134 terms

World History Final Terms (2nd Semester 2015)

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democracy
A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
principles of democracy
rule of law, limited government, consent of the governed, individual rights, representative government
republic
A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws.
Hammurabi
King of the Babylonian empire; creator of the Code of Hammurabi, one of the world's oldest codes of law. 1792 - 1750 BCE
philosophers
A thinker who uses logic and reason to investigate the nature of the universe, human society, and morality.
rule of law
An established principle which demands that no person is above the law, that no person can be punished by the state unless they breach the law, and that no person can be convicted of breaking the law except in the manner set forth by law
Athens
A city-state of ancient Greece that was first to have a democracy; also known as the birthplace of Western civilization; the ancient capital of present-day Greece.
Sparta
A powerful Greek city-state that was often at war with Athens. was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts
Socrates
(470-399 BCE) An Athenian philosopher who thought that human beings could lead honest lives and that honor was far more important than wealth, fame, or other superficial attributes.
Aristotle
(384-322 BCE) Believed, unlike his teacher Plato, that philosophers could rely on their senses to provide accurate information about the world. Analyzed all forms of government and favored rule by a strong, virtuous leader
Plato
427-347 BC; Socrates' most famous student; described the ideal form of government in his famous book, The Republic.
Charlemagne
800 AD crowned by the Pope as the first head of the Holy Roman Empire, brought back unified rule to Europe
polis
A city-state in ancient Greece
Voltaire
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
John Locke
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
Simon Bolivar
The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
Thomas Jefferson
3rd President of the United States , He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Montesquieu
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers
Isaac Newton
(1642-1727) English scientist who formulated the law of gravitation that posited a universe operating in accord with natural law.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
Adam Smith
Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economics. Seen today as the father of Capitalism. Wrote On the Wealth of Nations (1776) One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment.
Thomas Hobbes
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
Bill of Rights
A formal statement of the fundamental rights of the people of the United States, incorporated in the Constitution as Amendments 1-10, and in all state constitutions.
King Louis xvi
(1754-1793) King of France from 1774 to 1792; he was unpopular for taxes that he imparted on his people, was king at the beginning of the French Revolution, was deposed by the National Convention and guillotined.
1st estate
"The Clergy"--Make up 1% of the population. Religious leaders who own 10% of the land. Did not pay taxes.
2nd estate
"The Nobles"---Make up 2% of population, but owns 25% of land. Paid no taxes, held highest offices in government. Controlled the most wealth.
3rd estate
"The 97% of population, 65 % of land, 3 levels of the Estate. Paid the most taxes and had little political power.
storming the Bastille
In Paris, rumors flew about foreign troops coming to pairs to massacre French citizens. People gathered weapon to defend the city, and stormed the bastille to search for gunpowder and arms. They killed guards,. Fall of Bastille became a great symbolic act of revolution to the French people
women's march on Paris
Morning of October 5 1789, riots of women due to rising prices of bread
Guillotine
A machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
Reign of Terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed.
Robespierre
a French lawyer and politician, and one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution.
one of the main leaders in the Reign of Terror.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution. Stated that "men are born and remain free and equal in rights"?
Marie Antoinette
Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
Napoleon Bonaparte
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
Meeting of Estates General
Louis 16th meeting to address national voting rights. addresses first and second class first. makes third wait two hours. third estate gets pissed and creates own parliment called French National Assembly
Battle of Waterloo
The Battle of Waterloo, fought on 18 June 1815, was Napoleon Bonaparte's last battle. His defeat put a final end to his rule as Emperor of the French. Waterloo also marked the end of the period known as the Hundred Days, which began in March 1815 after Napoleon's return from Elba, where he had been exiled after his defeats at the Battle of Leipzig in 1813 and the campaigns of 1814 in France.
Napoleonic Code
A comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon. They granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy
Urbanization
An increase in the percentage of the number of people living in urban settlements
seed drill
created by Jethro Tull, it allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specific depths; this boosted crop yields
capitalism
An economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
suffrage
Right to vote. The legal right to vote, extended to African Americans by the Fifteenth Amendment, to women by the Nineteenth Amendment, and to people over the age of 18 by the Twenty-sixth Amendment.
Communist Manifesto
This is the 1848 book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which urges an uprising by workers to seize control of the factors of production from the upper and middle classes.
industrialization
Development of a system which supports machine production of goods. This gradually changed the way that things were produced, starting in the mid 18th century, but escalating greatly by the mid 19th century.
vaccine
A weakened or inactive version of a pathogen that stimulates the body's production of antibodies which can aid in destroying the pathogen
pasteurization
A process of heating food to a temperature that is high enough to kill most harmful bacteria without changing the taste of the food.
germ theory
the theory that infectious diseases are caused by certain microbes
tenement buildings
crowded and usually rundown buildings with many small, cheap apartments
labor unions
An organization formed by workers to strive for better wages and working conditions
laissez-fair economics
allowing business to operate with little to no government interference
steam engine
invention that allowed factories to run machines and rely on manufacturing made industrialization possible. An external-combustion engine in which heat is used to make steam which either turns a turbine or forces a piston to move up and down in a cylinder.
imperialism of Africa
European countries take over African land (minus Ethiopia and Liberia) for economic, moral, territorial and defensive reasons
motives of imperialism
Economic, political, religious, exploratory, and ideological reasons.
Gandhi
This was a leader of the Indian independence movement in mid-20th century known for his nonviolent protests.
Nationalism
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
Social Darwinism
19th century of belief that evolutionary ideas theorized by Charles Darwin could be applied to society.
Berlin Conference
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa
Boer War
(1899-1902) War between Great Britain and the Boers in South Africa over control of rich mining country. Great Britain won and created the Union of South Africa comprised of all the South African colonies.
Boxer Rebellion
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops.
Treaty of Nanjing
(1842) An unequal treaty between Great Britain and China resulting from the Opium War. The treaty stated that China was to reimburse Britain for costs incurred fighting the war. The Chinese were forced to open several ports to British trade, provide Britain with complete control of Hong Kong, and grant extraterritoriality to British citizens living in China.
Westernization
adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture
Sepoy Rebellion
The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny.
Triple Alliance
Alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to World War I.
Triple Entente
A military alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia in the years preceding World War I.
Zimmerman Telegram
A telegram Germany Sent to Mexico to convince Mexico to attack the U.S.
MAIN causes of WW1
militarism, alliances, imperialism, nationalism
Treaty of Versailles
(WW) 1918, , Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
trench warfare
A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield.
Lusitania
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
Wilson's 14 Points
A series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.
propoganda
Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
heir to the throne of Austria Hungary; assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a bosnian serb.; sparked WWI
'No Mans Land"
Territory between rival Trenches, very dangerous
Rasputin
Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues.
Stalin
Dictator of the Soviet Union; led the SU through World War II and created a powerful Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe after the war
Czar Nicholas Romanov II
the last czar of russia. believed in absolute monarchy. a weak ruler, and was murdered by lenin's orders, along with his family
VI Lenin
leader of the Bolsheviks, revolutionary and enemy of czarist Russia, dedicated to violent revolution
Bolsheviks
A group of revolutionary Russian Marxists who took control of Russia's government in November 1917
Gulags
Forced labor camps set up by Stalin in eastern Russia. Dissidents were sent to the camps, where conditions were generally brutal. Millions died.
communists
people who favor the equal distribution of wealth and the end of all forms of private property
Reds vs Whites
the Red Army founded by Trotsky fought against the counterrevolutionaries (landowners and middle-class) which were referred to as the "Whites"- the whites had the support of the Allied forces
collective farming
Russian farmers forced to pool their land and work on large cooperative farms
proletariat
Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
totalitarianism
Government ruled by a single party and/or person that exerts unlimited control over its citizen's lives.
show trials
Trials in which Stalin's opponents were eliminated through fabricated evidence and coerced confessions
Mao Zedong
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
cultural revolution
Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation.
Adolf Hitler
Austrian born Dictator of Germany, implement Fascism and caused WWII and Holocaust.
gestapo
secret police in Nazi Germany
Benito Mussolini
(1883-1945) Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance.
black shirts
A private army under Mussolini who destroyed socialist newspapers, union halls, and Socialist party headquarters, eventually pushing Socialists out of the city governments of Northern Italy.
NKVD
Stalin's secret police
fascism
A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
socialism
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
communism
A political and economic system where factors of production are collectively owned and directed by the state.
nazism
An extreme form of facism shaped by Hitler's fanatical ideas about German nationalism and racial superiority
Operation Barbossa
was the codename for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II that commenced on June 22, 1941. the largest military operation in WWII.
D-day invasion
Allied troops landed at Normandy Beach to start liberating France from German control
Rhineland
A region in Germany designated a demilitarized zone by the Treaty of Versailles; Hitler violated the treaty and sent German troops there in 1936
appeasement
A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. Associated with Chamberlain's policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler.
blitzkrieg
"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939
Manhattan Project
Code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
big three
allies during WWII; Soviet Union - Stalin, United Kingdom - Churchill, United States - Roosevelt
Winston Churchil
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
axis powers
Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II.
Hiroshima
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.
Nagasaki
Japanese city on which the United States dropped an atomic bomb on August 9, 1945, bringing the Japanese surrender and an end to World War II
allies
An alliance between Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, China, and the United States in World War II
RAF
Britain's Royal Air Force
luftwaffe
German air force during WWII
Sudenland
The German name to refer to those northern, southwest, southeast and western areas of Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by German speakers.
diaspora
People who come from a common ethnic background but who live in different regions outside of the home of their ethnicity
anti-semitism
hostility to or prejudice against Jews.
Hitler's blood hierarchy
The racial policy of Nazi Germany included policies and laws implemented in Nazi Germany (1933-45) based on a specific racist doctrine asserting the superiority of the Aryan race, which claimed scientific legitimacy.
blood libel myth
an accusation that Jews kidnapped and murdered the children of Christians in order to use their blood as part of their religious rituals during Jewish holidays.
Nuremberg Laws
laws approved by the Nazi Party in 1935, depriving Jews of German citizenship and taking some rights away from them
blut un boden (blood and soil)
an ideology that focuses on ethnicity based on two factors, descent blood (of a folk) and territory. It celebrates the relationship of a people to the land they occupy and cultivate, and it places a high value on the virtues of rural living.
Kristallnacht
(Night of the Broken Glass) November 9, 1938, when mobs throughout Germany destroyed Jewish property and terrorized Jews.
final solution
'The Final Solution for the Jewish Question' was the cover name for Hitler's plan to destroy all the Jews in Europe, It began in December 1941
liberation
A state of freedom reached after a struggle
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Truman Doctrine
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology.
Warsaw Pact
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
Berlin Wall
A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.
Marshall Plan
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
Iron Curtian
Term coined by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the political division of Europe between free (W. Europe) and represed (Eastern Europe) during the cold war
Brinksmanship
The principle of not backing down in a crisis, even if it meant taking the country to the brink of war. Policy of both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.
Detente
A lessening of tensions between U.S. and Soviet Union. Besides disarming missiles to insure a lasting peace between superpowers, Nixon pressed for trade relations and a limited military budget. The public did not approve.
Cuban Missile Crisis
1962 crisis that arose between the United States and the Soviet Union over a Soviet attempt to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba
MAD
Mutually Assured Destruction
fall of the Soviet Union
Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev started to give more freedom to people which led to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991
domino theory
A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
United Nations (UN)
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
superpowers
Name for the u.S. and Soviet Union after World War II because we were the two strongest countries in the world.
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