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consists of 2 layers: endothelium and subendocardial CT; wraps around the internal structures of the heart
consists of 2 layers: CT (subepicardium) layer and mesothelium (visceral layer of serious pericardium)
death of cardiac muscle cells due to ischemia;
scarring repairs heart wall since cardiac myocytes cannot be replaced; results in cardiac hypertrophy due to the increased size of individual cardiac myocytes (NOT increased # of cells)
dense irregular CT consisting fibrocollagen and chondroid; (1) attachment site for cardiac muscle, (2) AV separation facilitates conduction, (3) maintains valve patency
CT rings around the openings of each valve; maintains their shape while holding them open
(R one is pierced by the AV bundle of HIS)
triangular CT between the valves; supportive structures
at junction of SVC and atria; pacemaker cells fire 70 bpm, (para)sympathetic inn MODIFY rate of depolarization (DONT initiate impulse b/c it's intrinsic)
found near atrial septum by tricuspid valve; follower cells that pick up the conduction signal
AV bundle of HIS
leave AV node, pierce R. trigone, and enter the IV septum where they divide into L and R branches
impulse from bundle branch runs from apex up toward the base allowing contraction to push blood toward outflow tracts
leaky cells (Na+ into cell causes depolarization wave thus initiating contraction); unstable RMP
modified cardiac muscle cells; start in bundle branches and go into the subendocardial plexus; lots of gap junctions for impulse transfer
simple squamous endothelial lining with a subendothelial CT and a fenestrated internal elastic lamina
consists of circularly oriented SM, elastic and collagen fibers, external elastic lamina; prominent in arteries; replaced by pericytes in capillaries and venules; reduces lumen of the vessel
dense irregular CT with vaso vasorum and longitudinally oriented elastic fibers ; prominent in veins; keeps vessels from distending
remodeling of the tunica intima into a thickened structure with fatty streaks (accumulated cholesterol in SM) and plaques; immune condition attracts macrophages which ingest LDL but inability to process LDL creates foam cells
large lumen, thin walls, numerous elastic lamellae; has a t. intima characterized by 40-70 layers of elastic sheets; func= maintain BP within vessel during diastole due to passive contraction of elastic lamellae; "conducting"
round lumen, prominent scalloped IEL, thick t.media made of 30-40 layers of SM; "distributing": regulate flow to diff. parts of the body as needed
~IEL, no EEL, only 1-3 layers of SM, minimal t.adventitia; feeds the capillary bed to supply metarteriole or AV shunt
beginning of the central channel; scattered SMCs; opens into true capillaries (which are smaller)
distal end of the central channel; no SMCs; drains true capillaries into the venule
alternate channel that directly links the arteriole and venule; bypasses capillaries to conserve heat; 2-3 layers of SM
simple squamous epithelium; tube of endothelial cells; no media (no SM); some pericytes; func= thin-walled for rapid (transport and secretion) exchange with parenchyma
myoepithelial cells on capillary and venule walls that form gap junctions for communication; contractile mech. aids in controlling the diameter of the capillary lumen
found in muscle, CT, gut; connected by tight junctions, continuous basal lamina around the endothelium
found in endocrine/exocrine glands, intestinal villi, pancreas, renal glomeruli; onnected by tight junctions, continuous basal lamina around the endothelium; holes perforating through the cytoplasm
found in spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver; irregularly shaped with large gaps between endothelial cells; discontinuous basal lamina
help form basal lamina; secrete collagen type IV; produce signals for extravasation and diapedesis; secrete substances that affect vascular tone; produce clotting factors
von willebrand factor
glycoprotein that promoted coagulation of platelets during clotting; found in weibel-palade (secretory) bodies of endothelial cells
von willebrand's disease
genetic disease that destroys VWF thus slowing down coagulation and causing excessive bleeding
collects blood from capillary beds; companion to arterioles; irregular lumen, thinner but larger than arterioles; no media (no SM); WBCs like to exit here
medium sized veins
companion to muscular arteries; thinner but larger than than muscular arteries; ~IEL, no EEL, thick t.adventitia; only vessels that contains valves
protrusions of the intima into the medium veinlumen of the vein; ensure unidirectional flow of blood; usually in extremities
dilation of the wall behind the leaflet; close and balloon out the leaflets when blood tries to back flow in the wrong direction
large tortuous (usually superficial) veins on surface of legs due to excess venous pressure; causes distention and dilation of vessel walls (leaflets dont meet to prevent backflow)
large, thin wall (vs. lumen), low P vessels that return blood to heart; no valves, longitudinally-oriented SM in adventitia, no IEL, reduced t.media thickness, thick t. adventitia; vaso vasorum
delicate, have valves to direct fluid back to heart which is taken to nodes for filtering before returning it to the blood vascular system
L thoracic duct
begins as cisterna chyli at level of diaphragm; drains 2/3 body; drains into subclavian vein
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