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Southern Christian Leadership Conference, founded by MLK, which taught that civil rights could be achieved through nonviolent protests.


Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, founded by young black adults, seeking immediate change, not gradual.

Freedom Rides

Black and white volunteers started in Washington DC, and were determined to ride through the South to see if cities have complied with Supreme Court Legislation and integrated effectively.

March on Washington

200,000 people matched on Washington, advocating civil rights. This is where MLK made his famous "I have a dream..." speech.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Stated that the same standards had to be used to register white and black voters, that racial discrimination could not be used by employers to hire workers, that discrimination was illegal in all public locations, and that an Equal Employment Opportunity Commission would be created.

Kerner Commission

Created to investigate the riots that broke out in the "Watts" section of Los Angeles, Chicago, Newark, and Detroit, which were all poverty-ridden and the inhabitants felt that the Civil Rights Movement was doing nothing. The Commission reported that two societies existed in America, one white and rich, and other poor and black.

Nation of Islam

Also called the Black Muslims, preached to oppose integration, and that doing so would be to benefit the white society to keep blacks in poverty, and that blacks had to improve their position by themselves.

Black Nationalism

Spurred by Malcolm X and other black leaders, a call for black pride and advancement without the help of whites; this appeared to be a repudiation of the calls for peaceful integration urged by MLK.

Black Panthers

A group founded in Oakland, California, to protect blacks from police harassment; promoted militant black power.

American Indian Movement

(AIM) A Native American organization founded in 1968 to protest government policies and injustices suffered by Native Americans; in 1973, organized the armed occupation of Wounded Knee, South Dakota.

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