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That was the day __, a German priest, and __ friar posted his 95 theses on the church door in the little German city of __ where he lived
Indulgences were originally an acceptable way for people to __ penances they recieved in the sacrament of reconciliation
By Luther's day, the sale of __ had become a means of raising money for various purposes
Pope __ sold indulgences to raise money for the building of St. __ __ in __. Luther objected to this in particular
Luther became increasingly radical in his opinions and began to question not only the value of __ but also the good works, the authority of the __, the ordained priesthood, the monastic life, and most of the sacraments
Bishops, popes, councils
By November 1518, Luther had also appealed to a church council. Later he declared that he didn't need __, __, or __ and appealed to scripture as his __
We call the followers of Martin Luther __. Fighting broke out between Catholics and Lutherans
In those areas of Germany where Lutherans won control, major changes occured in the religious like of the people. The local catholic parish church became the local Lutheran parish church headed not by a priest, but a __, who was often a married man with a __
The Latin mass was replaced by a __ service celebrated in German with participation by the congregation
Although Luther rejected the sacrafice of the mass, he believed firmly in the real presence of Christ in the __
Zwingli, a priest in the Swiss city of __, insisted that the Eucharist was only __, a __ to remind us of the last supper
Luther thought Zwingli was too __ but there were other Protestants who were even more radical
Some anapabtist groups, such as the Amish and Mennonites, eventually emigrated to __, where the Quakers gave them refuge in colonial __
Calvin had a fine mind, some would say sharper than __, and his ideas, not his personality, attracted followers
Of course he shared many of Luther's teachings, including his rejection of the Catholic church and his belief that salvation comes from __ alone and that the __ was supreme authority in religious matters
Unlike Luther, __ believed in double __, a grim doctrine according to which God chooses some people for __ and some for __
For Calvin, Christ becomes __ present to the recipient at the moment of recieving __
During the reign of Queen __, most English Calvanists reained members of the Church of England
But they were reluctant members because they thought that this English Protestant church was too __
They were called __ because of their desire to __ the church of England of such traditions as bishops, vestments, and an elaborate liturgy
In fact, after 1550, Calvanism replaced Lutheranism as the leading edge of the Protestant __
Defense of the 7 Sacraments
In 1521 King __ wrote, or claimed to write, a book entitled __ of the __ __
The pope was so grateful that he gave Henry the title defender of the __ which is still used by English monarchs today
Henry VIII didn't deny any catholic __ and he rejected __ authority for __ rather than religious reasons
Mass was still offered in __; the sacraments were still celebrated; the rythmn of parish life wasn't interrupted
Of all the bishops in England, only __ had the courage to challange the king, John __, bishop of __
Both men paid a high price for their courage, the king __ them within weeks of each other in 1535
However, __ Henry's son, was only a child when he was crowned, and he and his advisors were devout __
It was During the short reign of this boy king that the __ reformation was really introduced into England
The key figure in bringing about this change was Thomas __, the archbishop of Canterbury, who now had a free hand to make the changes that he dared not attempt while Henry was alive
However no catholic could accept it because it rejected both the sacrifice of the mass and belief in the real presence of __ in the Eucharist
After the death of Edward VI a conservative reaction brough to the throne Henry's daughter __
She wanted to restore __ in England but unfortunately she tried to do it largely by __
She died without an heir leaving the crown to her half sister __ who was to reign for 45 years
She was a strong ruler and skilled politician who wanted religious peace through __ compromise
Then she set about fashioning a middle of the road Protestant church in England. The doctrine of this new church was solidly __
However Elizabeth left intact the catholic form of church government with __ and __
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