair if the university has more male or more female undergraduate psychology majors. What measure of central tendency is she asking about?
When we perceive a statistical association between two events, such as rainy weather and arthritis flare-ups, we are experiencing the phenomenon called
The type of thinking that allows us to operate on "autopilot" and make snap decisions.
Which term means a tendency in media reports to try to present two opposing sides of an issue as though both sides were equally valid?
Which technique was accepted for use with autistic children before tightly controlled laboratory studies proved the results illusory?
From 1932 to 1972, the United States Public Health Service studied the progression of syphilis in 399 African American men, withholding all important medical information and all available treatments. Today, human research cannot be conducted without
When a politician makes the statement that the average tax return will be $5,000 for citizens of his state we should be suspicious of his statistics. It would be more meaningful to report the ______ as a measure of central tendency.
median and mode
One important aspect of a research study that peer reviewers consider is whether the study considers alternate explanations. This is called
ruling out rival hypotheses
Which of the following statistical terms refers to a measure of variability that takes into account how far each data point is from the mean?
The purpose of sending research articles to peer reviewers prior to publication is to
Research using animals generates much anger and discomfort, especially when the research involves ________ procedures that cause physical harm to the animals.
You want to design a study that will be in high in internal validity and allow you to infer causation. Which research design should you use?
Which term means the extent to which we can draw cause-and-effect inferences?
The cases of facilitated communication and lobotomies demonstrate that good research design is important because intelligent, well-trained people
can be fooled
The process in which researchers inform participants about what the test was about and, sometimes, explain their hypothesis in nontechnical language is called
Which of the following is NOT one of the APA's published codes of ethics regarding Informed Consent?
Participants should not be deceived about research procedures that may cause the participants physical pain or emotional distress.
Dr. Potter, an English professor, is curious about his students' attitudes toward one of his favorite books. What research method is he most likely to use to gather this information?
A therapist wishes to show that his new therapy is a marked improvement over the current best available therapy. To do so he examines the number of participants who improved with each. A total of 125 participants received his treatment (and 100 of them improved). A total of 80 participants received the alternative treatment (and 64 of them improved). What should the therapist conclude?
His treatment is no better than the alternative because the percentages are the same
For many years, newspapers often mentioned the race of criminal suspects who were NOT white in the article detailing their crimes. This often led people who were not obviously biased or prejudiced to conclude that more non-whites committed crimes than whites. This is one example of
an illusory correlation.
The large difference in the percentages of women who admitted to extramarital affairs in the Hite Report versus a Harris organization pool was most likely due to
the method of participant selection used in each study
The most important factor to ensure that one's results apply to other people in other settings is to use
When a given research finding is believed to have less than a ____ in 100 probability of occurring by chance, it is usually described as being statistically significant.
Dr. Nolen wants to know the effects of removing portions of one's hippocampus on long-term memory, in the hopes of one day finding a cure for patients with Alzheimer's disease. The subjects for his study are most likely to be
Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the strongest degree of relation between two variables?
Which term is used to describe the process whereby researchers must let research subjects know what they are getting into?
In psychology, an experiment must contain two specific components. The first is that participants are randomly assigned to either the control group or the experimental group. The second is
manipulation of an independent variable
Seven out of 10 of the batters on the Boomtown Rugrats team have batting averages around .350. This score is known as the
One of the advantages of experimental designs is that we can infer causation. What is one of the disadvantages?
can be low in external validity
What shameful experiment was conducted over the course of 40 years to determine what would happen if syphilis was left to run its course in unsuspecting "subjects" (at a time when a cure for the disease was already available)?
Mark Twain referred to three kinds of untruths: "Lies, damned lies, and statistics" because
can be used to mislead people
Which research design tool lets researchers examine a single individual or a small group of people, perhaps over an extended period of time?
Analytical thinking is ______ compared to intuitive thinking.
Questionnaires fall into which category of measurement tools?
self report measures
Which group at every major American research college and university reviews all research carefully to protect participants against abuses?
Ryan, a professional bass fisherman, is trying to determine which lure is most effective on Wakeby Lake: the plastic worm he normally uses or the new minnow-style lure he bought yesterday. Based on this scenario, what would constitute the control?
the plastic wom
To be sure that we aren't fooled by popular media reports about psychology research, we should be on the lookout for
sharpening and leveling
If Dr. Shioux wants to conduct research that will involve human participants at his university, he will have to submit a summary of the study to a(n) ________ before he can actually proceed. This will act as a form of protection for the participants he intends to enroll in his research.
A key factor to consider when reading about the results of a study on the Internet, in a newspaper, or in a news magazine is to
consider the source
Why is it important to make sure that different participant groups are roughly equivalent in terms of personal characteristics (e.g., age, gender) before any independent variable is introduced?
So that no major differences between the groups unduly bias the results of the experiment.
A key disadvantage to self-report measures is that
respondents are not always honest in their answers.
According to your authors, laboratory research generalizes
well from laboratory settings to the real world.
When someone experiences harm based solely on the expectation that they will experience harm, this is called the ________ effect
A mental shortcut that helps us to streamline our thinking and make sense of our world is called a
Alex, a freshman in college, wants to know how many of her dormmates have tried marijuana, so she decides to survey everyone on her floor. Despite rumors to the contrary, the results suggest that fewer than ten percent of her classmates have tried the drug. What is the most likely explanation for her findings?
People often distort their answers or fail to tell the complete truth when surveyed.
Authorities have noted that there is an increased number of teen pregnancies among high schools that offer day care to their students. We can draw which of the following conclusions?
There is a positive correlation between teen pregnancies and day care in the high schools.
A researcher wants to see whether she can make the typical administrative assistant job more motivating at Acme, Inc. To experimentally investigate this possibility, she randomly assigns administrative assistants to one of the following conditions: doing the job as it has always been done, having a computer performance monitoring device installed, receiving feedback about their performance on a weekly basis, or being given a say in how one's workload is structured and done. Which of the preceding conditions is an example of a control group?
Doing the job as it has always been done
The best way to avoid the placebo effect in research is to:
keep the participants "blind" as to which participant group they are in.
If there is no discernible relationship between scores on students' homework assignments and their exam scores in an introductory biology class, we would say that a(n) ________ correlation exists.
A key aspect of an experiment that is missing in other research designs is
A graph that can be used to represent the pattern of relationship between scores from two variables is called a
One difficulty in conducting medical research is that participants often assume that any treatment will be effective in alleviating their symptoms. Therefore, a researcher has to design an experiment that measures the influence of
the placebo effect
The perception of a statistical association between two variables where none exists is known as
A key idea that emerged from Kahneman and Tversky's research is that people often behave
In the case of Clever Hans, a teacher named Wilhelm von Oster claimed that he had taught his horse arithmetic, including square roots. As it turns out, the horse was merely responding to subtle, unintentional physical signals being given by von Oster. This demonstrates which principle of critical thinking?
Dr. Schott's scatterplot reveals no real patterns or clusters. In fact, the data seems to fall randomly on the graph. This pattern of results is most likely from which type of correlation?
Which of the following statements is true about naturalistic observation?
It involves observing behavior in its real-world context.
Dr. Williams believes that by administering brief electric shocks to his students, he can improve their attention to his lectures. He blames daydreaming and inattention by his students for their poor performance in his class. His colleagues are not convinced that the potential benefits to the students will outweigh the physical pain they may endure. Ultimately, what will Dr. Williams have to obtain from his students before proceeding?
There is a negative correlation between wearing one's seat belt and the severity of injuries received during an accident. Which statement correctly illustrates this correlation?
The more often you wear your seat belt, the less likely you are to suffer serious injuries in an accident.
Your textbook discusses the issue of facilitated communication and its applicability to assisting children with autism. One possibility for the early research results was that the children were communicating through the adults who were assisting them. As the book notes, a simpler explanation for the miraculous findings was that the "facilitators" were simply guiding the hands of the children to communicate things that their parents would want to hear. This simpler explanation is consistent with the concept of
A student researcher wishes to maximize the external validity of his or her research design. What research method should you recommend to him or her?
An experiment would be described as __________ when neither researchers nor participants are aware of who's in the experimental or control group.
Dr. Stanhope is trying to determine which type of correlation is represented on his scatterplot, in which nearly all of his data are clustered along a diagonal line running from higher numbers on the left down to lower numbers on the right. Which type of correlation is represented by this pattern?
In attempt to examine whether research done in a laboratory setting can, in fact, be generalized to the "real world," Douglas Mook pointed out that studies that had high internal validity often had high external validity and could be repeated in a way that yielded the same, or at least similar, findings. Which principle of critical thinking does this address?
The group that receives the manipulation is called
When acting as a participant in a research study examining the relationship between alcohol consumption and driving ability, Layla was assigned to the experimental group that received the highest amount of alcohol to drink. Despite this ingestion of liquor, Layla was still able to navigate the driver's course perfectly. The experimenter did not consider the fact that Layla had been a drinker for many years, and had developed a high alcohol tolerance. This factor, which impacted the dependent variable in the study, would be called a(n) ________ variable.
While taking a survey on her opinions on abortion rights, Carolyn feels very conflicted. On the one hand she believes in a woman's right to choose to terminate a pregnancy if she wants to, but at the same time she feels like this is not a particularly popular answer. Most of her friends are very opposed to the idea of having an abortion. In order to make herself feel like a better person, Carolyn distorts her answers to the survey questions. Instead of being totally honest, she answers in ways that make her feel like a better person. This tendency to distort one's answer is called a(n)
After carefully observing thousands of students, Dr. O'Brien revealed to his colleagues that students with brown eyes are statistically more likely to write with pens instead of pencils. Although his colleagues did not question his statistics, they did suggest that a finding such as this lacked
What is one take home message from the discussion of autism and facilitated communication?
In almost all cases researched, the data failed to support the idea that facilitated communication was truly effective
Marissa just finished completing her new employee questionnaire form for a job in sales. Despite being a rather shy, introverted person, Marissa checked all the areas that referred to her as a talkative and outgoing individual. She believes those extroverted characteristics are exactly what her new employer is looking for. Which concept is being illustrated?
Brittany, a softball player who plays catcher for the local college, has thrown out base stealers at a 42, 39, and 41 percent rate over her three years. Her performance could be considered which of the following?
__________ studies allow us to make predictions about one variable based on the knowledge of another.
When assessing patients' personalities using an "ink blot" test that she created, Dr. Hardcastle is gaining confidence in the test's reliability. Which of the following is likely to be happening?
The test is generating approximately the same results each time.
Jason was conducting an evaluation of a restaurant waitress. He sat at the table with a listof things to observe in front of him, and the waitress noticed that he was assessing her every move. He noticed that she began acting more professionally around him, was friendlier, and gave him extra attention. Why would Jason have been better off using naturalistic observation for this assessment?
So that his observations would not have changed the waitress's behaviors.
Dr. Richburg's botany class gathers specimens outside of the classroom for further study. Dr. Richburg instructs his students to develop a scientific theory that helps explain the biodiversity of the plants. The resulting theory should
explain observations about the plants and predict new findings about plant biodiversity.
While listening to the radio, Mrs. Schwartz heard about a new product. "Swallow our capsule, and it will grow to 100 times its size! This keeps your stomach feeling full and decreases your appetite. You can lose up to 20 pounds in the first two weeks!" Which principle of critical thinking should Mrs. Schwartz use before ordering this magic pill?
Remembering that extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.
Which of these is part of the APA ethical principles for human research?
Research participants must give informed consent.