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50 terms

Chapter 4 - anatomy/Physiology

Clinical and vocabulary terminology
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abcess
The accumulation of pus within an enclosed tissue space
adhesions
restrictive fibrous connections that can result from surgerym infectionm or other injuries to serous membranes
anaplasia
an irreversible change in teh size, shape of tissue cells
antiangiogenesis factor
a secretion, produced by chondrocytes, that inhibits the growth of blood vessels
ascites
the accumulation of fluid in teh peritoneal cavity, usually caused by liver or kidney disease or heart failure
dysplasia
a reversible change in the normal shape, size, and organization of tissue cells
exfoliative cytology
the study of cells shed or collected from epithelial surfaces
liposuction
a surgical procedure to remove unwanted adipose tissue by sucking it out through a tube
metaplasia
a reversiblle structural change that alters the character of a tissue
necrosis
tissue destruction that occurs after cells have been injured or destroyed; a result of the release of lysosomal enzmes through autolysis
pathologists
physicians who specialize in the study of diseas processes
pericarditis
inflammation of the pericardial lining that may lead to the accumulation of pericardial fluid (pericardial effusion)
peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum after infection or injury
pleuritis
ubflammation of the pleural cavities; may cause the production of a sound known as a "pleural rub"
regeneration
the repairing of injured tissue that follows inflammation
CAMs
cell adhesion molecules: transmembrane proteins bind to wach other and to extracellular materials
intercellular cement
thin layer of proteoglycans: glycosaminoglycans (hyaluronan)
cell junctions
soecialized areas of the cell membrane that attach a cell to another cell or to extracellular materials: three common types - tight, gap, and desmosomes
tight junction
a continuous adhesion belt forms a band; prevent that passage of water and solutes between cells
gap junction
two cells held together by interlockingjunctional proteins called connexons; narrow passageway that allow small molecules and ions to pass from cell to cell
desmosomes
typically formed by two cells; abundant between cells in the superficial layers of the skin. two types of desmosomes: button and hemidesmosomes
button desmosomes
small discs connected to bands of intermediate fibers; intermediate fibers function as cross-braces to stabilize the shape of the cell
hemidesmosomes
half of a button desmosome; attaches one cell to extracellular filaments in the basal lamina
lamina lucida
acts as a barrier that restricts the movement of proteins and other large molecules from underlying connective tissue into the epithelium
lamina densa
contains bundles of coarse protein fibers produced by the connective tissue cells; gives the basement membrane its strength; acts as a filter determining what substances can diffuse between adjacent tissue and the eprthelium
germinative cells
know as stem cells, located near basal lamina; Only way epithelium can maintain its structure over time is the their continual division
basal lamina
two-part - lamina lucida and lamina densa; attaches the inner surface of the epithelium
simple epithelium
one layer of cells covering the basal lamina; fragile; line internal compartments and passageways including the ventral bady cavities, the heart chambersm and blood vessels
stratified epithelium
several layers of cells covering the basal lamina; surface of skin and he lining of he mouth
squamous epithelium
thin, flat, and somewhat irregular in shape; the disc-shaped nucleus occupies the thickesst portions of each cell
simple squamous epithelium
most delicate type of epithelium; located in protected regions where absorption or giffusion takes place; slick, slippery surfaces reduce friction
mesothelium
lines ventral body cavity; pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium contain superficial layer
endothelium
linning the inner surface of the heart, and all blood vessels
stratified squamous epithelium
series of layers (plywood); surface of skin, lining of mouth, esophagus, and anus are areas of this type of epithelium
keratinized
apical layers of epitheliual cells are packed with filaments of protei keratin; resulting in the superficial layers toughness and water resistance
cuboidal epithelia
resemble hexagonal boxes; nucleus near center of cell; provides protection and occurs where secretion or absorption takes place; lines kidney tubules
stratified cuboidal epithelia
relatively rare; located along the ducts of sweat glands, and larger ducts of the mammary glands
transitional epithelia
tolerates repeated cycles of stretching and recoil without damage; changes appearance as it stretches; found in regionjs of the urinary bladder
Pap test
sampling procedure toscreen for cervical cancer: scraping cells from the tip of the cervix; cancer
amniocentesis
shed epithelial cells are collected from a sample of amnioic fluid; examination can determine whether or not the fetus has a genetic abnormality - Down syndrome
columnar epithelium
taller and more slender than cuboidal epithelium
pseudostratified columnar epothelium
gives the appearance of being layered; typically possess cilia -line nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi, and portions of the male reproductive tract
stratified columnar epithelia
relatively rare: providing protection along portions of the pharynx, epiglottus, anus, and the urethra, also a few large excretory ducts
glandular epithelia
contain gland cells specialized for secretion; range from scattered cells - complex glandular organs
endocrine glands
release secretions into the interstitial fluid (hormones)
exocrine glands
release secretions into passageways called ducts that open onto an epithelial surface
merocrine secretion
mode of secretion; released from secretory vesicle by exocytosis - most common mode of secretion
mucus
effective lubricant, protective barrier, and sticky trap for foreign particles and microorganisms
apocrine secretion
involves the loss of cytoplasm as wll as secretory product; apical portion of cytoplasm becomes packed with secretory vesicles and is then shed; leave the cell intact and able to continue secreting
holocrine secretion
destroys the gland cell; the entire cell becomes packeds with secretory products and then bursts; releasing secretion, but killing the cell