The theory that self-serving actions by forceful leaders play a role in civilization's emergence.
Conceptions that people accept as true, concerning how the world operates and where the individual fits in relationship to others.
An economic system based on private ownership of capital
An in-depth investigation of behaviour or events. Studying an individual, a small group or a situation.
A cause and effect relationship in which one variable controls the changes in another variable.
Interaction in which individuals or groups are forced to behave in a particular way
the common faith or set of social norms by which a society and its members abide; a set of common assumptions about how the world works.
compares 2 or more groups and looks for differences between them
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
An organized movement of citizens and government agencies to improve the rights and power of buyers in relation to sellers.
A research method for systematically analyzing and making inferences from text
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
observation in which the observer's presence or purpose is kept secret from those being observed
A contemporary form of conflict theory that criticizes many different systems and ideologies of domination and oppression.
surveying single sample of some population at one time
Beliefs, customs, and traditions of a specific group of people.
Common practices followed by people of a particular group or region
Every event, including human actions, is caused by previous events in accordance with the natural laws that govern the universe.
derived from real life experiences; they are how we make sense of the world around us
A branch of Marxism which says that societies are determined by their economies (or economic systems).
Moral: the "should" and "should nots" of actions and behaviors, form basics for actions, framework for evaluation of behavior
A method of sociological analysis that examines how individuals use everyday conversation and gestures to construct a common-sense view of the world
A subject or group of subjects in an experiment that is exposed to the factor or condition being tested.
A form of deception that involves presenting false, fabricated information as though it were true
Significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and culture, including norms and values.
social construction of reality
the process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction
Attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behavior
Any technique that uses social skills to generate human interaction that entices individuals to reveal sensitive information
the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "who am I?" that comes from our group memberships
A group's usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend and on which they base their lives.
A national government's course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens
a condition that undermines the well-being of some or all members of society and is usually a matter of public controversy
rewards or punishment that encourage conformity to social norms
Your concept of self as developed through your personal, social interactions with others.
The process by which people acquire the values, beliefs, attitudes and behavioral norms of their culture.
the belief that phenomena of human life are not intelligible except through their interrelations. These relations constitute a structure, and behind local variations in the surface phenomena there are constant laws of abstract culture
The two-way process by which we shape our social world through our individual actions and by which we are reshaped by society.
A group of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations
the quality of possessing perspectives, experiences, feelings, beliefs, desires, and/or power
Approach that focuses on the interactions among people based on mutually understood symbols
Experiments conducted in natural settings rather than in the laboratory
The ability to shape one's own life.
a sociological theory that attempts to determine the functions, or uses, of the main ways in which a society is organized
Sex of an individual
The breaking down of traditional barriers between nation states allowing movement of goods, capital, people and information.
A change in a subject's behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
When faced with a problem, they start with a hypothesis, or prediction about variables that might affect an outcome, form which they deduce logical, testable inferences. Then they systematically isolate and combine variables to see which of these inferences are confirmed in the real world.
A consistent set of beliefs by groups/individuals
Charles Horton Cooley's term for a self-image based on how we think others see us
A term coined by Robert N. Butler to refer to prejudice and discrimination against the elderly.
A formally established group of people born during a certain time span who move through the series of age-grade categories together
social inequality among various age categories within a society
a family structure that is common today and has a tall thin shape because it includes multiple family generations but has relatively few people in each generation
A legal ceremony giving a homosexual couple the same legal rights as a husband and wife
Age 2 to puberty. When permanent teeth grow, nerve pathways mature, and child can learn new skills, and muscle coordination increases.
Collective farms where people work and live together : failed : no incentive to work hard, government profitted everything, agriculture failed. : 38 million people died Mao said death has benifits because they can fertilize the ground
A systematic method for collecting data from respondents including questionnaires, face- to- face or telephone interviews, or a combination of these.
The idea that post-modern society is characterised by constant search for a better relationship.
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.
Divorce is the legal determination by the state which puts an end to the marital relationship.
work performed in the home, such as cooking, cleaning, and taking care of children
Abuse, physical or mental, that occurs within the home
family system in which one or more family members do not fulfill their responsibilities throwing the system out of balance
Closely related people of several generations such as brother sisters parents uncles aunts grandperent and great grandparents
the variety of ways that families are structured and function to meet the needs of those defined as family members
sense of belonging, emotional security, physical needs, economic needs, socialization
The role of the husband and wife (or partners) within the family.
the ability to function in daily life in many different contexts
The needs of the society that need to be met if the society is going to survive
gay & lesbian families
families that the parents are of same sex
The inequality between men and women in terms of wealth, income, and status.
Groups of individuals living together and making joint decisions.
Functional roles that help the group select, plan, and complete a task.
Functional roles that provide support and maintain the overall group members' needs.
Collective agricultural settlements set up by Jewish settlers in what is now Israel in the late nineteenth century and continuing to the present
who you are related to
the average number of children a woman of childbearing years would have in her lifetime, if she had children at the current rate for her country
A lifelong union between a husband and a wife, who develop an intimate relationship
ending a marriage
A society ruled or controlled by women
family group consisting of a mother and her children, with a male only loosely attached or not present at all
relating to a social system in which family descent and inheritance rights are traced through the mother
A married couple and their unmarried children living together
two people living together, 2 or more individuals agree to own and operate a business together
A form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line
concerned with the big picture- large social structures such as social institutions (family, education, religion, economics)
lone/single parent family
one parent family
The ideology espoused by Karl Marx which holds that government is a reflection of economic forces, primarily ownership of the means of production
common culture experienced by a large number of people
use of multiple methods and more than one theoretical explenation to delve into research questions
has a more narrow focus and is concerned with behavior, interactions and experiences of individuals and small groups in a specific situation
modern industrial society
developed economy, developed country
The belief that young people have values, interests, and activities distinct from those of other age groups
Increase in the proportion of the countries population living in towns and cities
A theory that the roles of husband and wife are becoming more equal within the family
The process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction
A form of marriage in which a person may have several spouses in his or her lifetime, but only one spouse at a time.
also called blended, combined, or remarried family; includes stepparents and stepchildren
a home centred family that has little contact with extended kin or neighbors
the initial period of learning the ways of society, usually learned from the family.
A term that describes the variation in modern day families two parents and single parents married and unmarried couples and multigenerational households.
having more than one wife at a time
Having more than one spouse
A system of marriage that allows women to have multiple husbands
based on or tracing descent through the male line
Father has the authority, Family group consisting of a father and his children
People, such as parents, who have special importance for socialization
study of signs and signals
Data already collected for some purpose other than the current study.
A systematic approach used in scientific study that typically includes observation, a hypothesis, experiments, data analysis, and a conclusion
An error that occurs when a sample somehow does not represent the target population.
Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
a form of reactivity in which a researcher's cognitive bias causes them to unconsciously influence the participants of an experiment.
a tendency for researchers to engage in behaviors and selectively notice evidence that supports their hypotheses or expectations
Ability of a test to yield very similar scores for the same individual over repeated testings
A method of gathering data when the data sources are spread over a wide geographic area.
Information describing color, odor, shape, or some other physical characteristic.
Data obtained for the first time and used specifically for the particular problem or issue under study.
20th cent. movement in architecture which succeeded the International Style, and which was defined largely by the writings of Robert Venturi, i
A philosophy developed by the French count of Saint-Simon. Positivists believed that social and economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress. Popular in France and Latin America.
surveys using a limited number of respondents and often employing less rigorous sampling techniques than are employed in large, quantitative studies
A philosophical approach to studying human experiences based on the idea that human experience itself is inherently subjective and determined by the context in which people live
a model that provides a framework for interpreting observations
observation in which those being observed and informed are informed of the observers presence and purpose
Statistics produced by local and national government, government agencies and organisations funded by the government
A writer's attempt to remove himself or herself from any subjective, personal involvement in a story
process whereby an individual learns to become an accepted and fully functioning member of a society
based on an analytical understanding of the structure of the conscious mind and analyze the structure of the body and the brain. Ignore individual differences, but excluded women in old research, A psychologist who studied the basic elements that make up conscious mental experiences.
the production and reproduction of social systems through group members' use of rules and resources in interaction.
a social group within a national culture that has distinctive patterns of behavior and beliefs
customs are handed down from generation to generation
A method of indirectly measuring distance by creating an imaginary triangle between an observer and an object whose distance away is to be estimated.
Accurate. The degree to which a study accurately reflects or assesses the specific concepts that the researcher is attempting to measure. Does it measure what its suppose to.
the idea that most of society has a collective agreement on values. For example, some people consider "individualism" to be an American value.
A judgement that is subjective, based on a personal view or a matter of opinion
theory put forward by Max Weber which states that sociology should be completely objective rather than influenced by moral judgement, according to Wever, the orientation of the kind of sociological interpretation that analyzes human value commitments without making reference to their worthiness
Beliefs of a person or social group in which they have an emotional investment (either for or against something).
Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study.
An approach to the study of social life developed by Max Weber in which sociologists mentally attempt to place themselves in the shoes of other people and identify what they think and how they feel; translates roughly as "understanding."
Max Weber - Power to impose ones will on others through wealth, power, and prestige. (social honor is granted to people).
forces of production
Marx's term to refer to the technology used to produce economic goods in a society.
relations of production
In Marxist theory, the social roles and relationships that are generated by the mode of production, including such things as class, ownership, "management," and in some lines of thinking "family."
The recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern
The unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern
A sociological approach that generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole.
a study of consumer behavior that observes the act of consuming rather than the act of buying; based on qualitative research
Experiment in which conditions are highly controlled.
subjects are followed & periodically reassessed over a period of time
A sociological perspective that emphasizes the centrality of gender in analyzing the social world and particularly the uniqueness of the experience of women. There are many strands of feminist theory, but they all share the desire to explain gender inequalities in society and to work to overcome them.
liberal feminist theory
a view of crime that suggests that the social and economic role of women in society controls their crime rates
believe women have been oppressed by men and that this oppression has served as a model for racial and class oppression
Causes of gender inequality: Hierarchy relations of control w/the rise of private property.Class relations are primary;Gender relations are secondary.Process of gender information: A master slave relationship applied to husband and wife.Strategies for Social Change:Transformation from a capitalist to a democratic socialist society
black feminist theory
A strand of feminist thought which highlights the multiple disadvantages of gender, class and race that shape the experiences of nonwhite women. Black feminists reject the idea of a single unified gender oppression that is experienced evenly by all women
The spouses feel no strong attachments to each other, and outside pressures keep the marriage together rather than feelings of warmth and attraction between the partners
A form of marriage in which one woman and one man are married only to each other.
A term encompassing the forms of social organization that characterize industrialized societies, including the decline of tradition, an increase in individualism, and a belief in progress, technology, and science.
living in the moment philosophy that emphasizes individual achievement, social inquiry, empowerment and expression
rite of passage
A ritual marking the symbolic transition from one social position to another
Durkheim's term for the interdependence that results from people needing others to fulfill their jobs; solidarity based on the interdependence brought about by the division of labour
Durkheim's term for the unity (a shared consciousness) that people feel as a result of performing the same or similar tasks