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28 terms

Revolution and Enlightenment people to know

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Ptolemy
an ancient dynasty of Macedonian kings who ruled Egypt from 323 BC to 30 BC
nicholas copernicus
He thought that the sun was the center & the plants went around the sun in circles
galileo galilei
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars
isacc newton
Proposed the law of universal gravatation; It said that gravity was the force that held the planets in their orbits and it was the same force that made objects fall to earth
cambridge university
a university in England
robert boyle
Irish chemist who established that air has weight and whose definitions of chemical elements and chemical reactions helped to dissociate chemistry from alchemy (1627-1691)
margaret cavendish
educated scientist and astronomer; excluded from English Royal Society, regardless of her many accomplishments; wrote several books contrasting her knowledge with the knowledge of other scientists
maria winkelmann
most famous of female astronomers in Germany; recieved training from self-taught astronomer; married Gottfried Kirch and became his assistant; applied for positionas assistant astronomer at the Berlin Academy, she was highly qualified but was denied (because she was a woman and had no university degree)
rene descartes
French philosopher and mathematician
francis bacon
English statesman and philosopher
john locke
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
montesquieu
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)
voltaire
French writer who was the embodiment of 18th century Enlightenment (1694-1778)
denis diderot
French philosopher who was a leading figure of the Enlightenment in France
adam smith
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
jean-jacques rousseau
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
mary wollstonecraft
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
john wesley
English clergyman and founder of Methodism (1703-1791)
bach
German baroque organist and contrapuntist
handel
German, but spent most of his career in England, best known for his religious music, his most famous work was Handel's "Messiah"
haydn
wrote music mostly for wealthy Hungarian princes, but after a visit to England he created some works for public concerts
mozart
child prodigy
frederick the great
Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy.
maria theresa
Empress of Austria, 1740-1780, made sure all her children were educated, did away with forced labor for peasants of austria, the reforms made-brought greater equality for austrian society
catherine the great
ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, lierature, Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations
sor juana ines de la cruz
Mexian poet; denied access into University of Mexico because she was a woman; entered convent and became nun; became famous and great poet; denounced by her bishop for writing secular liturature
hanoverians
a new dynasty replacing Stuart line. Protestant rulers of the German state of Hanover offered to rule Britain
robert walpole
The first prime minister, molded cabinet into a unified body.