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AP Biology Chapter 9 (Cellular Respiration)

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Starting with one molecule of isocitrate and ending with fumarate, what is the maximum number of ATP molecules that could be made through substrate-level phosphorylation is
1
How many molecules of Co2 would be produced by five turns of the citric acid cycle?`
10
How many reduced dinucleotides would be produced with four turns of the citric acid cycle?
4FADH2 and 12 NADH
Where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located?
Mitochondrial inner membrane
Which of the following occurs in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?
glycolysis and fermentation
When hydrogen ions are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane and into the intermembrane space, the result is the
creation of a proton gradient
Why is glycolysis considered to be one of the first metabolic pathways to have evolved?
it is found in the cytosol, does not involve oxygen, and is present in most organisms.
In liver cells, the inner mitochondrial membranes are about 5X the area of the outer mitochondrial membranes, and about 17X that of the cell's plasma membrane. What purpose does this serve?
It increases the surface for oxidative phosphorylation
Which of the following produces the most ATP when glucose is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water?
Oxidative phosphorylation
During cellular respiration, acetyl CoA accumulates in which location?
Mitochondrial matrix
Carbon dioxide is released during which of the following stages of cellular respiration
oxidation of acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle
What kind of metabolic poison would most directly interfere with gycolysis
an agent that closely resembles the structure of glucose but is not metabolized.
Which step consists of a phosphorylation reaction in which ATP is the phosphate source?
Step 1
In which reaction does an intermediate pathway become oxidized?
Step 3
In which step is an inorganic phosphate added to the reactant?
Step 3
Which step shows a split of one molecule into two smaller molecules?
Step 2
Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen is present or absent?
Glycolysis
How many carbon atoms are fed into the citric acid cycle as a result of one molecule of pyruvate?
2
When a molecule of NAD+ gains a hydrogen atom, the molecule becomes
reduced
Which metabolic pathway is common to both cellular respiration and fermentation
Glycolysis
During glycolysis, when glucose is catabolized to pyruvate, most of the energy of glucose is
retained in the pyruvate
The ATP made during glycolysis is generated by
substrate-level phosphorylation
During aerobic respiration, electrons travel downhill in which sequence?
food--> NADH --> electron transport chain --> oxygen
The primary role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to
act as an acceptor for electrons and hydrogen, forming water.
The direct energy source that drives ATP syntesis during respiratory oxidative phosphorylation is
The difference in H+concentrations on opposite sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane.
The molecule that functions as the reducing agent (electron donor) in a redox or oxidation-reduction reaction
loses electrons and loses energy
In addition to ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis?
NADH and pyruvate
One function of both alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation is to
oxidize NADH to NAD+
Where is ATP synthase located in the mitochondrion
inner membrane
Why are carbs and fats considered high energy foods?
They have a lot of electrons associated with hydrogen
Which of the following couples chemiosmosis to energy storage?
ATP synthase
These three steps result in the formation of
acetyl CoA, NADH, and CO2
Which of the following statements describes this reaction?
Glucose is oxidized and Oxygen is reduced
Which of the following normally occurs whether of not oxygen is present?
Glycolysis
Where does glycolysis take place?
Cytosol
A molecule that is phosphorylated
has an increased chemical reactivity; it is primed to do cellular work.
In the absence of oxygen, yeast cells obtain energy by fermentation, resulting in the production of
ATP, CO2, and ethanol (ethyl alcohol).
What is the term for metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules?
Catabolic pathways
A young animal has never had so much energy. He is brought to the veterinarian for help and is sent to the animal hospital for some tests. There they discover his mitochondria can use only fatty acids and amino acids for respiration, and his cells produce more lactate than normal. Of the following, what is the best explanation for his condition?
His mitochondria lack the transport protein that moves pyruvate across the outer mitochondiral membrane
During oxidative phosphorylation, water is formed. Where does oxygen for the synthesis of the water come from?
Molecular oxygen (O2)
Approximately how many molecules of ATP are produced from the complete oxidation of two molecules of glucose in cellular respiration?
76
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