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an ancient dynasty of Macedonian kings who ruled Egypt from 323 BC to 30 BC

nicholas copernicus

He thought that the sun was the center & the plants went around the sun in circles

galileo galilei

Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars

isacc newton

Proposed the law of universal gravatation; It said that gravity was the force that held the planets in their orbits and it was the same force that made objects fall to earth

cambridge university

a university in England

robert boyle

Irish chemist who established that air has weight and whose definitions of chemical elements and chemical reactions helped to dissociate chemistry from alchemy (1627-1691)

margaret cavendish

educated scientist and astronomer; excluded from English Royal Society, regardless of her many accomplishments; wrote several books contrasting her knowledge with the knowledge of other scientists

maria winkelmann

most famous of female astronomers in Germany; recieved training from self-taught astronomer; married Gottfried Kirch and became his assistant; applied for positionas assistant astronomer at the Berlin Academy, she was highly qualified but was denied (because she was a woman and had no university degree)

rene descartes

French philosopher and mathematician

francis bacon

English statesman and philosopher

john locke

English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)


French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)


French writer who was the embodiment of 18th century Enlightenment (1694-1778)

denis diderot

French philosopher who was a leading figure of the Enlightenment in France

adam smith

Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)

jean-jacques rousseau

A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy

mary wollstonecraft

English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women

john wesley

English clergyman and founder of Methodism (1703-1791)


German baroque organist and contrapuntist


German, but spent most of his career in England, best known for his religious music, his most famous work was Handel's "Messiah"


wrote music mostly for wealthy Hungarian princes, but after a visit to England he created some works for public concerts


child prodigy

frederick the great

Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy.

maria theresa

Empress of Austria, 1740-1780, made sure all her children were educated, did away with forced labor for peasants of austria, the reforms made-brought greater equality for austrian society

catherine the great

ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, lierature, Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations

sor juana ines de la cruz

Mexian poet; denied access into University of Mexico because she was a woman; entered convent and became nun; became famous and great poet; denounced by her bishop for writing secular liturature


a new dynasty replacing Stuart line. Protestant rulers of the German state of Hanover offered to rule Britain

robert walpole

The first prime minister, molded cabinet into a unified body.

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