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10/40 - comprehensive questions 30/40 - non-comprehensive [over pregnancy & human development and some reproductive system]

characteristics of mature sperm

-presence of Y chromosome in half of sperm
-mitochondria spiraled around filaments
-acrosome produced by golgi apparatus &has hydrolytic enzymes
-Contain little cytoplasm/stored nutrients
-Sluggish in alkaline environments

down regulation

target cells lose receptors in response to the hormone (happens w/ type 2 diabetes [mellitus])

trophoblast is responsible for forming which structure


umbilical arteries carry what?

deoxygenated blood and metabolic wastes from fetus to placenta

role of dartus and cremaster muscles

control temperature of the testes

ability of sperm cells to move along the ductus deferens is due to what?

peristaltic contraction

gland is responsible for 60% of the synthesis of semen?

seminal vesicles

primary function of the uterus?

receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum

Hormones control the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins?

Gonadotropin releasing hormones

corpus luteum

-the ruptured follicle following the ejection of an oocyte from the ovary
-not a part of the proliferative phase of the female menstrual cycle

structures that receive the ovulated oocyte, providing a site of fertilization.

fallopian tubes

structure constitutes the female counterpart of the male scrotum?

labia majorum

how are human egg and sperm similar?

have the same number of chromosomes (23)

maintains the constancy of the chromosome number from one generation to the next?


where fertilization occurs?

fallopian tubes

purpose of spermiogenesis?

-Turn non-mobile, immature spermatids mobile, mature spermatazoan
-Involves stripping away of superfluous cytoplasm

male secondary sex characteristics

-deepening of voice
-skin thickens/becomes oily
-bones grow & increase in density
-skeletal muscles increase in size & mass
-pubic, axillary & facial hair
-growth of chest

what cells produce testosterone in the testis?

Interstitial cells b/t seminiferous tubules [Leydig cells]

the testicular cells that construct the blood-testis barrier are called what?

Sustentacular cells [Sertoli cells]

erection of the penis results from what?

parasympathetic reflex

whats included in the PNS reflex that results in erection?

during sexual arousal, PNS reflex promotes release of nitric oxide [NO] which is a vasodilator...opening blood vessels in the penis, which causes the spongy tissue in the penis to fill with blood, causing the penis to enlarge and become rigid.

basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell

What is the brain-testicular axis?

hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis and testicular androgen production, involving hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, & testes

what does the brain-testicular axis involve?

FSH & LH release

low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause what?

decreased testosterone secretion

ectodermal cells migrate to form a raised groove known as what?

neural groove

result of polyspermy in humans?

non-functional zygote

functional changes that sperm undergo in the female reproductive tract that allow them to fertilize a 2̊ oocyte


hormone is responsible for milk ejection or the let-down reflex?


structure that maintains the integrity of the uterine lining during the first three months
of pregnancy.

corpus luteum
[it secretes estrogen and progesterone which do this]

fetal portion of placenta


function of relaxin in females

relax pubis symphysis

function of relaxin in males

fastens movement of sperm

hyaluronidase and proteinase function in reproduction?

they breakdown the protective barriers around the egg, allowing sperm to penetrate

three germ layers.


formation of the ectodermal and endodermal germ layers occurs when?


failure of the foramen ovale to close at birth may result in what?

mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood


embedding of blastula in uterine wall
6-7 days after ovulation when the trophoblasts adhere to a properly prepared endometrium

umbilical arteries carry what?

deoxygenated blood & metabolic wastes from fetus to placenta

correct sequence of the preembryonic structures from earliest

zygote, blastomere, morula, blastocyst

one sign of an infant's physical condition that is first noticed at birth is what?


provides nutrition of the young embryo after implantation occurs

digestion of the endometrial cells

muscle tissue is formed by which germ layer?


neural tissue is formed by which germ layer?


which stage of labor is the "afterbirth" expelled?


which stage of labor is the fetus delivered?


what passes through the placental barriers?

Nutrients, respiratory gases, wastes & alcohol

what is the deciduas basalis?

maternal portion of placenta

where is the deciduas basalis located?

b/t the chorionic villi & stratum basalis

onset of labor is caused by what?

-rise of estrogen
-stimulates myometrial cells of uterus to form a lot of oxytocin receptors
-certain fetal cells begin to produce oxytocin
-causing the placenta to release prostaglandins
-both of these are powerful uterine muscle stimulants
-myometrium is now highly sensitive
-contractions become more frequent and vigorous.

what affects the strength or force of skeletal muscle contraction?

multimotor unit summation

which molecules do calcium ions bind to in skeletal muscle cells?

regulatory sites on troponin

major factor controlling the manner in which levers work?

difference in the positioning of the effort, load, and fulcrum

function of the ependymal cells.

line the central cavities of the brain and spinal column

which cranial nerves are found on the pons and medulla?

pons - V, VI, VII, and VIII
medulla oblongata - IX, X, XI, XII

subdivisions of the brachial plexus.

roots, trunks, divisions, cords
really, tired, drink, coffee

hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract

neural connection with the hypothalamus

ability of a specific organ to respond to a hormone is dependent on what?

receptors present

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