12 terms

Medical term Final 1-18

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Terms in this set (...)

Ch 1 comb forms/suffixes/prefixes
Question Answer
aden/o gland
arthr/o joint
bi/o life
carcin/o cancerous, cancer
cardi/o heart
cephal/o head
cerebr/o cerebrum (largest part of the brain)
cis/o to cut
crin/o to secrete (to form and give off)
cyst/o urinary bladder; a sac or a cyst (sac containing fluid)
cyt/o cell
derm/o, dermat/o skin
electr/o electricity
encephal/o brain
enter/o intestines (usually the small intestine)
erythr/o red
gastr/o stomach
gnos/o knowledge
gynec/o woman, female
hemat/o, hem/o blood
hepat/o liver
iatr/o treatment, physician
leuk/o white
nephr/o kidney
neur/o nerve
onc/o tumor
ophthalm/o eye
oste/o bone
path/o disease
ped/o child
psych/o mind
radi/o x-rays
ren/o kidney
rhin/o nose
sarc/o flesh
sect/o to cut
thromb/o clot, clotting
ur/o urinary tract, urine
-ac pertaining to
-al pertaining to
-algia pain
-cyte cell
-ectomy excision, removal
-emia blood condition
-genic pertaining to producing, produced by, or produced in
-globin protein
-gram record
-ic, -ical pertaining to
-ion process
-ist specialist
-itis inflammation
-logy process of study
-oma tumor, mass, swelling
-opsy process of viewing
-osis condition, usually abnormal (slight increase in numbers when used with blood cells)
-pathy disease condition
-scope instrument to visually examine
-scopy process of visually examining with an endoscope
-sis state of; condition
-tomy process of cutting, incision
-y process, condition
a-, an- no, not, without
aut-, auto- self, own
dia- through, complete
end-, endo- within
epi- above, upon
ex- out
exo- outside of, outward
hyper- excessive, above, more than normal
hypo- deficient, below, under, less than normal
in- into, in
peri- surrounding, around
pro- before, forward
re- back, backward, again
retro- behind
sub- below, under
trans- across, through

Ch 1 Basic Word Structure
What is a ... ? answer
Gastrectomy Gastric resection (-tomy = to resect, remove) (gastr/o = stomach)
Osteitis Inflammation of a bone (-itis = inflammation, oste/o = bone)
Cystoscopy visual examination of the urinary bladder (-scopy = visually examine, -cyst/o = urinary bladder)
Hepatoma Tumor of the liver (-oma = tumor, hepat/o = liver)
iatrogenic pertaining to produced by treatment (-ic = pertaining to, gen = produce or create, iatr/o = treatment, physican
electroencephalogram record of electricity in the brain (-gram = record, electro- = electricity, -en = inside, cephal/o = brain)
diagnosis is made on the basis of complete knowledge about the patient's condition (-is = condition, dia- = through and complete, gnos/o = knowledge)
cancerous tumor carcinoma (-oma = tumor, carcin/o = cancer)
microscopic examination of living tissue biopsy (-opsy = process of viewing, bi/o = life
pertaining to the brain cerebral (-al = pertaining to, cerebr/o = brain)
removal of a gland adenectomy (-ectomy = resection, remove) (aden/o = gland)
decrease in numbers of red blood cells anemia (-emia = abnormal blood condition, an- = no, none) "no blood" (less than normal levels of RBC
Pathologist One who performs autopsies and reads biopsies (-logist = specialized study, path/o = disease)
arthralgia pain in a joint (-algia = pain, arthr/o = joint)
increase in numbers of malignant white blood cells Leukemia (-emia = abnormal blood condition, leuk/o = white)
Instrument - to view the eye ophthalmoscope (note spelling opHth) -scope = instrument to visually examine, ophthalm/o = eye
a platelet is a ... ? thrombocyte (-cyte = cell, thromb/o = clotting)
abnormal condition of the mind psychosis (-osis = abnormal condition, psych/o = mind)
inflammation of the nose rhinitis (-itis = inflammation, rhin/o = nose)
cytology study of cells (-logy = study, cyt/o = cells)
pertaining to - through the liver transhepatic (-ic = pertaining to, trans- = through, hepat/o = liver)
nephrosis abnormal condition of the kidney (-osis = abnormal condition, nephr/o = kidney)
osteotomy incision of a bone (-tomy = incision, oste/o = bone)
hyperglycemia high level of sugar in the blood (-emia = abnormal blood condition, hyper- = more than normal or excessive, glyc/o = sugar)
psych/o mind (example: psychosis)
ophthalm/o eye (example: opthalmoscope)
path/o disease (example: pathology)
ren/o kidney (example: renal)
rhin/o nose (example: rhinitis)
radi/o x-ray (example: radiology)
onc/o tumor (example: oncologist )
sarc/o flesh (example: sarcoma) - sarcomas are malignant.
thromb/o clot, clotting (example: thrombocyte)
ur/o urinary tract, urine (example: urology)
oste/o bone (example: osteitis)
sect/o to cut (example: resection)
Chpt 10 Nervous System
Question Answer
part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements and maintaining balance cerebellum
myoneural pertains to...? muscles and nerves
acetylcholine is a ... ? neurotransmitter
part of the nerve cell that first receives the nervous impluse is the dendrite
elevated portions of the cerebral cortex are called Gyri
causalgia burning sensation of pain
a network of interlacing nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system Plexus
portion of the brain that controls the pituitary gland, water balance, and boyd temp Hypothalamus
glial cells Astrocytes
space between nerve cells is called the synapse
part of the brain that controls breathing, heartbeat, and size of blood vessels medulla oblongata
inability to speak aphasia "no speech" -phasia = speech
collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord Cauda equina
x-ray record of the spinal cord myelogram
collection of blood within the meningeal layers subdural hematoma
abnormal sensation of tingling or prickling (pins and needles) paresthesia
inflammation of a sinal nerve root radiculitis
a highly malignant brain tumor glioblastoma
paralysis of four extremities Quadraplegia
cerebral aneurysm, thrombosis, or hemorrhage can be the cause of cerebrovascular accident (STROKE)
fainting syncope
spina bifida is associated with meningomyelocele (mening/o, myel/o, cele)
shuffling gait is a symptom of _____ disease? Parkinson Disease
disorder of reading, writing, and learning is dyslexia
condition of NO nervous sensation anesthesia (no pain, no feelings at all)
three protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord meninges
microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell axon
a large interlacing network of nerves plexus (plexuses)
branching fiber that is the FIRST part of a neuron to receive a nervous impulse dendrite
protective fatty tissue that surrounds the axon of a nerve cell myelin sheath
collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord cauda equina
glial cell that produces myelin oligodendroglia (scanty dendrites)
outer region of the largest part of the brain; composed of gray matter cerebral cortex
the _____ _____ nerve carries messages TOWARD the brain FROM receptors sensory nerve
essential cell of the nervous system; a neuron parenchymal cell
innermost meningeal membrane pia mater
elevations in the cerebral cortex gyri
acetylcholine is an example of this chemical released into a synapse neurotransmitter
the _____ _____ contains cerebrospinal fluid subarachnoid space
slow movement bradykinesia (kinesia = movement, brady = slow)
increased nervous sensation hyperesthesia
seizure of sleep narcolepsy
movements and behavior are not purposeful apraxia
fainting syncope
burning pain causalgia
no coordination ataxia (if you stumble, call a taxi) haha
slight paralysis in half the body hemiparesis
destruction of myelin sheath; replacement by plaques of hard scar tissue multiple sclerosis
sudden, transient disturbances of brain function marked by seizures Epilepsy
loss of muscle strength, breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter myasthenia gravis
degeneration of nerves in the brain leading to tremors, shuffling gait, and muscle stiffness - dopamine is deficient in the brain Parkinson disease
deteoriation of mental capacity (dementia), cerebral cortex atrophy, microscopic neurofibrillary tangles Alzheimer disease
Unilateral facial paralysis palsy (Bell Palsy)
relieving but not curing pallative
major convulsive epileptic seizure Tonic-Clonic Seizure
peculiar symptoms appearing before more definite symptoms aura
malignant brain tumor of immature glial cells glioblastoma multiforme
interruption of blood supply to the cerebrum transient ischemic attack
minor form of epileptic seizure absence seizure
blockage occlusion
neurotransmitter (type of) dopamine
Ch 2 The Body as a Whole

describe answer


Catabolism The process by which food is burned to release energy (-ism = process, cata- = down, bol/o = to cast, throw)
endoplasmic reticulum part of the cell where formation of proteins occurs
metabolism the sum of the chemical processes in a cell
karyotype picture of nuclear structures arranged in numerical order
part of the cell where catabolism primarily occurs mitochondria (engines of the)
allows materials to pass into andout of the cell cell membrane
genes are composed of ... ? DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
diaphragm muscular wall separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities
mediastinum the space in the chest - between - the lungs
adipose means pertaining to Fat
pharynx throat
sarcoma MALIGNANT tumor of flesh tissue (-oma = tumor, sarc/o = flesh)
craniotomy incision of the skull (-tomy = incision, crani/o = skull, cranium)
a Histologist studies tissues (-logist = specialized study, hist/o = tissues)
an epithelial cell is a(an)...? skin cell - also lines organs
the pleural cavity is the space between the membranes around the lungs
viscera YOUR GUTS!! Internal organs
the pituitary gland is in which body cavity? cranial (base of skull)
structure in the trachea larynx (voice box)
the tailbone is the coccyx
supine means Laying on the BACK
the upper lateral regions of the abdomen, beneath the ribs, are the: Hypochondriac regions
adipose tissue fat fat fatty fat fats
pharynx throat
ureter tube from the kidney to the urinary bladder
cartilage flexible connective tissue at the joints
pleura membrane surrounding the lungs
urethra tube from the urinary bladder to outside of body
larynx voice box
trachea windpipe
distal furthest from the point of attachment to the body (example: the distal end of the thigh bone (femur) joins with the knee cap)
lateral alongside, same level. (example: the left lung lies lateral to the heart)
sagittal lengthwise vertical plane divides body into left and right halves. (example: The sagittal plane divides the body into right and left portions)
transverse Upper and Lower (example: the transverse plane divides the body into upper and lower portions)
inferior (caudal) below another structure (example: the diaphragm lies inferior to the organs in the thoracic cavity)
proximal nearest the point of attachment to the trunk (example: the proximal end of the humerus is at the shoulder)
superior above another structure (example: the liver lies superior to the intestines )
vertebra backbone (plural; vertebrae)

Ch 2 comb forms/suffixes/prefixes
Question Answer

abdomin/o abdomen
adip/o fat
anter/o front
bol/o to cast (throw)
cervic/o neck (of the body or of the uterus)
chondr/o cartilage (type of connective tissue)
chrom/o color
coccyg/o coccyx (tailbone)
crani/o skull
cyt/o cell
dist/o far, distant
dors/o back portion of the body
hist/o tissue
ili/o ilium (part of the pelvic bone)
inguin/o groin
kary/o nucleus
later/o side
lumb/o lower back (side and back between the ribs and the pelvis)
medi/o middle
nucle/o nucleus
pelv/i pelvis
poster/o back, behind
proxim/o nearest
sacr/o sacrum
sarc/o flesh
spin/o spine, backbone
thel/o nipple
thorac/o chest
trache/o trachea, windpipe
umbilic/o navel, umbilicus
ventr/o belly side of the body
vertebr/o vertebra(e), backbone(s)
viscer/o internal organs
ana- up
cata- down
epi- above
hypo- below
inter- between
meta- change
-eal pertaining to
-iac pertaining to
-ior pertaining to
-ism process, condition
-ose pertaining to, full of
-plasm formation
-somes bodies
-type picture, classification
Chpt 11 Cardiovascular System

Question Answer

A blood vessel that carries oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs Pulmonary artery (this is the only artery that carries deoxygenated blood)
Contraction phase of the heartbeat systole
Valve which is located between the left upper and lower chambers of the heart mitral valve (aka: bicuspid)
sac-like membrane surrounding the heart pericardium
sensitive tissue in the right atrium wall that begins the heartbeat Sinoatrial Node (SA node)
Blood vessels branching from the aorta to carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle coronary arteries
disease of heart muscle cardiomyopathy
phlebitis inflammation of a vein
instrument to measure blood pressure sphygmomanometer (say: sphygmo - man - ometer)
local widening of an artery aneurysm
cyanosis (is characterized by) bluish coloration of the skin (cyan means blue)
All of these (listed) are characteristic of ________? 1. Blood is "held back" from an area. 2. Can lead to myocardial infarction 3. Can be caused by thrombotic occulusion of a blood vessel. 4. May be the result of coronary artery disease. ischemia
Angina is... ? chest pain (relieved with nitroglycerin)
Cardiac arrhythmia (is called?) fibrilliation
petechiae small, pinpoint hemorrhages
click-murmur syndrome (is found with?) mitral valve prolapse (a valvular heart disorder in which one or both mitral valve flaps close incompletely during systole usually producing either a click or murmur)
four separate congenital heart defects tetraology of Fallot (can you name them?)
"patent" means...? open
the cause of essential hypertension is idiopathic (essential/idopathic = unknown origin)
"Digitalis" (is a type of ___ used to ___?) Drug, used to strengthen the heartbeat.
CK, LD, and AST (SGOT) are all _______ _______? serum enzymes
describe an ECHO test high frequency sound waves are transmitted into the chest
incision of a vein (although, it's actually a puncture) phlebotomy (phleb/o = vein, -tomy = incision) A phlebotomy is the letting of blood for transfusion, apheresis, diagnostic testing, or experimental procedures
(procedure to) remove plaque from an artery endarterectomy (surgical removal of the inner layer of an artery when thickened and atheromatous or occluded (as by intimal plaques)
A Holter monitor is An EKG taken during daily activity
smallest blood vessel capillary
largest ARTERY in the body Aorta
lower chambers of the heart ventricle(s)
Valve between the RIGHT atrium and RIGHT ventricle Tricuspid valve
Carries blood FROM the lungs TO the heart Pulmonary vein - the only vein which carries oxygenated blood.
Brings blood TO the heart from UPPER parts of the body SUPERIOR Vena Cava
upper chamber of the heart atrium (atria)
Valve between the LEFT atrium and ventricle (is the?) Mitral Valve (bicuspid)
carries blood TO the lungs FROM the heart Pulmonary Artery (the only artery which carries deoxygenated blood)
small artery arteriole
rapid but regular atrial or ventricular contractions flutter
(the condition of) improper closure of the valve between the left atrium and ventricle during systole (is called a?) mitral valve prolapse
(disease) blockage of the arteries surrounding the heart - leading to ischemia CAD - Coronary Artery Disease
high blood pressure affecting the heart hypertensive heart disease
congenital narrowing of large artery leading from the heart coarctation of the Aorta
rapid, random, ineffectual, and irregular contractions of the heart Fibrillation
inability of the heart to pump its required amount of blood congestive heart failure
congenital malformation involving four separate heart defects Tetralogy of Fallot
(the act of) listening with a stethoscope (is called?) auscultation (steth/o = chest)
lesions that form on heart valves after damage by infection vegetations
petechiae small, pinpoint hemorrhages
high blood pressure DUE TO kidney disease secondary hypertension ( cause is known)
high blood pressure with idiopathic etiology (is known as?) essential hypertension (idiopathic means the cause is not known)
local widening of an artery (is called an?) aneurysm
pain, tension, and weakness in a limb after walking has begun claudication
clots that travel to and suddenly block a vessel emboli (embolism)
Describe Tetralogy of Fallot (not on study guide) 1. Pulmonary Artery Stenosis ----- 2. Ventricular septal defect ----- 3. Shift of the aorta to the right ----- 4. Hypertrophy of the right ventricle
Ch 3 comb forms/suffixes
Question Answer
abdomin/o abdomen
acr/o extremities, top, extreme point
acu/o sharp, severe, sudden
aden/o gland
adip/o fat
amni/o amnion (sac surrounding the embryo in thhe uterus)
angi/o vessel
arteri/o artery
arthr/o joint
axill/o armpit
bi/o life
blephar/o eyelid
bronch/o bronchial tubes
carcin/o cancer
cardi/o heart
chem/o drug, chemical
chondr/o cartilage
chron/o time
col/o colon (large intestine)
cyst/o urinary bladder
encephal/o brain
erythr/o red
hem/o blood
hepat/o liver
hydr/o water, fluid
inguin/o groin
isch/o to hold back
lapar/o abdomen, abdominal wall
laryng/o larynx (voice box)
leuk/o white
lymph/o lymph
mamm/o breast
mast/o breast
morph/o shape, form
muc/o mucus
my/o muscle
myel/o spinal cord, bone marrow
necr/o death (of cells or whole body)
nephr/o kidney
neur/o nerve
neutr/o neutrophil (a white blood cell)
nucle/o nucleus
ophthalm/o eye
oste/o bone
ot/o ear
path/o disease
peritone/o peritoneum
phag/o to eat, swallow
phleb/o vein
plas/o formation, development
pleur/o pleura (membrane surrounding lungs and adjacent to chest wall)
pneumon/o lungs
pulmon/o lungs
radi/o x-rays
rect/o rectum
ren/o kidney
rhin/o nose
sarc/o flesh
splen/o spleen
staphyl/o clusters
strept/o twisted chains
thorac/o chest
thromb/o clot
tonsill/o tonsils
trache/o trachea (windpipe)
ven/o vein
-algia pain
-cele hernia
-centesis surgical puncture to remove fluid
-coccus (pl. -cocci) berry-shaped bacterium (pl. bacteria)
-cyte cell
-dynia pain
-ectomy excision, removal, resection
-emia blood condition
-genesis condition of producing, forming
-gram record
-graph instrument for recording
-graphy process of recording
-itis inflammation
-logy study of
-lysis breakdown, destruction, separation
-malacia softening
-megaly enlargement
-oma tumor, mass, collection of fluid
-opsy to view
-osis condition, usually abnormal
-pathy disease condition
-penia deficiency
-phobia fear
-plasia development, formation, growth
-plasty surgical repair
-ptosis drooping, sagging, prolapse
-sclerosis hardening
-scope instrument for visual examination
-scopy process of visual examination (with an endoscope)
-stasis stopping, controlling
-stomy opening to form a mouth (stoma)
-therapy treatment
-tomy incision, cutting into
-trophy development, nourishment
-er one who
-ia condition
-ist specialist
-ole little, small
-ule little, small
-um, -ium structure, tissue
-us structure, substance
-y condition, process
-ac, -iac pertaining to
-al pertaining to
-ar pertaining to
-ary pertaining to
-eal pertaining to
-genic pertaining to producing, produced by, or in
-ic, -ical pertaining to
-oid resembling
-ose pertaining to, full of
-ous pertaining to
-tic pertaining to
Chpt 12 Respiratory System
Question Answer
tubes that bifurcate from the windpipe bronchi
uppermost portion of the lung apex
space between the lungs in the chest mediastinum
nasopharyngeal lymphatic tissue adenoids
pulmonary parenchyma alveoli and bronchioles
removal of the voice box laryngectomy
phren/o means diaphragm
medical term for a condition of decreased oxygen in the blood hypoxemia (hypo- = decreased)
Type of pneumoconiosis; dust particles are inhaled. (in this case, coal dust) asbestosis
breathing is easier in an upright position orthopnea (orth/o = upright, -pnea = breathing)
collection of pus in the pleural cavity pyothorax
sharp, short blows to the surface of the chest percussion
the "P" in DPT stands for Pertussis (Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus)
"stridor" occurs in which upper respiratory disorder? Croup. Acute viral infection in infants and children.
difficult breathing dyspena
bronchial airway obstruction marked by paroxysmal dyspnea, wheezing, and cough Asthma (also characterized by chronic inflammation, airway obstruction, bronchial edema, bronchial constriction, and mucus production.
collapsed lung atelectasis (incomplete expansion) a-=not, tel/0= complete, -ectasis = expansion
material is expelled from the lungs expectoration
localized area of pus formation in the lungs pulmonary abscess (abscess = collection of pus)
spitting up blood from the lungs hemoptysis (hemo = blood, -ptysis = spitting)
tube is placed through the mouth to the trachea to establish an airway endotracheal intubation (endo-=inside, tracheal = pert to the trachea, intubation = placement of tube-in
what is PPD? Purified Protein Derivative - substance used in a tuberculosis test.
airway obstruction associated with emphysema and chronic bronchitis COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
An example of an endoscopic examination (for instance, the visual examination with a scope to view the bronchioles would be called a _____? Bronchoscopy (fiberoptic endoscope used to visually examine the bronchi)
hypercapnia high carbon dioxide levels in the blood (hyper- = more, high level) (capn/o = Carbon Dioxide) (-ia = condition)
branches of the windpipe that lead into the lungs are the bronchi
the region between the lungs in the chest cavity is the mediastinum
collections of lymph tissue in the oropharynx are the palatine tonsils (almond shaped masses of lymphatic tissue in the oropharynx) (palatine means pertaining to the roof of the mouth)
air sacs of the lung are called alveoli
middle region where bronchi, blood vessels, and nerves enter and exit the lungs is the ? hilum (hilar means pertaining to the hilium)
the voice box larynx
thin hairs attached to the mucous membrane lining the respiratory tract cilia
(the) air-containing cavities in the bones around the nose are (called) the? paranasal sinuses
the lid-like piece of cartilage that overs the voice box is the epiglottis
hyperinflation of air sacs with the destruction of alveolar walls emphysema
inflammation of tubes leading from the trachea (over a long period of time) chronic bronchitis
spasm and narrowing of bronchi leading to airway obstruction asthma
lung or portion of a lung is collapsed atelectasis
(condition of) malignant neoplasm originating in a bronchus (is called?) bronchogenic carcinoma
"whooping cough"; bacterial infection of the pharynx pertussis
tube is placed through the mouth into the trachea to establish an airway endotracheal intubation
(name the procedure in which) radioactive material is injected or inhaled and images are recorded. V/Q (or Lung Scan)
(the procedure of) taking x-rays after constrast is injected into blood vessels of the lungs is called ? pulmonary angiography
opening into the trachea through the neck to establish an airway tracheostomy
chest wall is punctured with a needle to obtain fluid from the pleural space thoracentisis
fluid is injected into the bronchi and then removed for examination brochioalveolar lavage
inherited disease of exocrine glands, leading to airway obstruction cystic fibrosis
Chapter 4, Prefixes
Word Meaning
carp/o wrist bones
cost/o rib
cutane/o skin
dactyl/o fingers, toes
duct/o ducts or tubes
flex/o to bend
furc/o forking, branching
gloss/o tongue
glyc/o sugar
immun/o protection
morph/o shape, form
mort/o death
nat/i birth
norm/o rule, order
ox/o oxygen
pub/o pubis (pubic bone)
seps/o infection
somn/o sleep
son/o sound
thyr/o thyroid gland
top/o place, position
tox/o poison
urethr/o urethra
-blast embryonic, immature
-cyesis pregnancy
-gen producing, forming
-lapse to slide, fall, sag
-meter to measure
-mission to send
-ore one who
-partum birth, labor
-phoria feeling
-physis to grow
-plasia, -plasm development, formation
-pnea breathing
-ptosis droop, sag
-rrhea flow, discharge
-stasis stop, control
-trophy nourishment, development
ab- away from
ad- toward
ante- before, forward
anti- against
auto- self, own
bi- two
brady- slow
con- with, together
contra- against, opposite
de- down, lack of
dia- through, complete
dys- bad, painful
ec-, ecto- out, outside
eu- good, normal
hemi- half
infra- beneath
inter- between
macro- large
mal- bad
meta- beyond, change
micro- small
neo- new
pan- all
para- abnormal, beside, near
per- through
peri- surrounding
poly- many, much
post- after, behind
pre- before, in front of
pro- before, forward
pseudo- false
retro- behind, backward
sub- under
supra- above, upper
syn-, sym- together, with
tachy- fast
trans- through
ultra- beyond, excess
uni- one

Ch 4 Prefixes
Question Answer
intracostal pertaining to - between the ribs (-al = pertaining to, intra- = between, cost/o = ribs)
contralateral pertaining to the opposite side (-al = pertaining to)
exophthalamos protrusion of an eyeball
syndactyly a congenital anomaly (congenital = present at birth)
parasitism is an example of ... ? symbiosis
symptoms precede an illness (like a fever, or rash) prodrome
before meals ante cibum
antibodies protein substances made by leukocytes (anti- = against)
symphysis bones grow together, as in the pelvis
ultrasonography sound waves and echoes are used to create an image
metamorphosis change in shape or form
hypertrophy increase in cell size, increased development (-trophy = development)
hyperglycemia excessive sugar in the blood
retroperitoneal behind the abdomen (retro- = back, behind) (peri = around, surrounding)
streptococci is an example of an ...? antigen
return of disease symptoms relapse
dia- complete, through (as in Diagnosis)
abductor muscle Ab ("b" faces away) carries a limb AWAY from the body
adductor muscle Ad ("d" faces toward) pulls limb TOWARD the body.
dyspnea difficult breathing (pnea = breathing, dys- = difficult)
Brady- slow
Tachycardia rapid heartbeat (cardia = heartbeat, tachy- = rapid or fast)
parathyroid glands located on the dorsal side of an endocrine gland in the neck (the thyroid gland) para = near
Recombinant DNA gene from one organism is inserted (recombined) into another organism
epithelium Skin cells. Surface cells that line internal organs and found in the skin.
percutaneous through the skin
anoxia condition of no oxygen
antisepsis against infection
congenital anomaly irregularity present at birth (such as ... born with webbed toes)
antepartum before birth
apnea not breathing
contralateral pertaining to opposite side
metamorphosis condition of change of shape or form
malaise vague feeling of bodily discomfort
pancytopenia deficiency of ALL blood cells
metasasis spread of a cancerous tumor to a secondary organ or tissue
exophthalmos eyeballs that bulge outward
paralysis loss of movement in muscles
prodrome symptoms that appear before an illness (such as a rash or fever)
remission symptoms lessen
relapse disease or symptoms return
webbed fingers or toes syndactyly
neoplasm new growth (tumor)
Chpt 13 Blood System
Question Answer
white blood cell with reddish granules, numbers INCREASE in allergic reactions eosinopohil
Protein threads that form the basis of a clot FIBRIN are protein "threads" formed from fibrogen. (Don't confuse with platelets which are thrombin "cells")
Method of separating plasma proteins by electrical charge Electrophoresis
foreign material that invades the body antigens
pigment produced from hemogloblin when red blood cells are destroyed (hemolysis) bilirubin
an undifferentiated blood cell is called an Hematopoetic stem cell (when stem cells have not yet changed into mature forms they are are categorized "diffrentiated")
anticoagulant found in the blood heparin - the body's natural anticoagulant
a disorder of Red Blood Cell MORPHOLOGY is Poikilocytosis (abnormally formed red blood cells characteristic of various anemias)
Deficiency in numbers of white blood cells (in this case, a deficiency of neutrophils) neutropenia
an immature red blood cell is a...? erythroblast (erythr/o = red, -blast = immature cell)
derived from bone marrow myeloid (myel = bone marrow, -oid = derived/resembling)
Breakdown of recipient's red blood cells when incompatible bloods are mixed hemolysis (hemo = blood, -lysis)
NAME THAT ANEMIA! Sideropenia occurs, causing deficient production of hemoglobin. iron-deficiency anemia (sideropenia - low iron anemia)
NAME THAT ANEMIA! Reduction in red cells due to excessive cell destruction. hemolytic anemia (hemo = blood, -lytic = pert to breakdown/separation/destruction)
NAME THAT ANEMIA! Failure of blood cell production due to absence of formation of cells in the bone marrow. APLASTIC ANEMIA - (aplastic = not exhibiting growth or change in structure)(anemia = a condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells, in hemoglobin, or in total volume)
NAME THAT ANEMIA! Inherited defect in ability to produce hemoglobin. Thalassemia (aka: Mediterranean anemia )
NAME THAT ANEMIA! Lack of mature red cells - due to - inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the body Pernicious Anemia (pernicious = highly injurous or destructive)
excessive deposits of iron throughout the body hemochromatosis (hem/o = blood, chromat/o = colored, -osis = abnormal condition)
symptoms of pallor, shortness of breath, infection, bleeding gums, predominance of immature and abnormally functioning leukocytes, and low numbers of mature neutrophils in a young child may indicate a likely diagnosis of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (aka: ALL) marked by an abnormal increase in the number of lymphoblasts, characterized by rapid onset and progression of symptoms on front flap of this flashcard.
Excessive bleeding caused by congenital lack of factor VIII or IX Hemophilia (hem/o = blood, -philiac = pert to a "tendency" toward) Hemophiliac - tends to bleed.
venous blood is clotted in a test tube to measure...? coagulation time (15-20 minutes is the normal range)
Sample of blood is spun in a test tube so that red cells fall to the bottom and percentage of RBCs is taken Hematocrit (hemat/o = blood, -crit = count/judge/guage)
blood smear is examined to determine the shape or form (morphology) of cells. Red blood cell morphology (study of shape/change)
leukocytes are stained and counted under a microscope to see numbers of mature and immature forms WBC differential (differential is the change which occurs as cells mature from their immature forms)
venous blood is collected; anti-coagulant added and the distance cells FALL in period of time is determined in this test... sedimentation rate
A "Red Blood Cell" erythrocyte (erythr/o = red, -cyte = cell)
(type of cell) "white blood cell; phagocyte, and is a precursor of a macrophage" monocyte (mon/o = one, single) (-cyte = cell, in this case, the nucleus)
term meaning "thrombocyte" platelet
term meaning "bone marrow cell; gives rise to many types of blood cells" Hematopoietic Stem Cell
term meaning "leukocyte formed in lymph tissue; produces antibodies LYMPHOcyte (produced in Lymph tissues)
term meaning "leukocyte with dense, REDDISH granules; associated with ALLERGIC reactions Esinophil(s)
term meaning "leukocyte (poly) formed in bone marrow and having NEUTRAL-staining granules Neutrophil(s)
term meaning "leukocyte whose granules have an affinity for BASIC stain; releases histamine and heparin Basophil(s)
concerning blood cells, this is a term for "irregularity in shape" poikilocytosis
deficiency in numbers of RBCs erythrocytopenia (erythr/o = red, cyt/o = cell, -penia = deficiency)
reduction of hemoglobin ("color") Hypochromic (hypo- = decreased, chrom/o = color, -ic = pert to.)
increase in numbers of SMALL cells Microcytosis (micro = small, cytosis = condition of cells)
erythremia (characterized by an increase in total blood volume and viscosity and typically accompanied by nosebleed, headache, dizziness, weakness, etc) polycythemia vera
increase in numbers of LARGE cells macrocytosis (macro- = large, cytosis = condition of cells)
formation of red cells (as from the bone marrow) erythropoiesis (erythr/o = red, -poiesis = formation)
destruction of red cells hemolysis (hem/o = blood, -lysis = destruction / separation / breakdown
relieving, but not curing pallative
deficiency of ALL blood cells pancytopenia (pan- = all, cyt/o = cell, -penia = deficiency)
increase in numbers of granulocytes; seen in allergic conditions eosinophilia (eosin/o - red, dawn, rosy) (-philia = attraction, tendency, increase in cells)
symptoms of disease return is called _______? relapse
MULTIPLE pinpoint hemorrhages (multiple petechiae formations) purpura (characterized by patches of purplish discoloration resulting from extravasation of blood into the skin and mucous membranes)
the separation of blood into it's components is called ? apheresis (-apheresis = removal, carry away), usually termed as plasmapheresis
symptoms of disease disappear the patient is in ______? remission
A stained blood smear is examined to determine the shape of individual red blood cells, this test/exam is called...? RBC Morphology
this test measures the percentage of red blood cells in a volume of blood hematocrit
this test determines the number of clotting cells per cubic millimeter platelet count
(this tests the) Ability of venous blood to clot in a test tube Coagulation Time
(this test) Measures the speed at which erythrocytes SETTLE outside of plasma Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
(this test) Determines the numbers of different types of WBCs the WBC Differential
(this test) Determines the presence of antibodies in infants of Rh-negative women or patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia COOMBS TEST
(this procedure employs) Undifferentiated blood cells from a donor, infused into a patient being treated for leukemia or aplastic anemia Hematopoietic stem cell transplant
The time it takes for a small puncture wound to stop bleeding is called ? bleeding time test
(procedure where a) Needle is introduced into the bone marrow cavity, and a small amount of marrow is aspirated and then examined under the microscope Bone Marrow Biopsy
(procedure where) Blood is collected from and later reinfused into the same patient Autologous Transfusion
Ch 4 Prefixes
Question Answer
intracostal pertaining to - between the ribs (-al = pertaining to, intra- = between, cost/o = ribs)
contralateral pertaining to the opposite side (-al = pertaining to)
exophthalamos protrusion of an eyeball
syndactyly a congenital anomaly (congenital = present at birth)
parasitism is an example of ... ? symbiosis
symptoms precede an illness (like a fever, or rash) prodrome
before meals ante cibum
antibodies protein substances made by leukocytes (anti- = against)
symphysis bones grow together, as in the pelvis
ultrasonography sound waves and echoes are used to create an image
metamorphosis change in shape or form
hypertrophy increase in cell size, increased development (-trophy = development)
hyperglycemia excessive sugar in the blood
retroperitoneal behind the abdomen (retro- = back, behind) (peri = around, surrounding)
streptococci is an example of an ...? antigen
return of disease symptoms relapse
dia- complete, through (as in Diagnosis)
abductor muscle Ab ("b" faces away) carries a limb AWAY from the body
adductor muscle Ad ("d" faces toward) pulls limb TOWARD the body.
dyspnea difficult breathing (pnea = breathing, dys- = difficult)
Brady- slow
Tachycardia rapid heartbeat (cardia = heartbeat, tachy- = rapid or fast)
parathyroid glands located on the dorsal side of an endocrine gland in the neck (the thyroid gland) para = near
Recombinant DNA gene from one organism is inserted (recombined) into another organism
epithelium Skin cells. Surface cells that line internal organs and found in the skin.
percutaneous through the skin
anoxia condition of no oxygen
antisepsis against infection
congenital anomaly irregularity present at birth (such as ... born with webbed toes)
antepartum before birth
apnea not breathing
contralateral pertaining to opposite side
metamorphosis condition of change of shape or form
malaise vague feeling of bodily discomfort
pancytopenia deficiency of ALL blood cells
metasasis spread of a cancerous tumor to a secondary organ or tissue
exophthalmos eyeballs that bulge outward
paralysis loss of movement in muscles
prodrome symptoms that appear before an illness (such as a rash or fever)
remission symptoms lessen
relapse disease or symptoms return
webbed fingers or toes syndactyly
neoplasm new growth (tumor)
Chpt 14 Lymphatic & Immune Systems
Question Answer
1) Formation of lymph lymphopoiesis
2) interstitial fluid (contains, or is...) found in spaces between cells, becomes lymph when it enters lymph capillaries
3 ) All of the following are part of the immune system except : Lymphocytes, Platelets, Monocytes, Phagocytes, Antibodies Platelets (are not part of the immune system)
4 ) All of the following describe areas of lymph node concentration except: inguinal, axillary, bone marrow, mediastinal, cervical bone marrow (is not an area of lymph node concentration)
5) B cells, plasma cells, and antibodies are part of Humoral immunity
6) Helper or suppressor cells are types of T Cells
7) Examples of immunoglobulins IgA, IgG, IgE
8) Oropharyngeal lymph tissue tonsils
9) Mediastinal T Cell producer thymus
10) Nasopharyngeal lymph tissue adenoids
11) Abdominal organ that filters erythro-cytes and activates lymphocytes spleen
12) Produces lymphocytes and monocytes - and all other blood cells bone marrow
13) Cytotoxic cells are .. T Cell lymphocytes
14) Interferons and interleukins are antiviral proteins produced by T cell lymphocytes
15) slight increase in numbers of lymphocytes (is called?) lymphocytosis
16) pertaining to poison "toxic"
17) computerized x-ray imaging in the transverse plane CT Scan
18) HIV is ... ? the virus that... the virus that causes AIDS
19) (this disease, characterized by) malignant tumor of lymph nodes Hodgkin disease
20) Viral infection causing blisters on skin of lips, nose, or genitals herpes simplex
21) cancer arising from the lining cells of capillaries, producing bluish-red skin nodules Kaposi sarcoma
22) Major lung infection with fever, cough, chest pain and sputum. Treatment is with Bactrim Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
23) Protozoan (parasitic) infection associated with AIDS. Produces pneumonitis, hepatitis, and encephalitis toxoplasmosis
24) fungal infection associated with AIDS. Involves brain and meninges, lungs and skin: cryptococcosis
25) "atopy" is a hypersensitivity or allergic state
26) T cell lymphocytes that inhibit the activity of B cell lymphocytes supressor T cells
27) Antibodies -- IgG, IgE, IgM, IgD immunoglobulins
28) T cell lymphocytes, stimulate antibody productions; T4 cells helper T cells
29) poisons (antigens) toxins
30) T cell lymphocytes; "killer cells", T8 cells cytotoxic cells
31) Anti-viral proteins secreted by T cells interfereons
32) transformed B cells that secret antibodies plasma cells
33) Syndrome marked by enlargement of the spleen and associated with anemia, leukopenia, and anemia hypersplenism
34) An extraordinary hypersensitivity to a foreign protein; marked by hypotension, shock, respiratory distress anaphylaxis
35) an antigen capable of causing allergy (hypersensitivity) allergen
36) (illness)disorder in which the immune system is supressed by exposure to HIV AIDS
37) removal of a mediastinal organ (thymus) thymectomy (surgical excision of the thymus)
38) Malignant tumor of lymph nodes and spleen marked by Reed-Sternberg cell identified in lymph nodes Hodgkin disease
39) tissues that produce lymphocytes -- spleen, thymus, tonsils, and adenoids are the ...? Lymphoid Organs
40) swelling of tissues due to interstitial fluid accumulation lymphedema
41) white blood cells that are destroyed by HIV T4 helper lymphocytes
42) test to separate immunoglobulins immunoelectrophoresis
43) drug used to treat AIDS by blocking the growth of AIDS virus zidovudine
44) test used to detect anti-HIV antibodies ELISA
45) group of infectious diseases associated with AIDS opportunistic infections.
Ch 6 Add'l Suffix & Digestive Terms
Question Answer
Spitting up blood from the respiratory tract and lungs is called hemoptysis (hemo = blood, -ptysis = spitting)
The suffix which means "suture" rrhaphy, as in "herniorrhaphy"
(Procedure to create) new opening between two parts of the jejunum jejunojejunostomy (jejunum = pertaining to the jujeno. 2 parts = jejuno to jejuno, -stomy = opening)
lymphangiectasis dilation of a lymph vessel (-ectasis = dilation, lymph = lymph, angie = vessel)
dyspepsia difficult digestion (pepsia = digestion, dys- = difficult)
bursting forth of blood from the spleen is called ... ? splenorrhagia (-rrhagia = bursting forth of blood, splen/o = spleen) note the change from spleen to splen.
Narrowing of the opening between the stomach and intestine is called ...? Pyloric stenosis (stenosis = narrowing of a duct or canal, pylorus = distal aperture of the stomach, opening to the duodenum)
WHICH TEST would tell the presence of melena? (melena = black tarry stools; feces containing digested blood.) Stool guaiac (hemoccult, -occult = hidden, hem/o = blood) Guaiac is pronounced gwee-ack.
An ulcer would most likely be detected by which test? Gastroscopy (-scopy, visual examination w/scope, gastr/o = stomach)
congenital lack of continuity of the esophagus is called ... ? esophageal atresia (atresia = congenital absence of a normal body opening, esophageal = pertaining to the esophagus.)
what is Lipase? An enzyme that digests fat. (-ase = enzyme, lip/o = fat) A lipase is any enzyme that catalyzes the clevage of a fatty acid anion from a triglyceride or phospholipid.
Name the procedure to surgically repair the roof of the mouth. palatoplasty (-plasty = surgical repair, palat/o = palate / roof of mouth.)
The following ARE liver function tests. Serum Bilirubin, ALP (alkaline phosphatase), AST (SGOT), ALT (SGPT). ERCP (Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) is NOT a liver function test.
TEST which would demonstrate choledocolithiasis? (stones in the bile duct) Transhepatic cholangiography (trans- = through, hepatic = pertaining to the liver, chol = gallbladder, angi/o = vessels, graphy = record) X-Ray exam of the biliary system - after injection of contrast into the bile ducts (via needle into liver)
OPPOSITE of suffix -ectasis (= stretch, widen, dilate) -stenosis (tighten, stricture, narrowing)
Define the suffix -rrhea Flow, discharge
Give an example of "Anastomosis" (surgical connection between two parts, vessels, ducts, bowel segments) Cholecystojejunostomy (surgical connection between gallbladder & jejunum)
choledoch/o common bile duct (chole = gallbladder, doch/o = duct)
Forward protrusion of the eye. Proptosis = forward displacement or bulging, especially of the eye.
paracentesis Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen. (para = near, nearby, close to) (-centesis = puncture to drain accumulated fluids - puncture and aspiration of...)
twisting of part of the intestine upon itself is called ... ? Cecal volvulus (cecal = pertaining to the cecum / first part of the large intestine) (volvulus = twisted intestine)
Gingivectomy PERIDONTAL PROCEDURE to remove gingiva tissue (-ectomy = remove, resect)
Menorrhagia bursting forth, HEAVY menses. (men/o = mensruation, menses) (-rrhagia - bursting, heavy, excessive flow)
Laparoscopy Visual examination of the abdomen using a scope (-scopy = using scope, lapar/o = abdomen)
Sialolithiasis salivary stones (lithiasis = condition of presence of stones) (sial/o = salivary)
blepharoplasty surgical repair of the eyelid (-plasty = surgical repair, blephar/o = eyelid)
sphincterotomy incision of a ring of muscles (-tomy = incision, sphincter/o = sphincter)
cholecystectomy removal of the gallbladder (-ectomy = removal, chole = gallbladder, cyst/o = urinary bladder)
herniorrhaphy suture of a weakened muscular wall (rrhaphy = suture, herni/o = hernia)
cecostomy new opening of the first part of the colon to the outside of the body (-stomy = new opening, cec/o = cecum, first part of ascending large intestine)
gastroduodenal anastomosis pertaining to a new surgical connection between the stomach and the first part of the small intestine. (anastomosis = surgical connection of parts, -al = pertaining to, duoden/o = duodenum (first part of the small intestine), gastr/o = stomach)
gingivectomy removal of gum tissue (-ectomy = removal, gingiv/o = gum tissue
abdominal ultrasonography sound waves are used to image abdominal organs
liver biopsy percutaneous removal of liver tissue followed by microscopic analysis (biopsy is the study of life w/scope)
serum bilirubin measure of bile pigment in the blood (bilirubin is byproduct of the breakdown of red blood cells)
barium enema x-ray examination of the lower gastrointestinal tract (contrast is administered via the anus)
percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography contrast material is injected "through the liver" (transhepatic) and x-rays are taken (graphy) of bile vessels (choleangio).
stool culture feces are placed in a growth medium for bacterial analysis
CT of the abdomen transverse x-ray pictures of abdominal organs (CT = Computed Tomography)
nasogastric intubation tube inserted through the nose - into the stomach.
stool guaiac (hemoccult) test to reveal hidden blood in feces. Guaiac (gwee-ack), (hem/o = blood, -occult = hidden)
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Contrast is injected through an endoscope, x-rays taken of the pancreas and bile ducts. (-graphy = process of recording), (pancreat/o = pancreas), (angi/o = vessels), (chol/o = gallbladder)
upper gastro-intestional series x-ray images of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine after administering barium by mouth.
Liver Scan radioactive material is injected and image recorded of uptake in liver cells.

Chapter 6 Skin
Question Answer
A fat cell is a__ lipocyte
Structural protein found in skin and connective tissue collagen
A black pigment found in the epidermis melanin
The deepest region of the epidermis is the __ basal layer
The outermost layer of the epidermis, which consists of flattened, keratinized cells, is the stratum corneum
An oily substance secreted by sebaceous glands sebum
The middle layer of the skin is the dermis
A hard protein material found in the epidermis keratin
profuse sweating__ diaphoresis
Fungal infections of hands and feet __ dermamycosis
Burning sensation (pain) in skin causalgia
oil-producing organs sebaceous gland
Connective tissue protein collagen
middle, connective tissue layer of skin dermis
contains a dark pigment melanocyte
Melan/o black
Adip/o fat
Squam/o scale-like
Ichthy/o scaly, dry
Hidr/o sweat
Steat/o fat
Xer/o dry
discolored, flat lesion (freckle) macule
Groove or crack-like sore fissure
mushroom-like growth extending on a stalk polyp
Closed sac containing fluid or semisolid material cyst
open sore on the skin or mucous membrane ulcer
Solid elevation of the skin (pimple) papule
Solid, elevated lesion more than 1 cm in diameter node
A type of epitheleal cell in the ephidermis squamous cell
Cells that are constantly dividing Stratum Basale
discolored, flat lesion (freckle) macule
circumscribed collection of pus pustule
grove or crack-like sore fissure
Larger than 1 cm solid elevation of the skin nodule
word means covering Integument
Open sore or erosion of skin ulcer
Bluish discoloration of the skin cyanosis
Build-up of sebum and keratin in pores of the skin leading to papular and pustular eruptions acne
necrosis of skin tissue resulting from ischemia gangrene
Corium or true skin dermis
Chronic or acute inflammatory skin disease with erythematous, pustular, or papular lesions eczema
Cancerous tumor composed of melanocytes malignant melanoma
Cytoplasm of cells replaced y protein keratin
Itching pruritus
Pertaining to under a nail subungual
Chpt 15 Musculoskeletal System
Question Answer
1) Spongy, porous bone tissue is also called cancellous bone
2) Outward extension of the shoulder bone is the acromion
3) An opening or passage in bones where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave is a foramen
4) The projection of the temporal bone is the mastoid process
5) Knuckle-like process at the end of a bone is called a condyle
6) Mandible, vomer, maxilla, and zygomatic are all bones of the face
7) Occipital, sphenoid, frontal, temporal, and ethmoid are all bones of the cranium
8) The shaft of a long bone is called a(an) diaphysis
12) lateral curvature of the spinal column scoliosis
13) Vitamin D deficiency leads to softening of bone, which is called...? osteomalacia
14) pertaining to the upper arm bone humeral
15) The shoulder bone is the ...? scapula
17) Inflammation of bone and bone marrow osteomyelitis
18) clubfoot talipes (not tailpipes)
19) A splintered or crushed bone comminuted fracture
20) surgical repair of a joint arthroplasty
21) Condition of stiffening and immobility of a joint ankylosis
22) Chronic inflammation of bones and joints due to degenerative changes in cartilage chondromalacia
23) Inflammation of joints caused by excessive uric acid accumulation gouty arthritis
24) Malignant tumor of smooth muscle leiomyosarcoma
25) Wasting away (no development) of muscle atrophy
26) Name That Bone! -- Forms the forehead Frontal Bone
27) Name That Bone! -- Cheek bone Zygomatic Bone
28) Name That Bone! -- Upper jaw bone Maxilla
29) Name That Bone! -- forms the back and base of the skull Occipital bone
30) Name That Bone! -- Lower jaw bone Mandible
31) Name That Bone! -- forms the roof and upper side of the skull Parietal bone
32) Name That Bone! -- two paired bones at th corner of each eye Lacrimal bone
33) Name That Bone! -- Bone near the ear; connected to the lower jaw Temporal bone
34) Name That Condition! -- Lateral curve of the spine scoliosis
35) Formation of bone marrow myelopoiesis
36) Name That Condition! -- Abnormal anterior curvature of the spine Lordosis
37) Benign tumors arising from the bone surface Exostoses
38) Name That Condition! -- humpback Kyphosis
39) Name That Condition! -- Clubfoot talipes (not tailpipes)
40) Name That Condition! -- subluxation of a vertebra spondylolisthesis
9) Poor formation of bone osteodystrophy
10) slipping or subluxation of a vertebra spondylolisthesis
11) operation performed to relieve the symptoms of a slipped disk laminectomy
16) The smaller of the two lower legs bones is the fibula
41) Name that Abnormal Condition! -- An inherited condition in which bones of the arms and legs fail to grow normally because of a defect in cartliage and bone formation achondroplasia
42) Name that Abnormal Condition! -- Cystic mass arising from a tendon in the wrist Ganglion
43) Name that Abnormal Condition! -- Inflammation of joints caused by accumulation of Uric Acid Gouty Arthritis
44) Name that Abnormal Condition! -- Degenerative joint disease; chronic inflammation of bones and joings Osteoarthritis
45) Name that Abnormal Condition! -- Chronic, progressive arthritis with stiffening of joints, especially of the spine Ankylosing Spondylitis
46) Name that Abnormal Condition! -- Compression of the median nerve in the wrist Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
47) Name that Abnormal Condition! -- Abnormal swelling of a metatarsophalangeal joint bunion
48) Name that Abnormal Condition! -- Tick-borne bacterium causes this type of arthritis Lyme Disease
49) Name that Abnormal Condition! -- Chronic joint disease with inflamed and painful joints; marked by swollen and thickened synovial membranes rheumatoid arthritis
50) Name that Abnormal Condition! -- Chronic inflammatory disease affecting skin (red rash on face), kidneys, heart, and lungs as well as joints. Systemic LUPUS Erythematosus
51) Name that Abnormal Condition! -- Displacement of a bone from its joint dislocation
52) Bending a limb flexion
53) movement away from the midline abduction
54) movement toward the midline adduction
55) circular movement around an axis rotation
56) straightening out a limb extension
57) Turning the palm backward pronation

chapter 15 combining forms

Question Answer
calc/o , calci/o calcium
kyph/o humpback, hunch back (posterior curvature in the thoracic region)
lamin/o lamina ( part of the vertebral arch)
lord/o curve, swayback ( anterior curvature in the lumbar region)
lumb/o loins, lower back
myel/o bone marrow
orth/o straight
oste/o bone
scoli/o crooked, bent (lateral curvature)
spondyl/o vertebra (used to make words about conditions of the structure)
vertebr/o vertebra (used to describe the structure itself)
-blast embryonic or immature cell
-clast to break
-listhesis slipping
-malacia softening
-physis to grow
-porosis pore, passage
-tome instrument to cut
acetabul/o acetabulum (hip socket)
calcane/o calcaneus (heel)
carp/o carpals (wrist bones)
clavicul/o clavicle (collar bone)
cost/o ribs (true ribs, false ribs, and floating ribs)
crani/o cranium (skull)
femor/o femur ( thigh bone)
fibul/o fibula (smaller lower leg bone)
humer/o humerus (upper arm bone)
ili/o ilium ( upper part of pelvic bone)
ischi/o ischium (posterior part of pelvic bone)
malleol/o malleolus (process on each side of the ankle)
mandibul/o mandible (lower jaw bone)
fibr/o fiber
lei/o smooth
leiomyom/o smooth muscle
rhabd/o striated
rhabdmy/o striated muscle
ton/o tone or tension
myocardi/o heart muscle
synovi/o synovium, tendon sheath
burs/o bursa; fluid filled sac
tens/o stretch, tension
maxill/o maxilla (upper jaw bone)
metacarp/o metacarpals (hand bones)
metatars/o metatarsals (foot bones)
olecran/o olecranon (elbow)
patell/o patella (knee cap)
pelv/i pelvis (hipbone)
perone/o fibula (thin lower leg bone)
phalang/o phalanges (finger and toes)
pub/o pubis (anterior part of the pelvic bone)
radi/o radius (lower arm bone-thumb side)
scapul/o scapula (shoulder blade)
stern/o sternum (breast bone)
tars/o tarsals (bones of hind foot)
tibi/o tibia (shin bone-"t" for thicker bone)
uln/o ulna ( lower arm bone-little finger side)
ankyl/o stiff
arthr/o joint
articul/o joint
burs/o bursa; fluid filled sac
chondr/o cartilage
fasci/o fascia ( forms sheaths enveloping muscles)
my/o muscle
myocardi/o heart muscle
myos/o muscle
plant/o sole of the foot
rhabdomy/o skeletal (striated muscle connected to bones)
-anthenia lack of strength
-trophy development, nourishment
ab- away from
ad- toward
dorsi- back
poly- many, much
Ch 7 Urinary System
Question Answer
Trigone portion of the urinary bladder (triangular shaped)
Glomerular pertaining to small balls of capillaries in the kidney
Meatal stenosis Narrowing of the urethral opening to the outside of the body
(an) Electrolyte Sodium (also, potassium and chloride)
Creatinine a Nitrogenous waste
pyel/o renal pelvis
anuria "no urine" a term that means no urine production.
perivesical surrounding the urinary bladder (-al = pertaining to, vesic/o = urinary bladder, peri- = surrounding)
uremia azotemia (-emia = abnormal blood condition, -azot/o = nitrogen) of excess urea (or other nitrogenous wastes) in the blood
name of procedure/record which is an X-Ray of the urinary tract KUB - Kidney, Ureter, Bladder (also known as "plain film")
Oliguria scanty urine (-uria = urine, olig/o = scanty)
Hernia of the tube connecting the kidney and urinary bladder ureterocele (-cele = hernia, urtere/o = tubes connecting kidney to bladder)
Hemodialysis Artificial Kidney Machine (thorough and complete separation of wastes from the blood via mechanical filtration.)
nephrolithotomy incision to remove a renal calculus (stone) (-tomy = incision, nephr/o = kidney, lith/o = stone)
albuminuria protein in the urine (-uria = urine, albumin/o = protein)
pyuria pus in the urine - for example, by renal abscess. (-uria = urine, py/o = pus)
Alkaline Basic - pertaining to a base. Alkaline is capable of neutralizing acids. Think: Alka-Seltzer plop plop fizz fizz! (pH greater than 7.0)
Nephrotic Syndrome A group of symptoms marked by edema, proteinuria, and hypoalbuminemia
high levels of ketones in the blood can lead to acidosis (accumulation of acid or depletion of the alkaline reserves, can be deadly.)
Wilms tumor CHILDHOOD renal carcinoma (cancer of the kidney in childhood)
Urinary retention urine is retained in the bladder
What is the BUN test? (Blood, Urea, Nitrogen) measures urea levels in blood - test for Uremia.
Nephrosclerosis Hardening of blood vessels in the kidney (-sclerosis = hardening, nephr/o = kidney)
ESWL (Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Shock waves crush urinary tract stones (test is performed while patient is immersed in a body of water)
glycosuria sugar in the urine; a symptom of diabetes mellitus (-ia = condition, ur/o = urine, glyc/o = sugar)
hematuria color of the urine is smoky red owing to presence of blood (-ia = condition, ur/o = urine, hem/o = blood)
pyuria urine is turbid (cloudy) owing to presence of WBC's (white blood cells) and pus. (-uria = urination, urine condition, (py/o = pus)
sediment abnormal particles are present in urine - cells, bacteria, casts
pH (test) Urine test that reflects the acidity or alkalinity of urine. Neutral pH is 7.0. Alkaline is greater than 7.0, Acidic is below 7.0
bilirubinuria Dark pigment accumulates in urine as a result of liver disease (bilirubin is the pigment)
ketonuria high levels of acids and acetones accumulate in urine
leaky glomeruli can produce this accumulation of albumin in urine proteinuria
high blood presure that is idiopathic ESSENTIAL hypertension (idiopathic = cause is unknown)
high blood pressure cased by kidney disease SECONDARY hypertension (cause is known)
malignant tumor of the kidney Renal Cell Carcinoma (renal cell = kidney)
a tube for withdrawing or giving fluid catheter
swelling, fluid in tissues edema
inadequate secretion of ADH diabetes INSIPIDUS - "inadequate secretion or resistance of the kidney to the action of AntiDiuretic Hormone - ADH) - With diabetes insipidus, kidneys resist antidiuretics
Diabetes Mellitus Inadequate secretion or improper utilization of INSULIN. Major signs are glycosuria, hyperglycemia, plyuria, polydipsia. Mellitus means sweet, reflection the content of the urine. Diabetes Mellitus is commonly known as "Diabetes"
stricture narrowed.
Chpt 16 Skin
Question Answer
1) A type of epithelial cell in the epidermis is a ...? squamous cell
2) dermis is the ...? middle layer of skin
3) a hard protein material found in the epidermis keratin
4) structural protein found in skin and connective tissues collagen
5) Xer/o dry
6) pertaining to "under a nail" subungual
7) what is the combining form meaning "skin" cutane/o
8) Absence of pigment in skin Albinism
9) Inflammation of the soft tissue around a nail paronychia (for some reason this is not an -itis) but do remember that this inflammation is ParonyCHIA
10) profuse sweating diaphoresis
11) fungal infection trichomycosis (myco = fungus)
12) fatty mass within a sebaceous gland steatoma (steat/o = fatty, -oma = tumor/mass)
13) a wheal is a/an: hive
14) bullae large blisters
15) pustule small abscess
16) itching pruritus - note the spelling "U" at the end.
17) keloid thickened scar
18) inflammatory disease of the joints and collagen of the skin; can affect other organs of the body systemic lupus erythematosus
19) moles that can develop into malignant melanoma dysplastic nevi (oddly shaped moles that morph or change colors)
20) bed sore; break in continuity of skin decubitus ulcer
21) chronic recurrent dermatosis with silvery gray scales covering red patches in skin psoriasis
22) a dermatomycosis tinea (ringworm) fungal infection. myco - fungus.
23) white patches of a nucous membrane of tongue or cheek leukoplakia
24) connective tissue in the skin hardens scleroderma
25) layers of growth are removed and examined microscopically in a procedure called...? Mohs surgery
26) Name That Cutaneous Lesion! -- circumscribed collection of clear fluid (blister) vesicle
27) Name That Cutaneous Lesion! -- smooth, slightly elevated edematous area (hive) wheal
28) Name That Cutaneous Lesion! -- discolored, flat lesion (freckle) macule
29) Name That Cutaneous Lesion! -- groove or crack-like sore fissure
30) Name That Cutaneous Lesion! -- mushroom-like growth extending from the surface of a mucous membrane polyp
31) Name That Cutaneous Lesion! -- circumscribed collection of pus pustule
32) Name That Cutaneous Lesion! -- closed sac containing fluid or semi-solid material cyst
33) Name That Cutaneous Lesion! -- open sore or erosion of skin ulcer
34) Name That Cutaneous Lesion! -- solid elevation of the skin (pimple) papule
35) Name That Cutaneous Lesion! -- larger than 1 cm solid elevation of the skin nodule
36) Name the Skin Condition! -- build up of sebum and keratin in pores of the skin leading to papular and pustular eruptions acne
37) Name the Skin Condition! -- fungal skin infection tinea (ringworm) is a fungual infection
38) Name the Skin Condition! -- chronic hardening and shrinking of connective tissue scleroderma
39) Name the Skin Condition! -- bedsore decubitis ulcer
40) Name the Skin Condition! -- necrosis of skin tissue resulting from ischemia gangrene
41) Name That Skin Conditon! -- contagious, infectious pyoderma impetigo
42) Name the Skin Condition! -- chronic, recurrent dermatosis marked by silvery gray scales covering red patches on the skin psoriasis
43) Name the Skin Condition! -- cancerous tumor composed of melanocytes malignant melanoma
44) Name the Skin Condition! -- widespread inflammatory disease of joints and collagen of the skin with "butterfly" rash on the face Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
45) Name the Skin Condition! -- chronic or acute inflammatory skin disease with erythematous, pustular, or papular lesions eczema
Ch 8 Female Reproductive System
Question Answer
The OVUM is the female gamete
pregnancy (also called) gestation
cul-de-sac area between the uterus and the rectum
the labia majora is part of the ... vulva
adnexa uteri ovaries and fallopian tubes
ovarian sac corpus luteum
respiratory disorder in the neonate Hyaline membrane disease
episiotomy incision of the perineum during childbirth
fingerlike ends of the fallopian tubes are called fimbriae
the study and treatment of newborns is called Neonatology
sac containing the egg is the Graafian follicle / ovarian follicle
FSH - Follicle Stimulating Hormone is produced by an endocrine gland located below the brain
removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries bilateral salpiingo-oophorectomy
abrputio placentae premature separation of the placenta
medical abbreviation describing ... a woman who has had 3 miscarriages and 2 live births. grav. 5, para 2 (grav. = pregnancy, para = births)
endometrial carcinoma may be detected by D & C (dilation and cutterage)
pelvic exenteration removal of internal and reproductive organs in the region of the hip (pelvis)
physician's effort to turn the fetus during delivery cephalic version (version = act of turning)
abnormal condition of breast tissues in males gynecomastia
metrorrhagia excessive flow of blood from the uterus between menstrual periods
dystocia painful labor and delivery
menarche first menstrual period (men/o = menses, -arche = first)
Pain in LLQ-RLQ, vaginal discharge, dysmenorrhea, gonococcal infection likely incdicates... ? PID - Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
pieces of the inner lining of the uterus are ectopic endometriosis
leukorrhea is associated with... ? Cervicitis
inner lining of the uterus endometrium
nipple of the breast mammary papilla
innermost membrane around the developing embryo amnion
dark-pigmented area around the breast nipple areola
external genitalia of female vulva (perineum, labia, hymen, clitoris)
area between the anus and vagina in females perineum
female gonads; producing ova and hormones ovaries
blood-vessel-filled organ that develops during pregnancy placenta
uterine tubes fallopian tubes
organ of sensitive erectile tissue in females clitoris
finger-like ends of the fallopian tube fimbriae
lower neck-like portion of the uterus cervix
malignant tumor of the pregnant uterus choriocarcinoma
condition during pregnancy, hypertension, proteinuria, edema, and uremia preeclampsia
malignant condition of the inner lining of the uterus endometrial carcinoma
malignant tumor, often of the ovary cystadenocarcinoma
displaced placenta; implantation in lower region of uterus placenta previa
uterine tissue is located outside the uterus endometriosis
cancerous tumor cells are localized in a small carea carcinoma in situ (confined to one site)
premature separation of a normally implanted placenta abruptio placentae
Chapter 17
Question Answer
1) Fiberous layer of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eye and is continuous with the white of th eyes Cornea
2) Yellowish region in the retina; contains the fovea centralis Macula lutea
3) What eye structure is transparent, biconvex, and focuses light on the retina? Lens
4) Place where optic nerve fibers cross in the brain Optic chiasma
5) Adjustment of the lens by the ciliary body Accommodation (normal adjustment of the eye to focus)
6) Photosensitive receptor cells of the retina; make the perception of color possible Rods
7) The combining for for cornea is? Kerat/o
8) The combining form for lens is? Phak/o
9) The meaning of palpebr/o is? eyelid (also blephar/o)
10) An eye inflammation commonly calld "pinkeye is" Conjunctivitis
11) Impairment of vision due to old age Presbyopia
Myopia (is which form of sightedness?) Nearsightedness
13) Defective curvature of the eye Astigmatism
14) Glaucoma is primarily diagnosed by Tonometry
15) A blind spot; area of depressed vision surrounded by an area of normal vision Scotoma (darkness)
16) Macular degeneration produces loss of central vision
17) Small hard mass on the eyelid; formed from a sebaceious gland enlargement: Chalazion
18) Snail shaped, spirally wound tube in the inner ear is the cochlea
19) Channel between the middle ear and the nasopharynx Eustachian tube
20) Myring/o means tympanic membrane (myears are myringing!)
21) Bacterial infection of the middle ear Suppurative otitis media
22) Tinnitus ringing in the ears
23) Visual examination of the ear Otoscopy
24) nerve deafness occurring with aging presbycusis
25) Fungal infection of the ear otomycosis (myc/o = fungus)
26) Contains sensitive cells (rods and cones) that transmit light energy to nervous impulses RETINA
27) Contains muscles that control the shape of the lens and secrete aqueous humor CILIARY BODY
28) Transparent body behind the iris and in front of the vitreous humor; refracts light rays to bring them into focus on the retina LENS
29) Jelly-like material behind the lens; helps to maintain the shape of the eyeball VITREOUS HUMOR
30) Dark center of the eye through which light rays enter PUPIL
31) Vascular layer of the eyeball that is continuous with the iris CHOROID
32) Delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior of the eyeball CONJUNCTIVA
33) Fibrous layer of clear tissues that extends over the anterior portion of the eyeball CORNEA
34) Colored portion of the eye; surrounds the pupil IRIS
35) Tough, white outer coat of the eyeball SCLERA
36) inflammation of the vascular layer of the eye uveitis
37) Condition of dry eyes xerophthalmia
38) Outward deviation of the eye exotropia (exo - outward)
39) Inward deviation of the eye esotropia (eso - inward)
40) Absence of the lens of the eye aphakia
41) absence of vision in half of the visual field hemianopsia (hemi = half)
42) abnormal deviations of the eye strabismus
43) Increased intraocular pressure results in retinal and optic nerve damage Glaucoma
44) Localized purulent infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid hordeolum (stye)
45) Clouding of the lens causes decreased vision cataract
46) Retinal micoaneurysms, hemorrhages occur secondary to an endorcrine condition diabetic retinopathy
47) Deterioration of the macula lutea of the retina macular degeneration



Question Answer
aque/o water
blephar/o eyelid
conjunctiv/o conjunctiva
cor/o pupil
corne/o cornea
cycl/o ciliary body or muscle of the eye
dacry/o tears, tear duct
ir/o, irid/o iris
kerat/o cornea
lacrim/o tears
ocul/o eye
ophthalm/o eye
opt/o, optic/o eye,vision
palpebr/o eyelid
papill/o optic disc; nipple-like
phac/o, phak/o lens of the eye
pupill/o pupil
retin/o retina
scler/o sclera (white of the eye)
uve/o uvea; vascular layer of the eye (iris,ciliary body,and choroid)
vitre/o glassy
ambly/o dull, dim
dipl/o double
glauc/o gray
mi/o smaller, less
mydr/o widen, enlarge
nyct/o night
phot/o light
presby/o old age
scot/o darkness
xer/o dry
-opia vision
-opsia vision
-tropia to turn
acous/o hearing
audi/o hearing; the sense of hearing
audit/o hearing
aur/o, auricul/o ear
cochle/o cochlea
mastoid/o mastoid process
myring/o eardrum, tympanic membrane
ossicul/o ossicle
ot/o ear
salping/o eustachian tube, auditory tube
staped/o stapes (third bone of the middle ear)
tympan/o eardrum, tympanic membrane
vestibul/o vestibule
-acusis or -cusis hearing
-meter instrument to measure
-otia ear condition Question Answer
aden/o gland
adren/o adrenal glands
adrenal/o adrenal glands
gonad/o sex glands
pancreat/o pancreas
parathyroid/o parathyroid gland
pituitar/o pituitary gland, hypophysis
thyr/o thyroid gland
thyroid/o thyroid gland
andr/o male
calc/o, calci/o calcium
cortic/o cortex, outer region
crin/o secrete
dips/o third
estr/o female
gluc/o sugar
glyc/o sugar
home/o sameness
hormon/o hormone
kal/i potassium (an electrolyte)
lact/o milk
myx/o mucus
natr/o sodium (an electrolyte)
phys/o growing
somat/o body
ster/o solid structure
toc/o childbirth
toxic/o position
ur/o urine
-agon assemble, gather together
-emia blood condition
-in, -ine a substance
-tropin stimulating the function of (to turn or act on)
-uria urine condition
eu- good, normal
hyper- excessive; above
hypo- deficient; below; under; less than normal
oxy- rapid, sharp, acid
pan- all
tetra- four
tri- three
COMBINING FORMS


acous/o hearing
ambly/o dull, dim
aque/o water
audi/o hearing
audit/o hearing
aur/o ear

NG FORMS


auricul/o ear
blephar/o eyelid
conjunctiv/o conjunctiva
cor/o pupil
corne/o cornea
cycl/o ciliary body

COMBINING FORMS


dacry/o tears
dipl/o double
glauc/o gray
ir/o iris
irid/o iris
kerat/o cornea
lacrim/o tears

COMBINING FORMS


mastoid/o mastoid process
mi/o smaller, less
mydr/o widen, enlarge
myring/o eardrum
nyct/o night
ocul/o eye

COMBINING FORMS


ophthalm/o eye
opt/o eye
optic/o eye
ossicul/o ossicle
palpebr/o eyelid
papill/o optic disc
phac/o lens of the eye
COMBINING FORMS


phak/o lens of the eye
phot/o light
presby/o old age
pupill/o pupil
retin/o retina
salpin/o Eustachian tube
scler/o sclera (white of eye

COMBINING FORMS


scot/o darkness
staped/o stapes
tympan/o eardrum
uve/o uvea
vestibul/o vestibule
vitre/o glassy
xer/o dry

SUFFIXES


-acusis hearing
-cusis hearing
-meter instrument for measure
-metry process of measurement
-opia vision

SUFFIXES


-opsia vision
-otia ear condition
-phobia fear
-plegic paralysis; palsy
-tropia to turn Introduction Endocrine System (cont'd)
ENDOCRINE glands—
Secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream

EXOCRINE glands—
Send chemical substances (tears, sweat, milk, saliva) via ducts to the
QUICK QUIZ:

What is the soft, jellylike material behind the lens in the vitreous chamber; helps maintain the shape of the eyeball?
sclera
vitreous humor
aqueous humor
fovea centralis

Correct answer is B: vitreous humor Endocrine Glands

thyroid gland
parathyroid glands (four glands)
adrenal glands (one pair)
pancreas (islets of Langerhans)
pituitary gland

ovaries (one pair)
testes (one pair)
pineal gland
thymus gland
Terminology

STRUCTURES AND FLUIDS

aque/o water
blephar/o eyelid
conjunctiv/o conjunctiva
cor/o pupil
corne/o cornea
cycl/o ciliary body

STRUCTURES AND FLUIDS

dacry/o tears, tear duct
ir/o iris
irid/o iris
kerat/o cornea
lacrim/o tears
ocul/o eye

STRUCTURES AND FLUIDS

ophthalm/o eye
opt/o eye, vision
optic/o eye, vision
palpebr/o eyelid
papill/o optic disc
phac/o lens of the eye

STRUCTURES AND FLUIDS

phak/o lens of the eye
pupill/o pupil
retin/o retina
scler/o sclera (white of the eye)
uve/o uvea
vitre/o glassy

CONDITIONS

ambly/o dull, dim
dipl/o double
glauc/o gray
mi/o smaller, less
mydr/o widen, enlarge
nyct/o night

CONDITIONS

phot/o light
presby/o old age
scot/o darkness
xer/o dry

CONDITIONS

-opia vision
-opsia vision
-tropia to turn Thyroid Function

There are two hormones:
thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine (T4)
triiodothyronine (T3).
Thyroid hormones aid cells in their uptake of oxygen and regulate metabolic rate.
Calcitonin: stimulates calcium to leave the blood and enter the bone.
QUICK QUIZ:

Which term means inflammation of the eyelid?

ophthalmoplegia
keratitis
blepharitis
blepharoptosis

Correct Answer is C: blepharitis
rrors of Refraction

Astigmatism: defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye
Hyperopia: farsightedness
Myopia: nearsightedness
Presbyopia: impairment of vision due to old age reducing lens accommodation Adrenal Glands: Location and Structure

Each gland has two parts

an outer portion, the adrenal cortex
Secretes corticosteriods or steriods, chemicals derived from cholesterol

an inner portion, adrenal medulla
Secretes catecholamines
chemicals derived from amino acids
Abnormal Conditions (cont'd)

Chalazion: small, hard, cystic mass on eyelid; formed as a result of chronic inflammation of sebaceous gland along margin of eyelid

Diabetic retinopathy - retinal effects caused by diabetes mellitus include:
microaneurysms
hemorrhages
dilation of retinal veins
neovascularization Function: Adrenal Cortex Secretes

Glucocorticoids: influence metabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins (cortisol) and are anti-inflammatory (cortisone).
Influences—SUGAR

Mineralocorticoids: regulate electrolytes
Aldosterone: reabsorption of sodium/excretion of potassium. Influences—SALT

Gonadocorticoids: androgens and estrogens. Influences—SEX
Hordeolum (stye): staph infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid
Macular degeneration: progressive damage to the macular of the retina
Nystagmus: repetitive rhythmic movements of one or both eyes.
Strabismus: abnormal deviation of the eye Function Adrenal Medulla Secretes

Two types of catecholamine hormones

Epinephrine (adrenaline): increases heart rate and blood pressure, dilates bronchial tubes, releases glucose from storage.

Norepinephrine (noradrenaline): constricts vessels to raise blood pressure.

Both are sympathomimetic agents.
Abnormal Conditions (cont'd)

Retinal detachment: two layers of the retina separate from each other
Photopsia: bright flashes of light
Floaters: vitreous clumps of retina
Scleral buckle: belt to buckle retina to sclera
Pneumatic retinopexy: gas bubble injected in vitreous cavity to help reattach retina Pancreas Function
Endocrine function
islets of Langerhans produce:
Insulin: promotes movement of glucose into cells and promotes storage as glycogen
Glucagon: promotes movement of glucose into the blood by breaking down
Diagnostic Procedures

Fluorescein angiography: dye injection to examine blood flow in the retina
Ophthalmoscopy: visual examination of eye interior through dilated pupil
Slit lamp microscopy: magnified view of expanded number of eye structures Pituitary Gland

Pea-sized gland in depression of skull (sella turcica) also called the hypophysis
Anterior lobe (adenohypophysis)
Posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)
Hypothalamus controls secretions of the pituitary via releasing factors (hormones)
Treatment

Enucleation: removal of entire eyeball
Laser photocoagulation: Argon laser creates inflammatory reaction that seals retinal tears and leaky blood vessels
LASIK: laser to correct errors of refraction by sculpting the cornea
Treatment (cont'd)

Phacoemulsification: ultrasound to break up lens for aspiration for cataract removal
Vitrectomy: removal of vitreous and replacing it with a clear solution Pituitary Function

Anterior Pituitary
Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH)
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; thyrotropin)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Gonadotropic hormones (FSH, LH)
Prolactin (PRL)

Posterior pituitary: stores and releases hormones synthesized in the hypothalamus
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH; vasopressin)
Oxytocin (OT)
The Ear

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Outer ear receives sound waves.
Sound waves travel to middle ear.
Sound vibrations reach inner ear (labyrinth). Male
Testes
Hormone: testosterone,Maintains germ cell formation and secondary sexual characteristics
Female

Ovaries
Hormones: estrogen and progesterone
Maintains menstrual cycle, release of ovum, secondary sexual characteristics, preparation of uterus for pregnancy
Ear Anatomy and Physiology

Outer ear
Pinna or auricle: projecting flap
External auditory meatus (auditory canal)

Middle ear
Tympanic membrane (eardrum)
Malleus
Incus
Stapes
Oval window

Inner ear: labyrinth
Cochlea
Auditory nerve fibers

Balance and equilibrium
Vestibule
Semicircular canals QUICK QUIZ:
The outer section of each adrenal gland is the ....

adrenal medulla
adrenal cortex
adrenaline
adrenocorticotropic hormone

Correct answer is B: adrenal cortex
What is the snail-shaped, spirally wound tube in the inner ear that contains hearing-sensitive receptor cells?

pinna
auricle
ossicle
cochlea

Correct answer is D: cochlea QUICK QUIZ: (cont'd)

Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates ovulation in females and testosterone secretion in males....
luteinizing hormone (LH)
estrodoil
oxytocin
prolactin

Correct answer is A: luteinizing hormone (LH).
Terminology

COMBINING FORMS

acous/o hearing
audi/o hearing
audit/o hearing
aur/o ear
auricul/o ear
cochle/o cochlea
mastoid/o mastoid process

COMBINING FORMS

myring/o eardrum, tympanic membrane
ossicul/o ossicle
ot/o ear
salping/o Eustachian tube
staped/o stapes
tyman/o eardrum, tympanic membrane
vestibul/o vestibule

SUFFIXES

-acusis or-cusis hearing
-meter instrument for measure
-otia ear condition Combining Forms, Suffixes, Prefixes, and Terminology

GLANDS

aden/o gland
adren/o adrenal glands
adrenal/o adrenal glands
gonad/o sex glands (ovaries, testes)
pancreat/o pancreas
parathyroid/o parathyroid gland

GLANDS

pituitar/o pituitary gland; hypophysis
thyr/o thyroid gland
thyroid/o thyroid gland

RELATED FORMS

andr/o male
calc/o, calici/o calcium
cortic/o cortex, outer region
crin/o secrete
dips/o thirst
estr/o female
gluc/o, glyc/o sugar

GLANDS

home/o sameness
hormon/o hormone
kal/I potassium (an electrolyte)
lact/o milk
myx/o mucus
natr/o sodium (an electrolyte)

GLANDS

phys/o growing
somat/o body
ster/o solid structure
toc/o childbirth
toxic/o position
ur/o urine

SUFFIXES

-agon assemble, gather together
-emia blood condition
-in, -ine a substance
-tropin stimulating the function of
-uria urine condition

PREFIXES

eu- good, normal
hyper- excessive, above
hypo- deficient, below
oxy- rapid, sharp, acid
pan- all
tetra- four
tri three
Symptoms and Pathologic Conditions

Acoustic neuroma: benign tumor arising from 8th cranial nerve, causes tinnitus, vertigo, dizziness, and decreased hearing
Cholesteatoma: skin cells and cholesterol in a sac in the middle ear (cyst-like mass associated with chronic infections)
Deafness: loss of ability to hear

Ménière disease: disorder of labyrinth with elevated endolymph pressure in cochlea and semicircular canals causing tinnitus, sensitivity to sound, progressive hearing loss, headache, nausea, and vertigo
Otitis media: inflammation of middle ear
Otosclerosis: hardening of bony tissue in labyrinth

Tinnitus: sensation of noises (ringing, buzzing, whistling, booming) in ears
Vertigo: sensation of irregular motion (whirling) from disease of inner ear or nerve carrying messages from semicircular canals
Clinical Procedures

Audiometry: audiometer is an electric device to determine hearing loss by frequency
Cochlear implant: Surgically implanted device allowing sensorineural hearing-impaired persons to understand speech
Ear thermometry: body temperature measured with infrared radiation from the eardrum

Otoscopy: visual examination of ear with small, hand-held scope
Tuning fork test
Rinne: hearing test using a vibrating fork against the mastoid bone (bone conduction) and in front of the auditory meatus (air conduction)
Weber: fork is placed on the center of the forehead; normal hearing has equal loudness in both ears.
Ch 9 Male Reproductive System
Question Answer
The male gonad testis
a gland below the bladder and surrounding the urethra prostate
tissue that produces sperm cells seminiferous tubules
hair-like tail region of the sperm is called the ? flagellum
tube that leads from the epididymis to the urethra vas deferens
foreskin, aka..? prepuce
male castration would result from which type of operation? bilateral orchiectomy (removal of both testes)
inflammation of the glans penis balanitis
a chancre is the primary lesion in which of disease conditon? syphilis
testosterone is an ? androgen
testosterone is produced by interstitial cells of the testes (interstitial cells produce cells pertinent to the organ of function)
medical term for the condition of undescended testicles cryptorchism (crypt means hidden)
benign prostatic hyperplasia is characterized by overgrowth of glandular tissue
seminoma is a type of ? testicular cancer
sterilization procedure (in males) vasectomy
the sac containing the male gonad scrotum
congenital condition of the male urethra hypospadias
parenchymal tissue in the testes seminiferous tubules (tissue that is essential to the function of a particular organ)
congenital absence of a testicle anorchism
a "spermolytic" stubstance would... ? destroy sperm cells
orchiopexy fixation of an undescended testicle (performed to bring undescended testes into the scrotum)
swollen, twisted veins (varicies) near the testes varicocele
nongonococcal urethritis is most often called by ? (hint: "nongonococcal" - eliminates gonorrhea) chlamydial infection
benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH is not an STI BPH is not an STI
to tie off or bind ligation
removal of a piece of vas deferens vasectomy
orchiectomy castration
removal of the prepuce circumcision
destruction of tissue by freezing cryosurgery
pus-filled purulent
test of fertility (reproductive ability) semen analysis
ejection of sperm and fluid from the ruethra ejaculation
treatment for condition of carcinoma of the prostate gland radical prostatectomy (removes entire prostate)
treatment for condition of cryptorchism failure to descend, requires orchiopexy to move testes to scrotum)
procedure to cause sterilization (hormones remain) vasectomy
benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH surgical treatment by transurethral resection of the prostate
reversal of sterilization vasovasostomy
treatment by removal of swollen twisted veins near the testes is called a... ? varicocelectomy
treatment for condition of abnormal fluid collection in scrotum requires a hydrocelectomy
treatment for seminoma malignant neoplasm of the testis, requires bilateral orchiectomy (removal of both testes)
treatment for condition of phimosis tight foreskin, requires circumcision to correct
Chapter 18

Question Answer
35) Develops and maintains female sex characteristics Estradiol
34) Helps transport glucose to cells and decreases blood sugar Insulin
33) Increases blood sugar Cortisol
32) Stimulates secretion of hormons from adrenal cortex ACTH
31) Increases reabsorption of sodium by kidney tubules aldosterone
30) Raises blood clacium parathyroid hormone
29) increases metabolism in body cells thyroxine
28) stimulates water reabsorption by kidney tubules; decreases urine ADH
27) Promotes growth and maintainence of male sex characteristics testosterone
26) Sympathomimetic; elevates heart rate, blood pressure epinephrine
25) Administration of a radioactive compound and visualization with a scanner to detect tumors or nodules Thyroid Scan (which is a description of a thyroid scan)
24) Defective cartliage formation that affects bone growth Achondroplasia (which is a description of achondroplasia)
23) secondary complications of diabetes mellitus neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy are associated with diabetes mellitus
22) Characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus (insulin production) Little or no insulin is produced
21) Natr/o is the combining form of what substance? SODIUM
20) Tetany is? constant muscle contraction
19) Exophthalmos is a symptom of which endocrine disorder? Graves Disease
18) Enlargement of the thyroid gland Goiter
17) Thyrotoxicosis; hyper secretion of the thyroid gland Graves Disease
16) Post-puberty hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland Acromegaly (post puberty)
15) Advanced hypothroidism in adulthood Myxedema
14) A group of symptoms produced by excess of cortisol from the adrenal cortex Cushing Syndrome
13) Insulin deficiency or resistance leads to hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis Diabetes Mellitus
12) Kali/ is the combining form for which substance? Potassium (K)
11) Excessive deelopment of mammary tissue in a male Gynecomastia
10) Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland Gonadotropins (description of)
9) hormone secreted by the ovary and adrenal cortex? Estrogen
8) Element that is present in thyroxine IODINE
7) An example of an electrolyte Sodium (also Potassium and Chloride)
6) which hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete hormones? Cortisone
5) Which hormone regulates calcium in the blood and bones? Parathyroid hormone
4) Which hormone is secreted by the pancreas? INSULIN
3) Which gland secretes cortisol? Adrenal cortex
2) Another name for the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland Adenohypophysis
1) which gland secretes thyroxine? Thyroid gland

Question Answer
aden/o gland
adren/o adrenal glands
adrenal/o adrenal glands
gonad/o sex glands
pancreat/o pancreas
parathyroid/o parathyroid gland
pituitar/o pituitary gland, hypophysis
thyr/o thyroid gland
thyroid/o thyroid gland
andr/o male
calc/o, calci/o calcium
cortic/o cortex, outer region
crin/o secrete
dips/o third
estr/o female
gluc/o sugar
glyc/o sugar
home/o sameness
hormon/o hormone
kal/i potassium (an electrolyte)
lact/o milk
myx/o mucus
natr/o sodium (an electrolyte)
phys/o growing
somat/o body
ster/o solid structure
toc/o childbirth
toxic/o position
ur/o urine
-agon assemble, gather together
-emia blood condition
-in, -ine a substance
-tropin stimulating the function of (to turn or act on)
-uria urine condition
eu- good, normal
hyper- excessive; above
hypo- deficient; below; under; less than normal
oxy- rapid, sharp, acid
pan- all
tetra- four
tri- three
COMBINING FORMS


acous/o hearing
ambly/o dull, dim
aque/o water
audi/o hearing
audit/o hearing
aur/o ear

NG FORMS


auricul/o ear
blephar/o eyelid
conjunctiv/o conjunctiva
cor/o pupil
corne/o cornea
cycl/o ciliary body

COMBINING FORMS


dacry/o tears
dipl/o double
glauc/o gray
ir/o iris
irid/o iris
kerat/o cornea
lacrim/o tears

COMBINING FORMS


mastoid/o mastoid process
mi/o smaller, less
mydr/o widen, enlarge
myring/o eardrum
nyct/o night
ocul/o eye

COMBINING FORMS


ophthalm/o eye
opt/o eye
optic/o eye
ossicul/o ossicle
palpebr/o eyelid
papill/o optic disc
phac/o lens of the eye
COMBINING FORMS


phak/o lens of the eye
phot/o light
presby/o old age
pupill/o pupil
retin/o retina
salpin/o Eustachian tube
scler/o sclera (white of eye

COMBINING FORMS


scot/o darkness
staped/o stapes
tympan/o eardrum
uve/o uvea
vestibul/o vestibule
vitre/o glassy
xer/o dry

SUFFIXES


-acusis hearing
-cusis hearing
-meter instrument for measure
-metry process of measurement
-opia vision

SUFFIXES


-opsia vision
-otia ear condition
-phobia fear
-plegic paralysis; palsy
-tropia to turn Introduction Endocrine System (cont'd)
ENDOCRINE glands—
Secrete their hormones directly into the bloodstream

EXOCRINE glands—
Send chemical substances (tears, sweat, milk, saliva) via ducts to the
QUICK QUIZ:

What is the soft, jellylike material behind the lens in the vitreous chamber; helps maintain the shape of the eyeball?
sclera
vitreous humor
aqueous humor
fovea centralis

Correct answer is B: vitreous humor Endocrine Glands

thyroid gland
parathyroid glands (four glands)
adrenal glands (one pair)
pancreas (islets of Langerhans)
pituitary gland

ovaries (one pair)
testes (one pair)
pineal gland
thymus gland
Terminology

STRUCTURES AND FLUIDS

aque/o water
blephar/o eyelid
conjunctiv/o conjunctiva
cor/o pupil
corne/o cornea
cycl/o ciliary body

STRUCTURES AND FLUIDS

dacry/o tears, tear duct
ir/o iris
irid/o iris
kerat/o cornea
lacrim/o tears
ocul/o eye

STRUCTURES AND FLUIDS

ophthalm/o eye
opt/o eye, vision
optic/o eye, vision
palpebr/o eyelid
papill/o optic disc
phac/o lens of the eye

STRUCTURES AND FLUIDS

phak/o lens of the eye
pupill/o pupil
retin/o retina
scler/o sclera (white of the eye)
uve/o uvea
vitre/o glassy

CONDITIONS

ambly/o dull, dim
dipl/o double
glauc/o gray
mi/o smaller, less
mydr/o widen, enlarge
nyct/o night

CONDITIONS

phot/o light
presby/o old age
scot/o darkness
xer/o dry

CONDITIONS

-opia vision
-opsia vision
-tropia to turn Thyroid Function

There are two hormones:
thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine (T4)
triiodothyronine (T3).
Thyroid hormones aid cells in their uptake of oxygen and regulate metabolic rate.
Calcitonin: stimulates calcium to leave the blood and enter the bone.
QUICK QUIZ:

Which term means inflammation of the eyelid?

ophthalmoplegia
keratitis
blepharitis
blepharoptosis

Correct Answer is C: blepharitis Parathyroid Function

Parathyroid hormone (PTH): causes calcium to mobilize from bones into the bloodstream
Errors of Refraction

Astigmatism: defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye
Hyperopia: farsightedness
Myopia: nearsightedness
Presbyopia: impairment of vision due to old age reducing lens accommodation Adrenal Glands: Location and Structure

Each gland has two parts

an outer portion, the adrenal cortex
Secretes corticosteriods or steriods, chemicals derived from cholesterol

an inner portion, adrenal medulla
Secretes catecholamines
chemicals derived from amino acids
Abnormal Conditions (cont'd)

Chalazion: small, hard, cystic mass on eyelid; formed as a result of chronic inflammation of sebaceous gland along margin of eyelid

Diabetic retinopathy - retinal effects caused by diabetes mellitus include:
microaneurysms
hemorrhages
dilation of retinal veins
neovascularization Function: Adrenal Cortex Secretes

Glucocorticoids: influence metabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins (cortisol) and are anti-inflammatory (cortisone).
Influences—SUGAR

Mineralocorticoids: regulate electrolytes
Aldosterone: reabsorption of sodium/excretion of potassium. Influences—SALT

Gonadocorticoids: androgens and estrogens. Influences—SEX
Hordeolum (stye): staph infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid
Macular degeneration: progressive damage to the macular of the retina
Nystagmus: repetitive rhythmic movements of one or both eyes.
Strabismus: abnormal deviation of the eye Function Adrenal Medulla Secretes

Two types of catecholamine hormones

Epinephrine (adrenaline): increases heart rate and blood pressure, dilates bronchial tubes, releases glucose from storage.

Norepinephrine (noradrenaline): constricts vessels to raise blood pressure.

Both are sympathomimetic agents.
Abnormal Conditions (cont'd)

Retinal detachment: two layers of the retina separate from each other
Photopsia: bright flashes of light
Floaters: vitreous clumps of retina
Scleral buckle: belt to buckle retina to sclera
Pneumatic retinopexy: gas bubble injected in vitreous cavity to help reattach retina Pancreas Function
Endocrine function
islets of Langerhans produce:
Insulin: promotes movement of glucose into cells and promotes storage as glycogen
Glucagon: promotes movement of glucose into the blood by breaking down
Diagnostic Procedures

Fluorescein angiography: dye injection to examine blood flow in the retina
Ophthalmoscopy: visual examination of eye interior through dilated pupil
Slit lamp microscopy: magnified view of expanded number of eye structures Pituitary Gland

Pea-sized gland in depression of skull (sella turcica) also called the hypophysis
Anterior lobe (adenohypophysis)
Posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)
Hypothalamus controls secretions of the pituitary via releasing factors (hormones)
Treatment

Enucleation: removal of entire eyeball
Laser photocoagulation: Argon laser creates inflammatory reaction that seals retinal tears and leaky blood vessels
LASIK: laser to correct errors of refraction by sculpting the cornea
Treatment (cont'd)

Phacoemulsification: ultrasound to break up lens for aspiration for cataract removal
Vitrectomy: removal of vitreous and replacing it with a clear solution Pituitary Function

Anterior Pituitary
Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH)
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; thyrotropin)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Gonadotropic hormones (FSH, LH)
Prolactin (PRL)

Posterior pituitary: stores and releases hormones synthesized in the hypothalamus
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH; vasopressin)
Oxytocin (OT)
The Ear

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Outer ear receives sound waves.
Sound waves travel to middle ear.
Sound vibrations reach inner ear (labyrinth). Male
Testes
Hormone: testosterone,Maintains germ cell formation and secondary sexual characteristics
Female

Ovaries
Hormones: estrogen and progesterone
Maintains menstrual cycle, release of ovum, secondary sexual characteristics, preparation of uterus for pregnancy
Ear Anatomy and Physiology

Outer ear
Pinna or auricle: projecting flap
External auditory meatus (auditory canal)

Middle ear
Tympanic membrane (eardrum)
Malleus
Incus
Stapes
Oval window

Inner ear: labyrinth
Cochlea
Auditory nerve fibers

Balance and equilibrium
Vestibule
Semicircular canals QUICK QUIZ:
The outer section of each adrenal gland is the ....

adrenal medulla
adrenal cortex
adrenaline
adrenocorticotropic hormone

Correct answer is B: adrenal cortex
What is the snail-shaped, spirally wound tube in the inner ear that contains hearing-sensitive receptor cells?

pinna
auricle
ossicle
cochlea

Correct answer is D: cochlea QUICK QUIZ: (cont'd)

Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates ovulation in females and testosterone secretion in males....
luteinizing hormone (LH)
estrodoil
oxytocin
prolactin

Correct answer is A: luteinizing hormone (LH).
Terminology

COMBINING FORMS

acous/o hearing
audi/o hearing
audit/o hearing
aur/o ear
auricul/o ear
cochle/o cochlea
mastoid/o mastoid process

COMBINING FORMS

myring/o eardrum, tympanic membrane
ossicul/o ossicle
ot/o ear
salping/o Eustachian tube
staped/o stapes
tyman/o eardrum, tympanic membrane
vestibul/o vestibule

SUFFIXES

-acusis or-cusis hearing
-meter instrument for measure
-otia ear condition Combining Forms, Suffixes, Prefixes, and Terminology

GLANDS

aden/o gland
adren/o adrenal glands
adrenal/o adrenal glands
gonad/o sex glands (ovaries, testes)
pancreat/o pancreas
parathyroid/o parathyroid gland

GLANDS

pituitar/o pituitary gland; hypophysis
thyr/o thyroid gland
thyroid/o thyroid gland

RELATED FORMS

andr/o male
calc/o, calici/o calcium
cortic/o cortex, outer region
crin/o secrete
dips/o thirst
estr/o female
gluc/o, glyc/o sugar

GLANDS

home/o sameness
hormon/o hormone
kal/I potassium (an electrolyte)
lact/o milk
myx/o mucus
natr/o sodium (an electrolyte)

GLANDS

phys/o growing
somat/o body
ster/o solid structure
toc/o childbirth
toxic/o position
ur/o urine

SUFFIXES

-agon assemble, gather together
-emia blood condition
-in, -ine a substance
-tropin stimulating the function of
-uria urine condition

PREFIXES

eu- good, normal
hyper- excessive, above
hypo- deficient, below
oxy- rapid, sharp, acid
pan- all
tetra- four
tri three
Symptoms and Pathologic Conditions

Acoustic neuroma: benign tumor arising from 8th cranial nerve, causes tinnitus, vertigo, dizziness, and decreased hearing
Cholesteatoma: skin cells and cholesterol in a sac in the middle ear (cyst-like mass associated with chronic infections)
Deafness: loss of ability to hear

Ménière disease: disorder of labyrinth with elevated endolymph pressure in cochlea and semicircular canals causing tinnitus, sensitivity to sound, progressive hearing loss, headache, nausea, and vertigo
Otitis media: inflammation of middle ear
Otosclerosis: hardening of bony tissue in labyrinth

Tinnitus: sensation of noises (ringing, buzzing, whistling, booming) in ears
Vertigo: sensation of irregular motion (whirling) from disease of inner ear or nerve carrying messages from semicircular canals
Clinical Procedures

Audiometry: audiometer is an electric device to determine hearing loss by frequency
Cochlear implant: Surgically implanted device allowing sensorineural hearing-impaired persons to understand speech
Ear thermometry: body temperature measured with infrared radiation from the eardrum

Otoscopy: visual examination of ear with small, hand-held scope
Tuning fork test
Rinne: hearing test using a vibrating fork against the mastoid bone (bone conduction) and in front of the auditory meatus (air conduction)
Weber: fork is placed on the center of the forehead; normal hearing has equal loudness in both ears. Which term means surgical excision of the adrenal gland (specifically)?

adenectomy
adrenopathy
adrenalectomy
pancreatectomy

Correct answer is C: adrenalectomy specifically means excision of the adrenal gland.

Which term means a blood condition of too little potassium?

hyperkalemia
hypocalcemia
hypercalciuria
hypokalemia

Correct answeris D: hypokalemia
... Pathology—Thyroid Gland

Goiter: Enlargement of the thyroid

Hypersecretion
Hyperthyroidism
Graves' disease
Exophthalmos and proptosis
Hyposecretion
Hypothyroidism
Myxedema
Cretinism
Neoplasms
Thyroid carcinoma
... Pathology—Parathyroid

Hypersecretion
Hyperparathyroidism
Loss of bone density
Kidney stones
Hypercalcemia

Hyposecretion
Hypoparathyroidism
Muscle and nerve weakness
Tetany
Hypocalcemia
... Pathology—Adrenal Cortex

Hypersecretion
adrenal virilism
amenorrhea, hirsutism, acne, voice deepening
Cushing syndrome
Obesity, moonface, thoracic fat deposition
Hyposecretion
Addison disease
Deficient mineral-and gluco-corticoids, hyponatremia, fatigue, weakness, weight loss, low blood pressure
... Pathology—Adrenal Medulla

Hypersecretion
Pheochromocytoma
Benign tumor of adrenal medulla
Excess epinephrine and norepinephrine
Hypertension, palpitations, severe headaches, sweating, flushing of the face, and muscle spasms
... Pathology—Pancreas

Hypersecretion
Hyperinsulinism
Hypoglycemia, convulsions, fainting

Hyposecretion
Diabetes mellitus
Lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells
Type 1 : childhood onset, typically
Type 2 : adult onset, typically
... Pathology Pituitary Gland: (Anterior Lobe)

Hypersecretion
acromegaly
gigantism

Hyposecretion
dwarfism
panhypopituitarism
... Pathology Pituitary Gland: (Posterior Lobe)

Hypersecretion
Syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH)
Excess ADH
Excess water retention
Hyposecretion
Diabetes insipidus
Deficient ADH
Polyuria and polydipsia
... Laboratory Tests

Fasting plasma glucose (FPG)
Measures circulating glucose in a patient who has fasted at least 8 hours
Serum and urine tests
Measures hormones, electrolytes, glucose, etc., in blood and urine as indicators of endocrine function
Thyroid function tests
Measures T3, T4, and TSH in the bloodstream
... Clinical Procedures

exophthalmometry
computed tomography (CT) scan
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head
radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU)
thyroid scan
ultrasound examination
... Review Sheet (cont'd)

aden/o gland
adren/o adrenal glands
adrenal/o adrenal glands
andr/o male
calc/o, calici/o calcium
cortic/o cortex, outer region

COMBINING FORMS


crin/o secrete
dips/o third
estr/o female
gluc/o, glyc/o sugar
gonad/o sex glands (ovaries, testes)
home/o sameness

COMBINING FORMS


hormon/o hormone
kal/i potassium (an electrolyte)
insulin/o insulin
lact/o milk
myx/o mucus
natr/o sodium (an electrolyte)

COMBINING FORMS


pancreat/o pancreas
parathyroid/o parathyroid gland
phys/o growing
pituitar/o pituitary gland;
or hypophysis
somat/o body
ster/o solid structure

COMBINING FORMS


thyr/o thyroid gland
thyroid/o thyroid gland
toc/o childbirth
toxic/o position
ur/o urine

SUFFIXES


-agon assemble, gather together
-emia blood condition
-in, -ine a substance
-tropin stimulating the function of
-uria urine condition

PREFIXES


eu- good, normal
hyper- excessive, above
hypo- deficient, below
oxy- rapid, sharp, acid
pan- all
tetra- four
tri- three
... What is the pathologic condition in which enlargement of the extremities is caused by hypersecretion of the anterior pituitary after puberty?
Addison disease
acromegaly
Cushing syndrome
Graves disease

Correct answeris B: Acromegaly. See p. 746 in 8e for more information.
Combining Form, Suffix, Prefix & Meaning
Combining Form,Suffix & Prefix Meaning
a-, an- no; not; without
ab- away from
abdomin/o abdomen
-ac pertaining to
acanth/o spiny; thorny
acetabul/o acetabulum (hip socket)
acous/o hearing
acr/o extremities; top; extreme point
acromi/o acromion (extension of shoulder bone)
actin/o light
acu/o sharp; severe; sudden
-acusis hearing
ad- toward
aden/o gland
adenoid/o adenoids
adip/o fat
adren/o adrenal gland
adrenal/o adrenal gland
aer/o air
af- toward
agglutin/o clumping; sticking together
-agon to assemble, gather
agora- marketplace
-agra excessive pain
-al pertaining to
alb/o white
albin/o white
albumin/o albumin (protein)
alges/o sensitivity to pain
-algesia sensitivity to pain
-algia pain
all/o other
alveol/o alveolus; air sac; small sac
ambly/o dim; dull
-amine nitrogen compound
amni/o amnion (sac surrounding the embryo)
amyl/o starch
an/o anus
-an pertaining to
ana- up; apart; backward; again, anew
andr/o male
aneurysm/o aneurysm (widened blood vessel)
angi/o vessel (blood)
anis/o unequal
ankyl/o stiff
ante- before; forward
anter/o front
anthrac/o coal
anthr/o antrum of the stomach
anti- against
anxi/o uneasy; anxious
aort/o aorta (largest artery)
-apheresis removal
aphth/o ulcer
apo- off, away
aponeur/o aponeurosis (type of tendon)
append/o appendix
appendic/o appendix
aque/o water
-ar pertaining to
-arche beginning
arter/o artery
arteri/o artery
arteriol/o arteriole (small artery)
arthr/o joint
-arthria articulate (speak distinctly)
articul/o joint
-ary pertaining to
asbest/o asbestos
-ase enzyme
-asthenia lack of strength
atel/o incomplete
ather/o plaque (fatty substance)
-ation process; condition
atri/o atrium (upper heart chamber)
audi/o hearing
audit/o hearing
aur/o ear
auricul/o ear
auto- self, own
axill/o armpit
azot/o urea; nitrogen
bacill/o bacilli (bacteria)
bacteri/o bacteria
balan/o glans penis
bar/o pressure; weight
bartholin/o Bartholin glands
bas/o base; opposite of acid
bi- two
bi/o life
bil/i bile; gall
bilirubin/o bilirubin
-blast embryonic; immature
-blastoma immature tumor (cells)
blephar/o eyelid
bol/o cast; throw
brachi/o arm
brachy- short
brady- slow
bronch/o bronchial tube
bronchi/o bronchial tube
bronchiol/o bronchiole
bucc/o cheek
bunion/o bunion
burs/o bursa (sac of fluid near joints)
byssin/o cotton dust
cac/o bad
calc/o calcium
calcane/o calcaneus (heel bone)
calci/o calcium
cali/o calyx
calic/o calyx
capillar/o capillary (tiniest blood vessel)
capn/o carbon dioxide
-capnia carbon dioxide
carcin/o cancerous; cancer
cardi/o heart
carp/o wrist bones (carpals)
cata- down
caud/o tail; lower part of body
caus/o burn; burning
cauter/o heat; burn
cec/o cecum (first part of the colon)
-cele hernia
celi/o belly; abdomen
-centesis surgical puncture to remove fluid
cephal/o head
cerebell/o cerebellum (posterior part of the brain)
cerebr/o cerebrum (largest part of the brain)
cerumin/o cerumen
cervic/o neck; cervix (neck of uterus)
-chalasia relaxation
-chalasis relaxation
cheil/o lip
chem/o drug; chemical
-chezia defecation; elimination of wastes
chir/o hand
chlor/o green
chlorhydr/o hydrochloric acid
chol/e bile; gall
cholangi/o bile vessel
cholecyst/o gallbladder
choledoch/o common bile duct
cholesterol/o cholesterol
chondr/o cartilage
chore/o dance
chori/o chorion (outermost membrane of the fetus)
chorion/o chorion
choroid/o choroid layer of eye
chrom/o color
chron/o time
chym/o to pour
cib/o meal
-cide killing
-cidal pertaining to killing
cine/o movement
cirrh/o orange-yellow
cis/o to cut
-clasis to break
-clast to break
claustr/o enclosed space
clavicul/o clavicle (collar bone)
-clysis irrigation; washing
coagul/o coagulation (clotting)
-coccus (-cocci, pl.) berry-shaped bacterium
coccyg/o coccyx (tailbone)
cochle/o cochlea (inner part of ear)
col/o colon (large intestine)
coll/a glue
colon/o colon (large intestine)
colp/o vagina
comat/o deep sleep
comi/o to care for
con- together, with
coni/o dust
conjunctiv/o conjunctiva (lines the eyelids)
-constriction narrowing
contra- against; opposite
cor/o pupil
core/o pupil
corne/o cornea
coron/o heart
corpor/o body
cortic/o cortex, outer region
cost/o rib
crani/o skull
cras/o mixture; temperament
crin/o secrete
-crine secrete; separate
-crit to separate
cry/o cold
crypt/o hidden
culd/o cul-de-sac
-cusis hearing
cutane/o skin
cyan/o blue
cycl/o ciliary body of eye; cycle; circle
-cyesis pregnancy
cyst/o urinary bladder; cyst; sac of fluid
cyt/o cell
-cyte cell
-cytosis condition of cells; slight increase in numbers
dacry/o tear
dacryoaden/o tear gland
dacryocyst/o tear sac; lacrimal sac
dactyl/o fingers; toes
de- lack of; down; less; removal of
dem/o people
dent/i tooth
derm/o skin
-derma skin
dermat/o skin
desicc/o drying
-desis to bind, tie together
dia- complete; through
diaphor/o sweat
-dilation widening; stretching; expanding
dipl/o double
dips/o thirst
dist/o far; distant
dors/o back (of body)
dorsi- back
-dote to give
-drome to run
duct/o to lead, carry
duoden/o duodenum
dur/o dura mater
-dynia pain
dys- bad; painful; difficult; abnormal
-eal pertaining to
ec- out; outside
echo- reflected sound
-ectasia stretching; dialation; expansion
-ectasis stretching; dialation; expansion
ecto- out; outside
-ectomy removal; excision; resection
-edema swelling
-elasma flat plate
electr/o electricity
em- in
-ema condition
-emesis vomiting
-emia blood condition
-emic pertaining to blood condition
emmetr/o in due measure
en- in; within
encephal/o brain
endo- in; within
enter/o intestines (usually small intestine)
eosin/o red; rosy; dawn-colored
epi- above; upon;/ on
epididym/o epididymis
epiglott/o epiglottis
episi/o vulva (external female genitalia)
epitheli/o skin; epithelium
equin/o horse
-er one who
erg/o work
erythem/o flushed; redness
erythr/o red
-esis condition
eso- inward
esphag/o esophagus
esthes/o nervous sensation (feeling)
esthesi/o nervous sensation
-esthesia nervous sensation
estr/o female
ethm/o sieve
eti/o cause
eu- good; normal
-eurysm widening
ex- out; away from
exanthemat/o rash
exo- out; away from
extra- outside
faci- face
fasci/o fascia (membrane supporting muscles)
femor/o femur (thigh bone)
-ferent to carry
fibr/o fiber
fibros/o fibrous connective tissue
fibul/o fibula
-fication process of making
-fida split
flex/o to bend
fluor/o luminous
follicul/o follicle; small sac
-form resembling; in the shape of
fung/i fungus; mushroom
furc/o forking; branching
-fusion to pour; to come together
galact/o milk
ganglion/o ganglion; collection of nerve cell bodies
gastr/o stomach
-gen producing; forming
-genesis producing; forming
-genic produced by or in
ger/o old age
gest/o pregnancy
gester/o pregnancy
gingiv/o gum
glauc/o gray
gli/o glue; neuroglial tissue (supportive tissue of nervous system)
-globin protein
-globulin protein
glomerul/o glomerulus
gloss/o tongue
gluc/o glucose; sugar
glyc/o glucose; sugar
glycogen/o glycogen; animal starch
glycos/o glucose; sugar
gnos/o knowledge
gon/o seed
gonad/o sex glands
goni/o angle
-grade to go
-gram record
granul/o granule (s)
-graph instrument for recording
-graphy process of recording
gravid/o pregnancy
-gravida pregnant woman
gynec/o woman; female
hallucin/o hallucination
hem/o blood
hemat/o blood
hemi- half
hemoglobin/o hemoglobin
hepat/o liver
herni/o hernia
-hexia habit
hidr/o sweat
hist/o tissue
histi/o tissue
home/o sameness; unchanging; constant
hormon/o hormone
humer/o humerus (upper arm bone)
hydr/o water
hyper- above; excessive
hypn/o sleep
hypo- sleep
hypophys/o pituitary gland
hyster/o uterus; womb
-ia condition
-iac pertaining to
-iasis abnormal condition
iatr/o physician; treatment
-ic pertaining to
-ical pertaining to
ichthy/o dry; scaly
-icle small
idi/o unknown; individual; district
ile/o ileum
ili/o ilium
immun/o immune; protection; safe
in- in; into; not
-in, -ine a substance
-ine pertaining to
infra- below; inferior to; beneath
inguin/o groin
insulin/o insulin (pancreatic hormone)
inter- between
intra- within; into
iod/o iodine
ion/o ion; to wander
-ion process
-ior pertaining to
ipsi- same
ir- in
ir/o iris (colored portion of eye)
irid/o iris (colored portion of eye)
is/o same; equal
isch/o to hold back; back
ischi/o ischium (part of hip bone)
-ism process; condition
-ist specialist
-itis inflammation
-ium structure; tissue
jaund/o yellow
jejun/o jejunum
kal/i potassium
kary/o nucleus
kerat/o horny, hard; cornea
kern- nucleus (collection of nerve cells in the brain)
ket/o ketones; acetones
kenton/o ketones; acetones
kines/o movement
kinesi/o movement
-kinesia movement
-kinesis movement
klept/o to steal
kyph/o humpback
labi/o lip
lacrim/o tear; tear duct; lacrimal duct
lact/o milk
lamin/o lamina (part of vertebral arch)
lapar/o abdominal wall; abdomen
-lapse to slide, fall, sag
laryng/o larynx (voice box)
later/o side
leiomy/o smooth (visceral) muscle
-lemma sheath, covering
-lepsy seizure
lept/o thin, slender
-leptic to seize, take hold of
leth/o death
leuk/o white
lex/o word; phrase
-lexia word; phrase
ligament/o ligament
lingu/o tongue
lip/o fat; lipid
-listhesis slipping
lith/o stone; calculus
-lithiasis condition of stones
-lithotomy incision (for removal) of a stone
lob/o lobe
log/o study of
-logy study of
lord/o curve; swayback
-lucent to shine
lumb/o lower back; loin
lute/o yellow
lux/o to slide
lymph/o lymph
lymphaden/o lymph gland (node)
lymphangi/o lymph vessel
-lysis breakdown; separation; destruction; loosening
-lytic to reduce, destroy; separate; breakdown
macro- large
mal- bad
-malacia softening
malleol/o malleolus
mamm/o breast
mandibul/o mandible (lower jaw bone)
-mania obsessive preoccupation
mast/o breast
mastoid/o mastoid process (behind the ear)
maxill/o maxilla (upper jaw bone)
meat/o meatus (opening)
medi/o middle
mediastin/o mediastinum
medull/o medulla (inner section); middle; soft, marrow
mega- large
-megaly enlargement
melan/o black
men/o menses; menstruation
mening/o meninges (membranes covering the spinal cord and brain)
meningi/o meninges
ment/o mind; chin
meso- middle
meta- change; beyond
metacarp/o metacarpals (hand bones)
metatars/o metatarsals (foot bones)
-meter measure
metr/o uterus (womb); measure
metri/o uterus (womb)
mi/o smaller; less
micro- small
-mimetic mimic; copy
-mission to send
mon/o one; single
morph/o shape; form
mort/o death
-mortem death
-motor movement
muc/o mucus
mucos/o mucous membrane (mucosa)
multi- many
mut/a genetic change
mutagen/o causing genetic change
my/o muscle
myc/o fungus
mydr/o wide
myel/o spinal cord; bone marrow
myocardi/o myocardium (heart muscle)
myom/o muscle tumor
myos/o muscle
myring/o tympanic membrane (eardrum)
myx/o mucus
narc/o numbness; stupor; sleep
nas/o nose
nat/i birth
natr/o sodium
necr/o death
nect/o to bind, tie, connect
neo- new
nephr/o kidney
neur/o nerve
neutr/o neither; neutral; neutrophil
nid/o nest
noct/i night
norm/o rule; order
nos/o disease
nucle/o nucleus
nulli- none
nyct/o night
obstetr/o midwife
ocul/o eye
odont/o tooth
odyn/o pain
-oid resembling
-ole little; small
olecran/o olecranon (elbow)
olig/o scanty
om/o shoulder
-oma tumor; mass; fluid collection
omphal/o umbilicus (naval)
onc/o tumor
-one hormone
onych/o nail (of fingers or toes)
o/o egg
oophor/o ovary
-opaque obscure
ophthalm/o eye
-opia vision
-opsia vision
-opsy view of
opt/o eye; vision
optic/o eye; vision
-or one who
or/o mouth
orch/o testis
orchi/o testis
orchid/o testis
-orexia appetite
orth/o straight
-ose full of; pertaining to; sugar
-osis condition, usually abnormal
-osmia smell
ossicul/o ossicle (small bone)
oste/o bone
-ostosis condition of bone
ot/o ear
-otia ear condition
-ous pertaining to
ov/o egg
ovari/o ovary
ovul/o egg
ox/o oxygen
-oxia oxygen
oxy- swift; sharp; acid
oxysm/o sudden
pachy- heavy; thick
palat/o palate (roof of the mouth)
palpebr/o eyelid
pan- all
pancreat/o pancreas
papill/o nipple-like; optic disc (disk)
par- other than; abnormal
para- near; beside; abnormal; apart from; along the side of
-para to bear, bring forth (live births)
-parous to bear, bring forth
parathyroid/o parathyroid glands
-paresis slight paralysis
-pareunia sexual intercourse
-partum birth; labor
patell/a patella
patell/o patella
path/o disease
-pathy disease; emotion
pector/o chest
ped/o child; foot
pelv/i pelvic bone; hip
pend/o to hang
-penia deficiency
-pepsia digestion
per- through
peri- surrounding
perine/o perineum
peritone/o peritoneum
perone/o fibula
-pexy fixation; to put in place
phac/o lens of eye
phag/o eat; swallow
-phage eat; swallow
-phagia eating; swallowing
phak/o lens of eye
phalang/o phalanges (fingers and toes)
phall/o penis
pharmac/o drug
pharmaceut/o drug
pharyng/o throat (pharynx)
phas/o speech
-phasia speech
phe/o dusky; dark
-pheresis removal
phil/o like; love; attraction
-phil attraction for
-philia attraction for
phim/o muzzle
phleb/o vein
phob/o fear
-phobia fear
phon/o voice; sound
-phonia voice; sound
-phor/o to bear
-phoresis carrying; transmission
-phoria to bear, carry; feeling (mental state)
phot/o light
phren/o diaphragm; mind
-phthisis wasting away
-phylaxis protection
physi/o nature; function
-physis to grow
phyt/o plant
-phyte plant
pil/o hair
pineal/o pineal gland
pituitar/o pituitary gland
-plakia plaque
plant/o sole of the foot
plas/o development; formation
-plasia development; formation; growth
-plasm formation
-plastic pertaining to formation
-plasty surgical repair
ple/o more; many
-plegia paralysis; palsy
-plegic paralysis; palsy
pleur/o pleura
plex/o plexus; network (of nerves)
-pnea breathing
pneum/o lung; air; gas
pneumon/o lung; air; gas
pod/o foot
-poiesis formation
-poietin substance that forms
poikil/o varied; irregular
pol/o extreme
polio- gray matter (of brain or spinal cord)
poly- many; much
polyp/o polyp; small growth
pont/o pons (a part of the brain)
-porosis condition of pores (spaces)
post- after; behind
poster/o back (of body); behind
-prandial meal
-praxia action
pre- before; in front of
presby/o old age
primi- first
pro- before; forward
proct/o anus and rectum
pros- before; forward
prostat/o prostate gland
prot/o first
prote/o protein
proxim/o near
prurit/o itching
pseudo- false
psych/o mind
-ptosis droop; sag; prolapse; fall
-ptysis spitting
pub/o pubis (anterior part of hip bone)
pulmon/o lung
pupill/o pupil (dark center of the eye)
purul/o pus
py/o pus
pyel/o renal pelvis
pylor/o pylorus; pyloric sphincter
pyr/o fever; fire
pyret/o fever
pyrex/o fever
quadri- four
rachi/o spinal column; vertebrae
radi/o x-rays; radioactivity; radius (lateral lower arm bone)
radicul/o nerve root
re- back; again; backward
rect/o rectum
ren/o kidney
reticul/o network
retin/o retina
retro- behind; back; backward
rhabdomy/o straited (skeletal) muscle
rheumat/o watery flow
rhin/o nose
rhytid/o wrinkle
roentgen/o x-rays
-rrhage bursting forth (of blood)
-rrhagia bursting forth (of blood)
--rrhaphy suture
-rrhea flow; discharge
-rrhexis rupture
rrhythm/o rhythm
sacr/o sacrum
salping/o fallopian tube; auditory (eustachian) tube
-salpinx fallopian tube; oviduct
sarc/o flesh (connective tissue)
scapul/o scapula; shoulder blade
-schisis to split
schiz/o split
scint/o spark
scirrh/o hard
scler/o sclera (white of eye); hard
-sclerosis hardening
scoli/o crooked; bent
-scope instrument for visual examination
-scopy visual examination
scot/o darkness
seb/o sebum
sebace/o sebum
sect/o to cut
semi- half
semin/i semen; seed
seps/o infection
sial/o saliva
sialaden/o salivary gland
sider/o iron
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
silic/o glass
sinus/o sinus
-sis state of; condition
-sol solution
somat/o body
-some body
somn/o sleep
-somnia sleep
son/o sound
-spadia to tear; cut
-spasm sudden contraction of muscles
sperm/o spermatozoa; sperm cells
spermat/o spermatozoa; sperm cells
sphen/o wedge; sphenoid bone
spher/o globe-shaped; round
sphygm/o pulse
-sphyxia pulse
splanchn/o viscera (internal organs)
spin/o spine (backbone)
spir/o to breathe
splen/o spleen
spondyl/o vertebra (backbone)
squam/o scale
-stalsis contraction
staped/o stapes (middle ear bone)
staphyl/o clusters; uvula
-stasis to stop; control; place
-static pertaining to stopping; controlling
steat/o fat, sebum
-stenosis tightening; stricture
ster/o solid structure; steroid
stere/o solid; three-dimensional
stern/o sternum (breastbone)
steth/o chest
-sthenia strength
-stitial to set; pertaining to standing or positioned
stomat/o mouth
-stomia condition of the mouth
-stomy new opening (to form a mouth)
strept/o twisted chains
styl/o pole or stake
sub- under; below
submaxill/o mandible (lower jaw bone)
-suppression to stop
supra- above, upper
sym- together; with
syn- together; with
syncop/o to cut off, cut short; faint
syndesm/o ligament
synov/o synovia; synovial membrane; sheath around a tendon
syring/o tube
tachy- fast
tars/o tarsus; hindfoot or ankle (7 bones between the foot and the leg)
tax/o order; coordination
tel/o complete
tele/o distant
ten/o tendon
tendin/o tendon
-tension pressure
terat/o monster; malformed fetus
test/o testis (testicle)
tetra- four
thalam/o thalamus
thalass/o sea
the/o put; place
thec/o sheath
thel/o nipple
therapeut/o treatment
-therapy treatment
therm/o heat
thorac/o chest
-thorax chest; pleural cavity
thromb/o clot
thym/o thymus gland
-thymia mind (condition of)
-thymic pertaining to mind
thyr/o thyroid gland; shield
thyroid/o thyroid gland
tibi/o tibia (shin bone)
-tic pertaining to
toc/o labor; birth
-tocia labor; birth (condition of)
-tocin labor; birth (a substance for)
tom/o to cut
-tome instrument to cut
-tomy process of cutting
ton/o tension
tone/o to stretch
tonsill/o tonsil
top/o place; position; location
tox/o poison
toxic/o poison
trache/o trachea (windpipe)
trans- across; through
-tresia opening
tri- three
trich/o hair
trigon/o trigone (area within the bladder)
-tripsy to crush
troph/o nourishment; development
-trophy nourishment; development
-tropia to turn
-tropic turning
-tropin stimulate; act on
tympan/o tympanic membrane (eardrum); middle ear
-type classification; picture
-ule little; small
uln/o ulna (medical lower arm bone)
ultra- beyond; excess
-um structure; tissue; thing
umbilic/o umbilicus (navel)
ungu/o nail
uni- one
ur/o urine; urinary tract
ureter/o ureter
urethr/o urethra
-uria urination; condition of urine
urin/o urine
-us structure; thing
uter/o uterus (womb)
uve/o uvea, vascular layer of eye (iris, choroid, ciliary body)
uvul/o uvula
vag/o vagus nerve
vagin/o vagina
valv/o valve
valvul/o valve
varic/o varicose veins
vas/o vesel; duct; vas deferens
vascul/o vessel (blood)
ven/o; ven/i vein
vener/o venereal (sexual contact)
ventr/o belly side of body
ventricul/o ventricle (of heart or brain)
venul/o venule (small vein)
-verse to turn
-version to turn
vertebr/o vertebra (backbone)
vesic/o urinary bladder
vesicul/o seminal vesicle
vestibul/o vestibule of the inner ear
viscer/o internal organs
vit/o life
vitr/o vitreous body (of the eye)
vitre/o glass
viv/o life
vol/o to roll
vulv/o vulva (female external genitalia)
xanth/o yellow
xen/o stranger
xer/o dry
xiph/o sword
-y condition; process
zo/o animal life
MEDICAL PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES
Word Use Medical Term
ab (away from)Prefix abduction (away from, rotate)
ad (toward)Prefix adduction (toward, rotate)
algia (pain)mostly suffix neuralgia (nerve pain)
ante (before, wallpart)suffix or prefix antepartum (before birth)
anti (against)Prefix antibacterial (against bacteria)
bi (two, double)Prefix bilateral (two sides)
brady (slow)Prefix or suffix bradycardia (slow heart beat)
circum (around)Prefix circumrenal (around the kidney)
co, con (together)Prefix or suffix concentric (together center, same center)
de (down or away from)Prefix or suffix dehydrate (away from hydration)
desis (binding fixation of)(Prefix or suffix but mostly suffix) arthrodesis (surgical fixation of a joint)
dia (through)(Prefix or suffix) diaplacental (through the placenta)
dys (difficult, abnormal)(Prefix) dysemia (abnormal blood)
ecto (outside)(Prefix) ectocornea (outer layer of cornea)
ectomy (excision)(Prefix or suffix but mostly suffix) tonsillectomy (tonsill removal)
endo (within)(Prefix) endogastric (within the stomach)
epi (outer, on top of, over)(Prefix) epigastric (top of stomach)
exo (away from)(Prefix) exophthalmus (eyes bulging away from)
extra (outside, beyond)(Prefix or suffix) extra sensory (beyond senses)
iasis (condition of)(suffix) cholelithiasis (condition of gall bladder stones)
iatric (medicine)(suffix) pediatric (child medicine) Psychiatric (mind medicine)
ic (pertaining to)(suffix) entric (pertaining to the small intestine)
inter (between)(prefix) intercostal (between ribs)
intra (within)(prefix) intra-aortic (within the aorta)
isis, asis (condition of)(suffix) metastasis (condition of change in location or spreading)
itis (inflammation of)(suffix) gastritis (stomach inflammation)gingivitis (inflammation of gums)
juxta (near)(prefix) juxtaepiphysial (near epiphysis or part of long bone)
kinesis (movement)(suffix) metakinesis (moving apart) kinesiology (study of movement)
kypho (humped)(prefix) kyphosis (condition of being hump backed) kyphoscoliosis (a humped curvature of spine)
logia, logy (science of)(suffix) cardiology (heart science or study of heart)
lysis (disintegration)(suffix) osteolysis (bone breakdown)
macro (large, long)(prefix) macrostomia (large mouth)
malacia (softening)(prefix or suffix) chondromalacia (soft cartilage)
med,medi,medio (middle)(prefix or suffix) mediocarpal (middle of the carpal bone)
mega, megaly (enlargement)(prefix or suffix) cardiomegaly (large heart)
micro (small)(mostly prefix) microcephalic (small brain)
mono (single,one)(prefix) mononecleosis (condition of the large outbreak of one nucleous lymphocytes)
multi (many)(prefix) multifocal (many locations)
neo (new)(prefix) neonatal (new born)
ob (against)(prefix) obtunded (against or mentally dull)
oid (like, shape, resemble)(suffix) mucoid (mucus like)
oligo (few)(prefix or suffix) oliguria (diminished urination)
ology (study of)(suffix) neurology (study of nerves)
oma (tumor)(suffix) lymphoma (lymph tumor)
osis (condition)(suffix) pediculosis (condition of lice infestation)
otomy (incision)(suffix) craniotomy (skull incision)
a, an (without)(Prefix) anencephalic (without a brain)





Medical root's
Audionym Meaning
gastr stomach
cardi heart
megal enlarged
itis inflammation
dermat skin
plast surgical repair
cerebr brain
path disease
enter intestines
osis any condition
otomy cut into
aden gland
angi vessel
oma tumor
nephr kidney
hepat liver
arthr joint
blephar eyelid
ologist specialist
rhin nose
gingiv gum
malacia soft
ology study of
spasm involuntary contraction
algia pain
crani skull
end inside, within
hemi half
oid like
hyper above, more than normal
cyst sac containing fluid
chole bile
hypo under
scop observe
hyster uterus
ostomy create an opening
para beside, beyond
lysis loosening, destruction
cervic neck
chondr cartilage
cyan blue
hem(at) blood
ost bone
psycho mind
lip fat
my muscle
lith stone
opthalm - opt eye
proct anus
cost rib
gram record
acro extremities
rhexis break
carcin cancer
penia decrease
gen original. production
burso sac
retr(o) backwards
trip rub, friction
strept twist
desis binding
mani madness
glosso tongue
trophy development
supra above
ptosis falling
dyn pain
mast breast
rrhaphy suture
dent teeth
cephal head
auto self
epi upon
hydro water
lobo section
emesis vomitting
contra against, counter
iasis condition
trans through
brady slow
ectasis expansion
cyt cell
odont tooth
leuk white
esthesia sensation
cantho angle at the end of the eyelid
steno narrow, contracted
cheil lip
cele hernia
benign mild, not cancerous
semen seed
celio abdomen
erythro red
vaso vessel
melan black
cauda tail
lingua tongue
myring eardrum
spondyl spinal column
ovar egg(egg, the female reproductive cell)
centesis puncture
oto ear
bili bile
squam scale
mening membrane
cec blind passage
macul spot
pexy suspension
onco tumar
or mouth
sub under
spiro coil
lacrim tear
viscero organ
lact milk
onych nail, claw
thorac chest
pyle gate
vesic bladder
sphenic wedge
myel marrow, spinal cord
anti against
myco fungus
hallux great toe (big toe)
physio nature
bucc(o) cheek
palpebr eyelid
plasia development
rug wrinkle, fold, crease
aur ear
acoust(i) hearing
colp(o) hollow, vagina
phon voice, sound
leio smooth
cor heart
ren kidney
orchi testis
encephal brain
thalam inner chamber
plexus braid
cilia eyelash
dendr tree, branching
phleb vein
pilo hair
histo tissue
stoma body
tympan eardrum
umbilic navel
salpingo tube
helio sun
astr star shaped
asthenia weakness
fascia sheet, band
iso equal
tarso ankle
tope place
pod foot
malign bad
adnexa ties, connection
ocul eye
lapar abdominal wall
dacry tear
ment mind
part labor, bring forth
scler(a) hard
somato body
trachel neck
sinus hollow space
hypno sleep
sept wall
scirr(h) hard
antr cavity
crine to secrete
dura hard
pneum lung
phage to eat
phren mind
corne horny
plak plate
iris rainbow
kerat horny
pulmo lung
ptyal saliva
alveol cavity
oophor ovary
oment covering
sedat quiet, calm
furca fork-shaped
radic root
radi ray
fistful pipe
edema swelling
dactyl finger, toe
metabol(e) change
pariet wall
ependym wrapping
gravid pregnant
aer air
glyco sweet
tarso framework of the eyelid
cheir hand
calc heel, stone
cine move
digit finger, toe
dors back
gangli swelling
gemin twin
grad walk, take steps
gran grain, particles
labi lip
micr small
peps digest
pleur pleura, rib, side
mamm breast
colla glue
later side
rachi spinal column
phob fear
phot light
dys bad
cut skin
en in
peri about, around
pro in front of, before
mechano machine
dynam power
osom odor
trich hair
maxill upper jawbone
an -, a without, not
phak lens
pre in front of, before
strict draw tight
turbin shaped like a top
ameb change
semi half
neo new
hormone excite
therm heat
syn, sym together
vuls twitch, pull
post after
metr uterus
tegument covering, skin
pan all
poly many
ramus branch
neuro nerve (nervous system)
thromb lump, clot
ab away from, not
plegia paralysis
ante before
thel nipple
ex out, away from
lien spleen
tumor swelling
vestibule entrance
puer child
sarc flesh
proli offspring
macro large
lal speech
intra within
inter between
infra beneath
cryo cold
mal bad
glom ball
tens stretch
spas pull, draw
sommi sleep
pharmac drug
lumbo loins
arter artery
appendic appendix
thyro thyroid
splen spleen
ovario ovary
adreno adrenal (gland)
basi base
pelvi pelvis
vena vein
urethr urethra
utero uterus
sacro sacrum
pharyng pharynx
ureter ureter
laryng larynx
bronch bronchus
esphag esophagus
bi two, double. both
tri three
ile ileum
ili ilium
lig ligament
therap therapy
ventr front
vert turn
eu good
ambi both
amphi around, on both sides
brachy short
capit head
cau burn
clas break
duct tube
fiss tube
ger old
heter other
infer under
hom same
olfact smell
orth straight
gyn female
pachy thick
phrag fenct
poster back part
cata down
platy flat
pseud false
schiz split
proxim nearest
scol curved
apo away from
di twice
dia through
eury broad
pect chest
necr dead
mi less
morph form
dis apart
fac make, do
lept slender
lymph watery fluid
meta beyond
rrhag burst, burst forth
sta stand
ton stretch
volv to roll
splanchn internal organs
rrhe flow
med middle
xer dry
per throughout
blast bud
ectomy surgical removal
traumat wound
duodeno duodenum
col colon
albumin/o albumin (protein)
alges/o excessive sensitivity to pain
alveol/o alveolus; air sac
arteri/o artery
arter/o artery
ather/o plaque (fatty substance)
atri/o atrium (upper heart chamber)
azot/o nitrogen
bi- two
brachi/o arm
bronch/o bronchial tube
bucc/o cheek
capn/o carbon dioxide
cardiomy/o heart muscle
cerebell/o cerebellum
cerebr/o cerebrum
cheil/o lip
cholecyst/o gall bladder
coni/o dust
coron/o heart
cyan/o blue
dips/o thirst
dur/o dura mater
electr/o electricity
-emesis vomiting
esthesi/o nervous sensation
glomerul/o glomerulus
hydr/o water
isch/o to hold back
kines/o movement
laryng/o larynx
lex/o word
lith/o stone, calculus
lob/o lobe
mening/o meninges
multi- many
myel/o spinal cord; bone marrow
noct/i night
non- no, not
odont/o tooth
olig/o scanty
-osmia smell
ox/o oxygen
-paresis weakness
-pepsia digestion
-pexy fixation, to put in place
pharyng/o pharynx
-phasia speech
phleb/o vein
phren/o mind; diaphragm
-plegia paralysis
-pnea breathing
pneumon/o lung; air
-poiesis formation
-poietin substance that forms
-ptysis spitting
pyel/o renal pelvis
py/o pus
sial/o saliva
sphygm/o pulse
spir/o to breathe
tax/o order; coordination
tel/o complete
thorac/o chest
-thorax chest; pleural cavity
-tome instrument to cut
trache/o trachea, windpipe
-tresia opening
-tripsy crushing
urethr/o urethra
-uria urination; condition of urine
vas/o vessel
ventricul/o ventricle
acute quick onset, short duration
chronic slow onset, long duration
diagnosis condition of complete knowledge
etiology study of the cause of disease
iatrogenic produced by physician or treatment
idiopathic pertaining to illness of unknown cause
lubb, dubb audible sounds of the closure of the hearth valves
occlusion blockage
palpitation uncomfortable sensation in the chest from missed heartbeats
patent open
prognosis prediction of the outcome of a disease
systemic throughout the system
RUQ right upper quadrant
LUQ left upper quadrant
RLQ right lower quadrant
LLQ left lower quadrant
frontal plane divides front and back
saggital plane divides left and right
transverse plane divides top and bottom
singular -a plural -ae
singular -is plural -es
singular -ex, -ix plural -ices
singular -on plural -a
singular -um plural -a
singular -us plural -i
adnexa accessory parts of a structure
amylase starch enzyme
aorta largest artery in the body
arachnoid membrane middle layer of the meninges
atria (pl. atruim) one of two upper chambers of the heart
atrioventricular node (AV node) specialized tissue in the wall between the atria, conducts electricity to contract heart
bladder sac
urinary bladder hollow, muscular sac, reservoir for urine
bundle of His atrioventricular bundle, conducts electricity to contract heart
cerebellum posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance
cerebrum largest part of the brain
coronary artery blood vessles that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle
defection a flaw or imperfection
diastole relaxation phase of the heartbeat
duodenum first part of small intestine
dura mater hard, protective outer layer of the meninges
endocardium inner lining of the heart
epicardium outer lining of the heart
feces solid wastes, stool
ileum third part of small intestine
incisal edge sharp edge of the incisors and canines
jejunum second part of small intestine
lipase pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fat
lumen open channel in vessel
meninges three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
mitral valve bicuspid valve; valve between the left atrium and left ventricle
myelin sheath covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve, speeds impulse conduction along axon
myocardium middle muscular layer of the heart wall
nephron combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration, reabsorption, and secretion take place in the kidney
neuron nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body
occlusal edge mashing side of tooth, the surface that comes in contact with corresponding tooth in opposite arch
pericardium double-layered membrane surrounding the heart
peristalsis rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs
pia mater thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges
pulmonary artery artery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs
pulmonary circulation flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
pulmonary vein one of two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenate blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
pyloric sphincter ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum
renal pelvis central collection region of the kidney
sigmoid colon fourth and last, s-shaped segment of the colon
sinoatrial node (SA node) pacemaker of the heart
stool solid wastes, feces
synapse space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells
systole contraction phase of the heart beat
tricuspid valve located between the right atrium and the right ventricle; it has three leaflets, or cusps
ureter one of two tubes leading from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
urethra tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
vena cava (pl. venae cavae) largest vein in the body
ventricle one of two lower chambers of the heart
ventricle of the brain canals in the brain that contain CSF
Alzheimer disease brain disorder marked by gradual and progressive mental deterioration (dementia), personality changes, and impairment of daily functioning
aneurysm local widening (dilation) of an arterial wall
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem
angina pectoris chest pain resulting from myocardial ischemia
anorexia lack of appetite
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
asthma chronic bronchial inflammatory disorder with airway obstruction due to bronchial edema, constriction, and increased mucus production
atelectasis collapsed lung; incomplete expansion of alveoli
atherosclerosis deposition of fatty compounds on the inner lining of the coronary arteries
borborygmus noisy stomach and GI tract
Bright disease glomerulonephritis
bundle branch block block of electrical impulses in the bundle branch
cerebral contusion bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) stroke; disruption in the normal blood supply to the brain
choleithiasis abnormal condition of gallstones
colonic polyposis polyps protrude from mucous membrane of colon
concussion temporary brain dysfunction (brief loss of consciousness) after injury, usually clearing within 24 hours
Chron disease chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract
croup acute viral infection of infants and children with obstruction of the larynx, barking cough, and stridor
cystic fibrosis (CF) inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in thick mucous secretions in the respiratory tract that do not drain normally
diphtheria acute infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract caused by diphtheria bacterium
diverticula pouch-like herniations through the muscular wall of the colon
emphysema hyperinflation of the air sacs with destruction of the alveolar walls
epistaxis nosebleed
fibrillation very rapid, random, inefficient, and irregular contractions of the heart
flatus gas expelled through the anus
flutter rapid, but regular contractions of the heart
glomerulonephritis inflammation of the glomeruli within a kidney
grand mal seizure tonic-clonic seizure
heart block failure of proper conduction of electricity of the SA and AV nodes and bundle of His within the heart
hematochezia passage of fresh, bright red blood from the anus
hematoma a tumor of blood; bruise
hemiplegia paralysis of the right or left half of the body
hiatal hernia when the upper part of the stomach protrudes upward through the diaphragm
inguinal hernia when a small loop of bowel protrudes through a weak lower abdominal muscle
intussusception telescoping of the intestines
jaundice yellow-orange coloration of the skin and eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood
melena black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood
mononucleosis infectious disease marked by increased numbers of leukocytes and enlarged cervical lymph nodes
multiple sclerosis (MS) destruction of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS and its replacement by plaques of sclerotic tissue
murmur extra heart sound heard between normal beats
myocardial infarction heart attack
nephrolithiasis kidney stone
paraplegia paralysis of both legs and lower part of body caused by injury or disease of the spinal cord and cauda equina
pertussis whooping cough
petit mal seizure absence seizures
pleural rub scratchy sound heard on auscultation produced by pleural surfaces rubbing against each other
pneumoconiosis abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs
pneumothorax collection of air in the pleural space
polycystic kidney disease multiple fluid-filled sacs within and on the kidney
pyelonephritis inflammation of the lining of the renal pelvis and kidney
quadriplegia Paralysis of all four extremeties
rales fine, crackling sound heard on auscultation
renal failure kidney decreases excretion of wastes as a result of impaired filtration function
spina bifida cystica congenital defect in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts with cyst-like protusions
spina bifida occulta congenital defect in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts but the defect is covered by skin
sputum material expelled from the bronchi, lungs, or upper respiratory tract by spitting
stridor strained, high-pitched sound heard on inspiration caused by obstruction in the pharynx or larynx
tetralogy of Fallot congenital malformation involving four distinct heart defects
transient ischemic attacks short episodes of neurologic dysfunction
ulcerative colitis chronic inflammation of the colon with the presence of ulcers
volvulus twisting of the intestine on itself
wheeze continuous high pitched whistling sound heard during breathing
Wilms tumor malignant tumor of the kidney occurring in childhood
auscultation listening to sounds within the body with a stethescope
barium enema x-ray image of colon and rectum after injection of barium into the rectum
barium swallow x-ray image of esophagus, stomach, and small intestine obtained after administering barium by mouth
blood urea nitrogen (BUN) measurement of the urea levels in the blood
Babinski's reflex dorsiflextion of the big toe when the sole of the foot is stimulated
cardioversion the restoration of normal sinus rhythm by chemical or electrical means
cystoscopy direct visualization of the urethra and urinary bladder with an endoscope
defibrillation brief discharges of electricity are applied across the chest to stop dysrhythmias
electrocardiogram record of the electricity flowing through the heart
hemodialysis uses an artificial kidney machine that receives waste-willed blood from the patient's bloodstream, filters it, and returns the dialyzed blood to the patient's body
Holter monitor An ECG device that is worn during a 24-hour period to detect cardiac arrhythmias
kidney ureter bladder (KUB) x-ray exam (without contrast) of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder; to study size and location of kidneys
laminectomy the excision of a vertebral posterior arch, usually to remove a lesion or a herniated disc
Mantoux test a tuberculin test using PPD (purified protein derivative) given by intradermal injection
myelography x-ray imaging of the spinal canal after injection of contrast medium into the subarachnoid space
paracentesis surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen
percussion tapping on a surface to determine the difference in the density of the underlying structure
peritoneal dialysis (PD) separation of waste from the blood by using a peritoneal catheter and dialysis
Romberg test the inability to maintain body balance when the eyes are shut and the feet are close together; sensory ataxia
serum enzyme test chemicals measured in blood as evidence of a heart attack
sphygmomanometer instrument to measure the pressure of the pulse
spirometer an instrument used to measure the volume and rate of air passing into and out of the lungs
stool culture test for presence of microorganisms in feces
stool guaic test to detect occult (hidden) blood in feces
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) technique using a battery-powered device to relieve acute and chronic pain
extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) the fragmentation of kidney stones with an ESWL (lithotriptor)
a.c. before meals
ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
BBB bundle branch block
BE barium enema
bid two times a day
BM bowel movement
BP blood pressure
BUN blood urea nitrogen
CAPD continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
CHD coronary heart disease
CHF chronic heart failure
CRF chronic renal failure
CVA cerebrovascular accident
EEG electroencephalogram
EENT eyes, ears, nose, throat
EKG electrocardiogram
ESRD end stage renal disease
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease
GI gastrointestinal
hs hour of sleep
IVP intravenous pyelogram
MI myocardial infarction
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MS multiple sclerosis
MVP mitral valve prolapse
NPO nothing by mouth
p.c. after meals
p.o. by mouth
Pco2 partial pressure carbon dioxide
Po2 partial pressure oxygen
PPD purified protein derivative
prn as needed
PVC premature ventricular contraction
q6h every 6 hours
qd every day
qh every hour
qid four times a day
qod every other day
SOB shortness of breath
TB tuberculosis
TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
TIA transischemic attack
tid three times a day
TPN total parenteral nutrition
UA urinalysis
URI upper respiratory infection
UTI urinary tract infection
n/a
spongy porous bone tissue is also called cancellous bone
a generalized defect in bone development is called osteodystrophy
chronic inflammation of bones and joints due to degenerative changes in cartilage is called osteoarthritis
the ends of a long bone are called the epiphyses
red bone marrow is found in spongy or __ bone cancellous
the bones of a fetus are mainly composed of cartilage tissue
during bone development immature bones cells called ____ produce bony tissue osteoblasts
the medical name for the shoulder bone is the scapula
the medical name for the upper arm bone is the humerus
medical name for the thigh bone is the femur
Connective tissue that binds bones to other bones is a ligament
Fluid found within the joint is called __________ fluid synovial
Adduction means movement toward the midline
Supination means turning the palm forward
A fracture in which the bone is partially broken and partially bent on the opposite side is called greenstick fracture
A splintered or crushed bone is called comminuted fracture
Surgical repair of a joint is called arthroplasty
A chronic joint disease with inflamed and painful joints; marked by swollen and thickened synovial membranes is _______. rheumatoid arthritis
Displacement of a bone from its joint is called dislocation
The incision of a joint is called arthrotomy
na