Also known as three orders; France's inhabitants legally divided into the clergy, the nobility, and everyone else
France's upper middle class who helped to lead entire third estate in revolution
Also called new interpretations; new research that has challenged long-accepted views on events such as the French Revolution
the duke of Orleans
sanctioned a counter-weight to the king's absolutists power
The War of the Austrian Succession
plunged France into financial crisis and, as a result, the state attempted a reform on the tax system
Rene de Maupeou
appointed by Louis XV to crush the judicial opposition; created new parlement called Maupeou parlement
Madame de Pompadour
mistress of Louis XV; she held much control over popular culture, politics, and the king
to be stripped of the sacred aura of God's anointed on earth; example: Louis XV
The American Revolution
It was closely followed by the French and had a practical and ideological impact them and their revolution.
A French officer who served in the American Revolution
Causes for the French Revolution
1. class tension 2. desacralization of the monarchy 3. the American Revolution 4. financial crisis
Assembly of the Notables
important nobles and high-ranking clergy
The Estates General
A legislative body in prerevolutionary France made up of representatives of each of the three classes, or estates; it was called into session in 1789 for the first time since 1614.
"What is the Third Estate?"
famous pamphlet written by Sieyes that argued that the nobility was a tiny over-privledged minority and that the neglected third estate constituted the true strength of the French nation
previously known as the Third Estate; took the Oath of the Tennis Court and pledged to make a constitution
broke out in Paris among the common people; result of extremely high prices of bread, economic depression, and the collapse of a demand for manufactured goods
royal prison in Paris; stormed by peasants in search of weapons and gunpowder
The Great Fear
The fear of noble reprisals against peasant uprisings that seized the French countryside and led to further revolt.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
issued by the National Assembly; guaranteed equality before the law, representative government for a sovereign people, and individual freedom
duke of Aiguillon
a powerful noble who advocated more equality and freedom for the French peasantry
Women's March on Versailles
women marched to Versailles and demanded that the monarchs be moved back to Paris
A form of government in which the king retains his position as head of state, while the authority to tax and make new laws resides in an elected body.
Olympe de Gouges
advocated women's rights in France; published her "Declaration of the Rights of Woman"
most profitable of all Caribbean colonies; there was much social tension and the blacks revolted after seeing the events taking place in France
Black code; granted free black people the same rights as whites
A British man who wrote Reflections on the Revolution in France, which defended inherited privileges of monarchy and aristocracy; it sparked much debate
A British woman who wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Man in response to Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France; Also wrote a Vindication for the Rights of Women in which she advocated women's rights
Declaration of Pillnitz
issued by the rulers of Austria and Prussia in support on France's monarchy
Revolutionary leader who was eventually turned upon and executed
A political club in revolutionary France whose members were well-educated radical republicans; Divided into Girondists and the Mountain
The Second Revolution
From 1792 to 1795, the second phase of the French Revolution, during which the fall of the French monarchy introduced a rapid radicalization of politics.
A moderate group that fought for control of the French National Convention in 1793.
Led by Robespierre, the French National Convention's radical faction, which seized legislative power in 1793.
The laboring poor of Paris, so called because the men wore trousers instead of the knee breeches of the aristocracy and middle class; the word came to refer to the militant radicals of the city.
Committee of PUblic Safety
Led by Robespierre to deal with threats from within and outside of France
The Reign of Terror
The period from 1793 to 1794 during which Robespierre's Committee of Public Safety tried and executed thousands suspected of treason and a new revolutionary culture was imposed.
Campaign to eliminate Christian faith and practice in France undertaken by the revolutionary government.
A freed slave who joined in the revolt and became a key leader of the slave and freed black forces.
A reaction to the violence of the Reign of Terror in 1794, resulting in the execution of Robespierre and the loosening of economic controls.
a five man executive chosen by the National Assembly
military leader who took over France and made himself emperor; He led many successful military ventures, but eventually was defeated and imprisoned
French civil code promulgated in 1804 that reasserted the 1789 principles of the equality of all male citizens before the law and the absolute security of wealth and private property as well as restricting rights accorded to women by previous revolutionary laws.
signed by Napoleon and Pope Pius VII; it gave Catholics religious freedom and Napoleon the power to nominate France's bishops
British admiral that defeated Napoleon
Napoleon's brother-in-law, whom he sent to Saint-Domingue to remove L'Ouverture from his position
The empire over which Napoleon and his allies ruled, encompassing virtually all of Europe except Great Britain and Russia.
A blockade imposed by Napoleon to halt all trade between continental Europe and Britain, thereby weakening the British economy and military.
Treaty of Chaumont
Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Britain joined together to defeat Napoleon
Battle of Waterloo
Napoleon officially defeated and exiled to St. Helena