AICE Sociology Vocab

-Savannah Summy
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action theory
The theory that self-serving actions by forceful leaders play a role in civilization's emergence.
beliefs
Conceptions that people accept as true, concerning how the world operates and where the individual fits in relationship to others.
capitalism
An economic system based on private ownership of capital
case studies
An in-depth investigation of behaviour or events. Studying an individual, a small group or a situation.
causation
A cause and effect relationship in which one variable controls the changes in another variable.
coercion
Interaction in which individuals or groups are forced to behave in a particular way
collective conscience
the common faith or set of social norms by which a society and its members abide; a set of common assumptions about how the world works.
comparative analysis
compares 2 or more groups and looks for differences between them
conformity
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
consumerism
An organized movement of citizens and government agencies to improve the rights and power of buyers in relation to sellers.
content analysis
A research method for systematically analyzing and making inferences from text
control group
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
correlation
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
covert observation
observation in which the observer's presence or purpose is kept secret from those being observed
critical theory
A contemporary form of conflict theory that criticizes many different systems and ideologies of domination and oppression.
cross-sectional surveys
surveying single sample of some population at one time
culture
Beliefs, customs, and traditions of a specific group of people.
customs
Common practices followed by people of a particular group or region
determinism
Every event, including human actions, is caused by previous events in accordance with the natural laws that govern the universe.
domain assumptions
derived from real life experiences; they are how we make sense of the world around us
economic determinism
A branch of Marxism which says that societies are determined by their economies (or economic systems).
ethical issues
Moral: the "should" and "should nots" of actions and behaviors, form basics for actions, framework for evaluation of behavior
ethnomethodology
A method of sociological analysis that examines how individuals use everyday conversation and gestures to construct a common-sense view of the world
experimental group
A subject or group of subjects in an experiment that is exposed to the factor or condition being tested.
falsification
A form of deception that involves presenting false, fabricated information as though it were true
social change
Significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and culture, including norms and values.
social construction of reality
the process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction
social control
Attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behavior
social engineering
Any technique that uses social skills to generate human interaction that entices individuals to reveal sensitive information
social identity
the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "who am I?" that comes from our group memberships
social order
A group's usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend and on which they base their lives.
social policy
A national government's course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens
social problems
a condition that undermines the well-being of some or all members of society and is usually a matter of public controversy
social sanctions
rewards or punishment that encourage conformity to social norms
social self
Your concept of self as developed through your personal, social interactions with others.
socialisation
The process by which people acquire the values, beliefs, attitudes and behavioral norms of their culture.
structuralist
the belief that phenomena of human life are not intelligible except through their interrelations. These relations constitute a structure, and behind local variations in the surface phenomena there are constant laws of abstract culture
structuration
The two-way process by which we shape our social world through our individual actions and by which we are reshaped by society.
subculture
A group of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations
subjectivity
the quality of possessing perspectives, experiences, feelings, beliefs, desires, and/or power
symbolic interactionism
Approach that focuses on the interactions among people based on mutually understood symbols
field experiments
Experiments conducted in natural settings rather than in the laboratory
free will
The ability to shape one's own life.
functionalist theory
a sociological theory that attempts to determine the functions, or uses, of the main ways in which a society is organized
gender
Sex of an individual
globalisation
The breaking down of traditional barriers between nation states allowing movement of goods, capital, people and information.
Hawthorne effect
A change in a subject's behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied
hypothesis
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
hypothetico-deductive method
When faced with a problem, they start with a hypothesis, or prediction about variables that might affect an outcome, form which they deduce logical, testable inferences. Then they systematically isolate and combine variables to see which of these inferences are confirmed in the real world.
ideology
A consistent set of beliefs by groups/individuals
looking-glass self
Charles Horton Cooley's term for a self-image based on how we think others see us
adolescence
13-18 years
ageism
A term coined by Robert N. Butler to refer to prejudice and discrimination against the elderly.
age set
A formally established group of people born during a certain time span who move through the series of age-grade categories together
age stratification
social inequality among various age categories within a society
beanpole family
a family structure that is common today and has a tall thin shape because it includes multiple family generations but has relatively few people in each generation
civil partnership
A legal ceremony giving a homosexual couple the same legal rights as a husband and wife
childhood
Age 2 to puberty. When permanent teeth grow, nerve pathways mature, and child can learn new skills, and muscle coordination increases.
communes
Collective farms where people work and live together : failed : no incentive to work hard, government profitted everything, agriculture failed. : 38 million people died Mao said death has benifits because they can fertilize the ground
surveys
A systematic method for collecting data from respondents including questionnaires, face- to- face or telephone interviews, or a combination of these.
confluent love
The idea that post-modern society is characterised by constant search for a better relationship.
dependency ratio
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.
divorce
Divorce is the legal determination by the state which puts an end to the marital relationship.
domestic labor
work performed in the home, such as cooking, cleaning, and taking care of children
domestic violence
Abuse, physical or mental, that occurs within the home
dysfunctional family
family system in which one or more family members do not fulfill their responsibilities throwing the system out of balance
extended family
Closely related people of several generations such as brother sisters parents uncles aunts grandperent and great grandparents
family diversity
the variety of ways that families are structured and function to meet the needs of those defined as family members
family functions
sense of belonging, emotional security, physical needs, economic needs, socialization
conjugal roles
The role of the husband and wife (or partners) within the family.
functional fit
the ability to function in daily life in many different contexts
functional prerequisites
The needs of the society that need to be met if the society is going to survive
gay & lesbian families
families that the parents are of same sex
gender inequality
The inequality between men and women in terms of wealth, income, and status.
households
Groups of individuals living together and making joint decisions.
instrumental roles
Functional roles that help the group select, plan, and complete a task.
expressive roles
Functional roles that provide support and maintain the overall group members' needs.
kibbutzim
Collective agricultural settlements set up by Jewish settlers in what is now Israel in the late nineteenth century and continuing to the present
kinship patterns
who you are related to
fertility rate
the average number of children a woman of childbearing years would have in her lifetime, if she had children at the current rate for her country
marriage
A lifelong union between a husband and a wife, who develop an intimate relationship
marital breakdown
ending a marriage
matriarchy
A society ruled or controlled by women
matrifocal family
family group consisting of a mother and her children, with a male only loosely attached or not present at all
matrilineal
relating to a social system in which family descent and inheritance rights are traced through the mother
nuclear family
A married couple and their unmarried children living together
partnership
two people living together, 2 or more individuals agree to own and operate a business together
patriarchy
A form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line
macro sociology
concerned with the big picture- large social structures such as social institutions (family, education, religion, economics)
lone/single parent family
one parent family
Marxist theory
The ideology espoused by Karl Marx which holds that government is a reflection of economic forces, primarily ownership of the means of production
mass culture
common culture experienced by a large number of people
methodological pluralism
use of multiple methods and more than one theoretical explenation to delve into research questions
micro sociology
has a more narrow focus and is concerned with behavior, interactions and experiences of individuals and small groups in a specific situation
modern industrial society
developed economy, developed country
youth culture
The belief that young people have values, interests, and activities distinct from those of other age groups
urbanisation
Increase in the proportion of the countries population living in towns and cities
symmetrical family
A theory that the roles of husband and wife are becoming more equal within the family
social construction
The process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction
serial monogamy
A form of marriage in which a person may have several spouses in his or her lifetime, but only one spouse at a time.
reconstituted family
also called blended, combined, or remarried family; includes stepparents and stepchildren
privatized family
a home centred family that has little contact with extended kin or neighbors
primary socialisation
the initial period of learning the ways of society, usually learned from the family.
postmodern family
A term that describes the variation in modern day families two parents and single parents married and unmarried couples and multigenerational households.
polygyny
having more than one wife at a time
polygamy
Having more than one spouse
polyandry
A system of marriage that allows women to have multiple husbands
patrilineal
based on or tracing descent through the male line
patrifocal family
Father has the authority, Family group consisting of a father and his children
significant others
People, such as parents, who have special importance for socialization
semiology
study of signs and signals
secondary data
Data already collected for some purpose other than the current study.
scientific method
A systematic approach used in scientific study that typically includes observation, a hypothesis, experiments, data analysis, and a conclusion
sampling error
An error that occurs when a sample somehow does not represent the target population.
roles
Assigned behavior
respondent
Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
researcher effect
a form of reactivity in which a researcher's cognitive bias causes them to unconsciously influence the participants of an experiment.
researcher bias
a tendency for researchers to engage in behaviors and selectively notice evidence that supports their hypotheses or expectations
reliability
Ability of a test to yield very similar scores for the same individual over repeated testings
questionnaires
A method of gathering data when the data sources are spread over a wide geographic area.
qualitative data
Information describing color, odor, shape, or some other physical characteristic.
primary data
Data obtained for the first time and used specifically for the particular problem or issue under study.
post-modernism
20th cent. movement in architecture which succeeded the International Style, and which was defined largely by the writings of Robert Venturi, i
positivism
A philosophy developed by the French count of Saint-Simon. Positivists believed that social and economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress. Popular in France and Latin America.
pilot studies
surveys using a limited number of respondents and often employing less rigorous sampling techniques than are employed in large, quantitative studies
phenomenology
A philosophical approach to studying human experiences based on the idea that human experience itself is inherently subjective and determined by the context in which people live
paradigms
a model that provides a framework for interpreting observations
overt observation
observation in which those being observed and informed are informed of the observers presence and purpose
official statistics
Statistics produced by local and national government, government agencies and organisations funded by the government
objectivity
A writer's attempt to remove himself or herself from any subjective, personal involvement in a story
socialisation
process whereby an individual learns to become an accepted and fully functioning member of a society
structuralist
based on an analytical understanding of the structure of the conscious mind and analyze the structure of the body and the brain. Ignore individual differences, but excluded women in old research, A psychologist who studied the basic elements that make up conscious mental experiences.
structuration
the production and reproduction of social systems through group members' use of rules and resources in interaction.
sub-culture
a social group within a national culture that has distinctive patterns of behavior and beliefs
traditional society
customs are handed down from generation to generation
triangulation
A method of indirectly measuring distance by creating an imaginary triangle between an observer and an object whose distance away is to be estimated.
validity
Accurate. The degree to which a study accurately reflects or assesses the specific concepts that the researcher is attempting to measure. Does it measure what its suppose to.
value consensus
the idea that most of society has a collective agreement on values. For example, some people consider "individualism" to be an American value.
value judgement
A judgement that is subjective, based on a personal view or a matter of opinion
value-freedom
theory put forward by Max Weber which states that sociology should be completely objective rather than influenced by moral judgement, according to Wever, the orientation of the kind of sociological interpretation that analyzes human value commitments without making reference to their worthiness
values
Beliefs of a person or social group in which they have an emotional investment (either for or against something).
variables
Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study.
verstehen
An approach to the study of social life developed by Max Weber in which sociologists mentally attempt to place themselves in the shoes of other people and identify what they think and how they feel; translates roughly as "understanding."
Weberian theory
Max Weber - Power to impose ones will on others through wealth, power, and prestige. (social honor is granted to people).
forces of production
Marx's term to refer to the technology used to produce economic goods in a society.
relations of production
In Marxist theory, the social roles and relationships that are generated by the mode of production, including such things as class, ownership, "management," and in some lines of thinking "family."
manifest functions
The recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern
latent functions
The unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern
interactionist
A sociological approach that generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole.
interpretivism
a study of consumer behavior that observes the act of consuming rather than the act of buying; based on qualitative research
laboratory experiments
Experiment in which conditions are highly controlled.
longitudinal experiments
subjects are followed & periodically reassessed over a period of time
feminist theory
A sociological perspective that emphasizes the centrality of gender in analyzing the social world and particularly the uniqueness of the experience of women. There are many strands of feminist theory, but they all share the desire to explain gender inequalities in society and to work to overcome them.
liberal feminist theory
a view of crime that suggests that the social and economic role of women in society controls their crime rates
radical feminist
believe women have been oppressed by men and that this oppression has served as a model for racial and class oppression
Marxist feminist
Causes of gender inequality: Hierarchy relations of control w/the rise of private property.Class relations are primary;Gender relations are secondary.Process of gender information: A master slave relationship applied to husband and wife.Strategies for Social Change:Transformation from a capitalist to a democratic socialist society
black feminist theory
A strand of feminist thought which highlights the multiple disadvantages of gender, class and race that shape the experiences of nonwhite women. Black feminists reject the idea of a single unified gender oppression that is experienced evenly by all women
empty-shell marriage
The spouses feel no strong attachments to each other, and outside pressures keep the marriage together rather than feelings of warmth and attraction between the partners
monogamy
A form of marriage in which one woman and one man are married only to each other.
sampling techniques
census, random, simple random, stratified, cluster, systematic, convenience
modernity
A term encompassing the forms of social organization that characterize industrialized societies, including the decline of tradition, an increase in individualism, and a belief in progress, technology, and science.
post- modernity
living in the moment philosophy that emphasizes individual achievement, social inquiry, empowerment and expression
rite of passage
A ritual marking the symbolic transition from one social position to another
organic solidarity
Durkheim's term for the interdependence that results from people needing others to fulfill their jobs; solidarity based on the interdependence brought about by the division of labour
mechanical solidarity
Durkheim's term for the unity (a shared consciousness) that people feel as a result of performing the same or similar tasks
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