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An arc of rich farmland in Southwest Asia, between the Persian Gulf and Mediterranean Sea
King of the Babylonian empire; creator of the Code of Hammurabi, one of the world's oldest codes of law.
flat, low-lying land built up from soil carried downstream by a river and deposited at its mouth
a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations)
One of the animal bones or tortoise shells used by ancient Chinese priests to communicate with the gods.
mandate of heaven
in Chinese history, the divine approval thought to be the basis of royal authority
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
march aggressively into another's territory by military force for the purposes of conquest and occupation
the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim era
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