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restrictive fibrous connections that can result from surgerym infectionm or other injuries to serous membranes
a secretion, produced by chondrocytes, that inhibits the growth of blood vessels
the accumulation of fluid in teh peritoneal cavity, usually caused by liver or kidney disease or heart failure
tissue destruction that occurs after cells have been injured or destroyed; a result of the release of lysosomal enzmes through autolysis
inflammation of the pericardial lining that may lead to the accumulation of pericardial fluid (pericardial effusion)
ubflammation of the pleural cavities; may cause the production of a sound known as a "pleural rub"
cell adhesion molecules: transmembrane proteins bind to wach other and to extracellular materials
soecialized areas of the cell membrane that attach a cell to another cell or to extracellular materials: three common types - tight, gap, and desmosomes
a continuous adhesion belt forms a band; prevent that passage of water and solutes between cells
two cells held together by interlockingjunctional proteins called connexons; narrow passageway that allow small molecules and ions to pass from cell to cell
typically formed by two cells; abundant between cells in the superficial layers of the skin. two types of desmosomes: button and hemidesmosomes
small discs connected to bands of intermediate fibers; intermediate fibers function as cross-braces to stabilize the shape of the cell
half of a button desmosome; attaches one cell to extracellular filaments in the basal lamina
acts as a barrier that restricts the movement of proteins and other large molecules from underlying connective tissue into the epithelium
contains bundles of coarse protein fibers produced by the connective tissue cells; gives the basement membrane its strength; acts as a filter determining what substances can diffuse between adjacent tissue and the eprthelium
know as stem cells, located near basal lamina; Only way epithelium can maintain its structure over time is the their continual division
two-part - lamina lucida and lamina densa; attaches the inner surface of the epithelium
one layer of cells covering the basal lamina; fragile; line internal compartments and passageways including the ventral bady cavities, the heart chambersm and blood vessels
several layers of cells covering the basal lamina; surface of skin and he lining of he mouth
thin, flat, and somewhat irregular in shape; the disc-shaped nucleus occupies the thickesst portions of each cell
simple squamous epithelium
most delicate type of epithelium; located in protected regions where absorption or giffusion takes place; slick, slippery surfaces reduce friction
lines ventral body cavity; pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium contain superficial layer
stratified squamous epithelium
series of layers (plywood); surface of skin, lining of mouth, esophagus, and anus are areas of this type of epithelium
apical layers of epitheliual cells are packed with filaments of protei keratin; resulting in the superficial layers toughness and water resistance
resemble hexagonal boxes; nucleus near center of cell; provides protection and occurs where secretion or absorption takes place; lines kidney tubules
stratified cuboidal epithelia
relatively rare; located along the ducts of sweat glands, and larger ducts of the mammary glands
tolerates repeated cycles of stretching and recoil without damage; changes appearance as it stretches; found in regionjs of the urinary bladder
sampling procedure toscreen for cervical cancer: scraping cells from the tip of the cervix; cancer
shed epithelial cells are collected from a sample of amnioic fluid; examination can determine whether or not the fetus has a genetic abnormality - Down syndrome
pseudostratified columnar epothelium
gives the appearance of being layered; typically possess cilia -line nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi, and portions of the male reproductive tract
stratified columnar epithelia
relatively rare: providing protection along portions of the pharynx, epiglottus, anus, and the urethra, also a few large excretory ducts
contain gland cells specialized for secretion; range from scattered cells - complex glandular organs
release secretions into passageways called ducts that open onto an epithelial surface
mode of secretion; released from secretory vesicle by exocytosis - most common mode of secretion
effective lubricant, protective barrier, and sticky trap for foreign particles and microorganisms
involves the loss of cytoplasm as wll as secretory product; apical portion of cytoplasm becomes packed with secretory vesicles and is then shed; leave the cell intact and able to continue secreting
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