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cremaster muscle

elevate the testes to regulate temperature

sustentacular cells

Serve to protect and support the developing spermatogenic cells. They secrete testicular fluid for movement of sperm in the lumen.

Seminal Vesicles

ie on the posterior bladder surface. They store fructose sugar, ascorbic acid, a coagulating enzyme (vesiculase), prostoglandins and other substances that enhance sperm motility or fertilizing ability.

Prostate Gland

Encircles the urethra inferior to the bladder. It helps activate sperm during ejaculation

Bulbourethral Glands

Located inferior to the prostate. Produce a thick clear mucus that drains into the spongy urethra and lubricates the glans penis when a man is sexually aroused. The mucus also helps neutralize traces of urine in the urethra prior to ejaculation.

Broad ligament

Encloses the ovarian ligaments. It is a peritoneal fold that "tents" over the uterus and supports the uterine tubes, uterus and vagina, connecting them to the pelvic wall.

Ovarian ligament

Anchors the ovary medially to the uterus

Suspensory ligament

anchors the ovary laterally to the pelvic wall


art of the broad ligament, it supports the uterus laterally attaching it to the pelvis

Uterosacral ligament

Secure the uterus to the sacrum

Cardinal ligament

Extend from the cervix and superior vagina to the lateral walls of the pelvis

Round ligament

Uterus to the subcutaneous tissue of the labia majora


t is a membrane formed during pregnancy from the outer layer of the yolk sac. It forms villi that allows the transfer of nutrients from maternal blood to fetal blood through the endometrium.


The uterine lining during pregnancy that forms the maternal portion of the placenta.


Typically what day after ovulation does implantation occur?

From which does the integumentary system arise?

Ectoderm helps form the skin epidermis, while the mesoderm helps form the dermis of the ventral body region.


Which layer is closest to the blastocyst cavity?

Yolk Sac

What does the blastocyst cavity develop into?


Which layer is closest to the amniotic cavity?

cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast

What two layers develop from the trophoblast?


Inner layer of the trophoblast.Forms the chorion and chorionic villi.


uter layer of the trophoblast that invades the uterine wall, allowing the blastocyte to burrow into the endometrium resulting in implantation. Also produces hCG during pregnancy.

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

What hormone decreases during the end of gestation?


What hormone targets pubic symphysis?

Expulsion Stage

During which stage does crowning occur?

Beta endorphim, Oxytocin and Prolactin

What hormones are released during nursing?

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