in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
the first stage of mitosis in eukaryotic cell division, during which the nuclear envelope breaks down and strands of chromatin form into chromosomes
the second stage of mitosis. The chromosomes attach to the spindle fibers and line up in the center of the cell.
The third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
the final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes
The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells.
A nucleic acid found in all living cells which carries the organism's hereditary information. Also known as DNA.
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information (DNA) that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
an organelle in the cytoplasm of a living cell. This organelle is the site of protein synthesis.
the cellular process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
basic building blocks of protein molecules. Amino acids connect together to build protein (polypeptide) strands
a class of nutrients that builds body tissues and supplies energy. protein is made of amino acids.
A single nucleotide is replaced by a different nucleotide; this type of mutation does NOT result in a frameshift mutation.
One or more nucleotides are added to a gene, which can also result in a frameshift mutation.
One or more nucleotides are taken away from a gene, which can also result in a frameshift mutation
A mutation that changes the codon triplet of nucleotides; however, the codon still codes for the same protein as before the mutation.