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36 terms

Unit 3: DNA/RNA/Protein

These cards review the vocabulary related to biology's central dogma, DNA to RNA to Protein. Made for Rauner College Prep.
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Cell Cycle
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
G1
first phase of interphase; cell grows in size
S
second phase of interphase; genetic material makes a second copy (DNA Replication)
G2
The final period of interphase during which the cell prepares for mitosis.
Mitosis
in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
Prophase
the first stage of mitosis in eukaryotic cell division, during which the nuclear envelope breaks down and strands of chromatin form into chromosomes
Metaphase
the second stage of mitosis. The chromosomes attach to the spindle fibers and line up in the center of the cell.
Anaphase
The third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
Telophase
the final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes
Cytokinesis
The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells.
Deoxyribonucleic acid
A nucleic acid found in all living cells which carries the organism's hereditary information. Also known as DNA.
Double Helix
two strands of nucleotides wound about each other; structure of DNA
Nucleotide
building block of a nucleic acid (DNA and RNA)
Adenine
The purine base that pairs with Thymine in DNA. Also known as "A"
Guanine
The purine base that pairs with Cytosine in DNA. Also known as "G"
Cytosine
The pyrimidine base that pairs with Guanine in DNA. Also known as "C"
Thymine
The pyrimidine base that pairs with Adenine in DNA. Also known as "T"
Chagaff's rule
In DNA: A pairs with T; C pairs with G
In RNA: A pairs with U; C pairs with G
DNA replication
the process of making a copy of DNA. Occurs during the S phase of the cell cycle.
Chromosome
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information (DNA) that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
Gene
(genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a protein.
Ribosome
an organelle in the cytoplasm of a living cell. This organelle is the site of protein synthesis.
mRNA
messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
tRNA
transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
rRNA
ribosomal RNA; type of RNA that makes up the ribosome
Uracil
a nitrogen-containing base found in RNA (but not in DNA) and derived from pyrimidine
Transcription
the cellular process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
Translation
the cellular process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
Amino acid
basic building blocks of protein molecules. Amino acids connect together to build protein (polypeptide) strands
Protein
a class of nutrients that builds body tissues and supplies energy. protein is made of amino acids.
Mutation
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
Substitution Mutation
A single nucleotide is replaced by a different nucleotide; this type of mutation does NOT result in a frameshift mutation.
Insertion Mutation
One or more nucleotides are added to a gene, which can also result in a frameshift mutation.
Deletion Mutation
One or more nucleotides are taken away from a gene, which can also result in a frameshift mutation
Silent Mutation
A mutation that changes the codon triplet of nucleotides; however, the codon still codes for the same protein as before the mutation.
Frameshift
an error in the DNA in which the entire reading frame is altered; caused by an insertion or deletion. This can create early stop codons and drastically change the resulting protein, which could render the protein useless.