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Sociology Final

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Using a sociological perspective encourages

accepting conventional ideas.
challenging common sense, myths, and misconceptions.
seeing society as unpredictable.
people to become happier.
all of the above are correct.
challenging common sense, myths, and misconceptions.
Bill is a sociologist who studies poverty. He understands that an individual's poverty status is the result of larger economic situations and unemployment rates in the local community rather than the individual's personal problem. Bill is utilizing his

macrosociology.
microsociology.
research methodology.
common sense.
sociological imagination.
sociological imagination.
_____, who coined the term "sociology," is also known as the "father of sociology."

Auguste Comte
Emile Durkheim
Karl Marx
C. Wright Mills
Max Weber
Auguste Comte
Emile Durkheim, in his studies of suicide, found that _____, and concluded that _____ accounted for the variation in suicide rates.

males are more likely than females to commit suicide; social structure

females are more likely than males to commit suicide; social structure

males are more likely than females to commit suicide; social integration

females are more likely than males to commit suicide; social integration

none of the above
males are more likely than females to commit suicide; social integration
Which of the following major historical events strongly influenced Karl Marx?

The Enlightenment
Discovery of the New World
The French Revolution
The Industrial Revolution
World War I
The Industrial Revolution
Karl Marx believed that the key element in understanding human history and social change is to understand

family and its functions.
the role of education.
class conflict.
the importance of religion.
social organization.
class conflict
Unlike Marx, _____ focused on social organization, rather than the economy, to explain society.

Addams
Comte
Durkheim
Martineau
Weber
Weber
This early sociologist helped to found the NAACP and was himself a prominent Black sociologist.

W.E.B. DuBois
Booker T. Washington
Jesse Martin
Donald Black
George Herbert Mead
W.E.B. DuBois
Which of the following statements best exemplifies functionalist theory?

Society is composed of interrelated parts that work to maintain society's cohesion.

Society has continuous struggles between the "haves" and "have nots" and this inequality is the source of social change.

Gender inequality is the major source in inequality in society.

People act on the basis of the interpreted meanings attached to interaction with others.

None of the above exemplifies the functionalist theory.
Society is composed of interrelated parts that work to maintain society's cohesion.
Which of the following statements best exemplifies conflict theory?
Society has continuous struggles between the "haves" and "have nots" and this inequality is the source of social change.
Which of the following statements best exemplifies symbolic interactionist theory?

Society is composed of interrelated parts that work to maintain society's cohesion.

Society has continuous struggles between the "haves" and "have nots" and this inequality is the source of social change.

Gender inequality is the major source in inequality in society.

People act on the basis of the interpreted meanings attached to interaction with others.

None of the above exemplifies the symbolic interactionist theory
People act on the basis of the interpreted meanings attached to interaction with others.
Which of the following is true regarding social research being value free?

Social researchers must be value free from topic selection through the interpretation of data.

Social researchers always aim for being value free, but if they fail to meet that standard it is not such a big deal.

Although the topic selection may be subjective, the research must maintain objectivity when collecting, analyzing and interpreting data.

All of the above are true about social research.

None of the above is true about social research.
Although the topic selection may be subjective, the research must maintain objectivity when collecting, analyzing and interpreting data.
In her research project, Megan is measuring age, gender, GPA, and study habits. Age, gender, GPA and study habits are examples of

social inequality.
variables.
characteristics.
assets.
social issues.
variables
Which of the following is the correct order of the stages of the scientific method?

Literature review, topic selection, formulate hypothesis, collect data, analyze results

Topic selection, collect data, analyze results, literature review, analyze results

Literature review, collect data, formulate hypothesis, analyze results

Topic selection, formulate hypothesis, collect data, analyze results, present findings

Topic selection, literature review, formulate hypothesis, collect data, analyze results
Topic selection, literature review, formulate hypothesis, collect data, analyze results
Joanna is conducting a research project that examines whether parent's income impacts a child's choice of college. Joanna thinks that parents who make a lot of money will have children who will attend private schools and parents who make little money will have children who will attend public schools. "Parent's income" is the _____ in Joanna's

project.
validity
reliability
hypothesis
independent variable
dependent variable
independent variable
Gretchen is conducting a research project and is interviewing respondents about their fertility history. On the first day her respondent says that she has had three children. However, the next day, the respondent reports that she has only two children. This is an example of a problem with

validity.
reliability.
hypotheses.
variables.
methods.
reliability
If the researcher and the respondent interpret a research question differently, there is a problem with

reliability.
validity.
deduction.
accuracy.
objectivity.
validity
Ryan is examining children's books as part of a research project on gender images in the media. Ryan is using which of the following research approaches?

quantitative research
qualitative research
deductive research
inductive research
none of the above
qualitative research
Every ten years, the U.S. Census Bureau mails forms to every home in the United States to collect federally mandated data. The Census Bureau is using which of the following data collection methods?

secondary analysis
field research
experiment
survey
evaluation research
survey
Connor is reviewing birth and death certificates for persons living in Jefferson County. Connor is using which data collection method?

survey
evaluation research
secondary analysis
experiment
field research
secondary analysis
Marcus used a deductive approach to examine the relationship between two variables. Which of the following best represents a deductive approach?

theory --> hypothesis --> observation --> confirmation or rejection of hypothesis

theory --> observation --> hypothesis --> confirmation or rejection of hypothesis

observation --> theory --> hypothesis --> confirmation or rejection of hypothesis

hypothesis --> confirmation or rejection of hypothesis --> theory --> observation

hypothesis --> confirmation or rejection of hypothesis --> observation --> theory
theory --> hypothesis --> observation --> confirmation or rejection of hypothesis
For sociologists, culture refers to which of the following?

values
beliefs
behaviors
all of the above
values
beliefs
behaviors
Symbols, values, norms and beliefs are

examples ofcultural boundaries.
nonmaterial culture.
material culture.
primitive culture.
subversive culture.
nonmaterial culture
A stop sign, a wedding dress, and a handshake are examples of

mores.
transitions.
symbols.
signs.
culture.
symbols
_____ are the standards by which members of a particular culture define what is good or bad, moral or immoral, desirable or undesirable.

Languages
Norms
Mores
Values
Sanctions
values
Norms that members of society look upon as not being critical and that may be broken without severe punishment are

folkways.
mores.
laws.
sanctions.
rules.
folkways
According to our textbook, marriage, medicine, and modesty are examples of George Murdock's

cultural changes.
cultural differences.
cultural universals.
cultural competencies.
cultural variations.
cultural universals
_____ is the belief that one's culture and way of life are superior to those of other groups.

Counterculturism
Subculturism
Superculturism
Ethnocentrism
Cultural relativism
ethnocentrism
_____ is recognizing that no culture is better than another and that a culture should be judged by its own standards.

Darwinism
Ethnocentrism
Cultural relativism
Subculturism
Multiculturalism
cultural relativism
_____ refers to the coexistence of many cultures in the same geographic area, without any one culture dominating another.

Ethnocentism
Cultural relativism
Multiculturalism
Metaculturalism
Popular culture
multiculturalism
Which of the following statements best exemplifies the functionalist perspective on culture?

Norms and values unify a society and promote social stability.

Culture creates inequality because those in power control the media, education, and the political structures of a society.

Material culture, especially the media, creates inequalities specifically for women.

Cultural symbols allow societies to develop identities and interact with one another.

none of the above
Norms and values unify a society and promote social stability.
Which of the following statements best exemplifies the conflict perspective on culture?

Norms and values unify a society and promote social stability.

Culture creates inequality because those in
power control the media, education, and the political structures of a society.

Material culture, especially the media, creates inequalities specifically for women.

Cultural symbols allow societies to develop identities and interact with one another.

none of the above
Culture creates inequality because those in power control the media, education, and the political structures of a society.
Adrian, from the time he was born, began learning how to think and behave effectively in society. He learned language, norms, and values first from his parents and then from his peers. Adrian went through a process of
learning.
socialization.
culture.
resocialization.
nurturing.
socialization
Socialization controls behavior because of

sociobiology
integration
institutionalization
internalization
nurture
internalization
Dr. Harry Harlows' experiments with infant monkeys concluded that

orphaned monkeys needed more attention than those with mothers.

biology affects behavior.

nourishment was more important than warmth and comfort.

warmth and comfort were more important than nourishment.

none of the above
warmth and comfort were more important than nourishment.
In terms of nature vs. nurture argument, most sociologists would agree with which of the following statements?
Nature's influence on human development is constant; nurture's influence fluctuates over the life course.

Nature can explain all human behavior.

Nurture can explain all human behavior.

Nurture affects human development, but nature is more significant.

Nature affects human development, but nurture is more significant.
Nature affects human development, but nurture is more significant.
Which of the following theoretical approaches is most commonly used to understand socialization?

functionalism
conflict
feminist
symbolic interactionism
None of the above are used to understand socialization.
symbolic interactionism
Which of the following is the appropriate order of Cooley's phases of the "looking-glass self?"

perception, interpretation, response
perception, response, interpretation
perception, initiation, response
preparatory, play, game
play, game, preparatory
perception, interpretation, response
According to George Herbert Mead, children learn to take the role of important people in their lives, especially parents, as they model themselves after them. Mead referred to these important people as

role models
looking-glass models
significant others
the generalized other
authority figures
significant others
Tasha is preparing for her first date with Bobby. She is very excited because Bobby is the captain of the football team. Before the date, she showers, applies make-up, and buys an expensive new outfit. Tasha's preparation is an example of Goffman's

imitation stage.
the self.
impression management.
setting control.
manner.
impression management
Troy encourages his daughters to work hard and rewards their work with complements and occasional gifts. Troy's parenting style is

authoritarian.
authoritative.
permissive.
uninvolved.
maternal.
authoritative
_____ is the process of unlearning old ways of doing things and adopting new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors.

The self-fulfilling prophecy
Resocialization
Socialization
The "looking-glass self"
Anticipatory socialization
re-socialization
In the article "The Sociological Imagination" by C. Wright Mills, the sociological perspective is

how biology influence human lives.

how natural environment influence human lives.

how social and historical structures influence human lives.

None of the above.
how social and historical structures influence human lives.
The main idea of Peter Berger's article "Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective" is that the beauty of sociology is to unmask the taken-for-granted common beliefs about social reality.

true
false
true
The major research method in article "Between Good and Ghetto: African American Girls and Inner-City Violence" by Nikki Jones is:

survey
interview
field work
participant observation
participant observation
Which of the following is (are) main findings in the article "Romantic Relationships from Adolescence to Young Adulthood" by Ann Meier and Gina Allen?

nearly two-thirds of adolescents have some romantic relationship experience.

there is differences in adolescents relationship experiences by race.

both a and b are correct.

none of the above is correct.
nearly two-thirds of adolescents have some romantic relationship experience.
there is differences in adolescents relationship experiences by race.
In the article "Gamers, Hackers, and Facebook --- Computer Cultures, Virtual Community, and Postmodern Identity", the author Ross Haenfler regards cyberspace interactions as a subculture.

true
false
true
What concepts from Chapter 3 - Culture can we apply in the article "Global Culture" by Manfred Steger?

Globalization
Cultural infusion
Cultural imperialism
All of the above.
Globalization
Cultural infusion
Cultural imperialism
In the article "Leaving Home for College: Expectations for Selective Reconstruction of Self" is a process of ______.

primary socialization
role taking
looking glass self
adulthood socialization
adulthood socialization
The main idea in article "Gender and Ageism" by Laurie Hatch is ______

if you are a woman and old, you experience the most prejudice.

if you are a man and old, you experience the most prejudice.

if you are a woman and young, you experience the most prejudice.

if you are a man and young, you experience the most prejudice.
if you are a woman and old, you experience the most prejudice.
Which of the following is not one of the key characteristics of social interaction?

Social interaction is central to all human social activity.

People respond to a situation differently depending on what they think is at stake for them.

Social interaction is similar across time and place.

People influence each other's behavior through interaction.

Elements of social structure affect all interaction and can produce different personal outcomes.
Social interaction is similar across time and place.
_____ is an organized pattern of behavior that governs people's relationships.

Social interaction
Social structure
Status
Master status
Role
social structure
Keri is a mother, a parole officer, and a softball player. These positions make up Keri's

role set.
status set.
master statuses
achieved statuses.
ascribed statuses.
status set
_____ statuses are those that we cannot change, control or choose.

Master
Achieved
Ascribed
Role
Social
ascribed
_____ statuses are those that we can change, control or choose through effort or actions.

Master
Achieved
Ascribed
Role
Social
achieved
_____ are the behaviors expected of people who have a particular status.

Role sets
Status sets
Roles
Symbols
Signals
roles
Cameron was scheduled to work on Thursday from 9:00am until 3:00pm. His sociology final was scheduled for 2:00 pm. Cameron was likely experiencing

role sets.
role strain.
role conflict.
role sprain.
role tension.
role conflict
"Human reality is socially constructed reality." This statement best matches which of the theories explaining social interaction?

symbolic interaction
social exchange
feminist theories
functionalist
social learning
symbolic interation
_____ suggests that any social interaction between two people is based on each person's trying to maximize their rewards and minimize their costs.

Dramaturgical analysis
Symbolic interactionism
Feminist theory
Social exchange theory
Ethnomethodology
social exchange theory
"Interaction often involves a dominant-subordinate relationship." This statement best matches which of the theories explaining social interaction?

symbolic interaction
social exchange
feminist theories
functionalist
social learning
feminist theories
Timothy and Kiley were asked to violate a norm by their sociology professor. They choose to go to the mall and use the up-escalator to go down and the down-escalator to go up. They watched the reactions of others and wrote a paper describing the experience. Which methodological tool were Timothy and Kiley using?

dramaturgical analysis
secondary analysis
participant observation
conduct testing
ethnomethodology
ethnomethodology
"Actions speak louder than words." This statement represents which concept of social interaction?

dramaturgical analysis
ethnomethodology
nonverbal communication
silence
facial expressions
nonverbal communication
In As You Like It, Shakespeare wrote that "All the world is a stage and all the men and women merely players." This illustrates which concept?

self-fulfilling prophecy
Thomas theorem
dramaturgical analysis
social construction of reality
ethnomethodology
dramaturgical analysis
Which of the following is not a criterion of a social group?

persons who interact with one another

persons who share a common identity

persons who share a sense of belonging

None of the above are characteristics of a social group.

All of the above are criteria of a social group.
persons who interact with one another
persons who share a common identity
persons who share a sense of belonging
None of the above are characteristics of a social group.
All of the above are criteria of a social group.
_____ groups meet our expressive (or emotional) needs; _____ groups meet our instrumental (or task-oriented) needs.

In; out
Out; in
Secondary; primary
Primary; secondary
Primary; in
primary; secondary
_____ are those that share a sense of identity and exclude and devalue outsiders.

In-groups
Out-groups
Primary groups
Secondary groups
Reference groups
in-groups
_____ are those people who are viewed and treated negatively because they are seen as being different.

In-groups
Out-groups
Primary groups
Secondary groups
Reference groups
out-groups
A/n _____ is a group that shapes our behavior, values and attitudes, and influences who we'd like to be in the future.

in-group
out-group
primary group
secondary group
reference group
reference group
Asch's studies, in which subjects were asked to match lines on cards, showed that

people tend to see most things differently.

people often lie to those who have authority.

group membership generates conformity.

leaders compete for power in social groups.

All of the above are correct.
group membership generates conformity
Groupthink is

choosing the path of least resistance when working with others.

attempting to persuade others to agree with you.

a software program that predicts group behavior.

a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment that results from in-group pressures.

a decision-making process where an individual weighs group decisions against his/her own before making a decision.
a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment that results from in-group pressures. f. a decision-making process where an individual weighs group decisions against his/her own before making a decision.
_____ are webs of social ties that link individuals to one another.

Social muddles
Social networks
Social systems
Social interactions
Social organisms
social networks
A _____ is a complex and structured secondary group that is deliberately created to achieve a specific goal in an efficient manner.

primary group
secondary group
formal group
formal organization
primary organization
formal organization
A _____ is a formal organization that is designed to accomplish goals and tasks by large numbers of people.

voluntary association
formal association
bureaucracy
government
civil organization
bureaucracy
At the Barkley Company, there are forty employees. Addison is the President and CEO. Below her, Jack and Ross, are managers. The thirty-seven others work below the managers in the storeroom or on the show floor. Which of Weber's ideal characteristics does this exemplify?

high degree of division of labor and specialization

hierarchy of authority

explicit written rules and regulations

impersonality

qualification based employment
hierarchy of authority
In applying to three colleges, Layla spent several days completing nearly identical forms. Each asked for her high school grades, roommate preferences, and parent's financial status. This is an example of which of the shortcomings of bureaucracies?

a weak reward system

bureaucratic ritualism

alienation

Parkinson's Law

Peter Principle
bureaucratic ritualism
Income, status and other rewards allow some owners and managers to exploit workers. This statement exemplifies which major theoretical perspective?

Functionalism
conflict theory
symbolic interactionism
exchange theory
feminist theory
conflict theory
_____ is behavior that violates expected rules or norms.

Crime
Deviance
Stigma
Social control
Sanction
deviance
A/n _____ is a negative label that devalues a person and disqualifies him/her from full
social acceptance.

harm
injurious
stigma
social control
dishonor
stigma
_____ refer(s) to the technique and strategies that regulate people's behavior in society.

Sanctions
Social control
Strain
Anomie
Labeling
social control
Sanctions are

endorsements of certain behaviors.

forms of conformity that are written into law.

inconsistent forms of punishment.

rewards or punishments for obeying or violating a norm.

none of the above
rewards or punishments for obeying or violating a norm.
_____ believe that deviance and crime are normal parts of the social structure that maintain society.

Functionalists
Conflict theorists
Feminist theorists
Symbolic interactionists
Criminologists
functionalists
Durkheim introduced the term anomie, but _____ elaborated on the concept to explain how social structure can create deviance.

Sutherland
Bogel
Merton
Becker
Lembert
Merton
According to Merton, Americans are taught to strive towards the "American Dream" of economic success. He called these aspirations

institutionalized goals.
institutionalized means.
cultural strain.
cultural means.
cultural goals.
cultural goals
Henry's family was unable to pay their bills last month. He wanted the best for his family, but had a low-paying job. To "earn" some extra cash, be began selling fraudulent tickets at the Civic Center. According to Merton, Henry is a/n

conformist.
innovator.
ritualist.
retreatist.
rebel.
innovator
Harold started using drugs when he was 17. By the time Harold turned 20 he was living on the streets. According to Merton, Henry is a/n

conformist.
innovator.
ritualist.
retreatist.
rebel.
retreatist
_____ ask why some deviant acts are defined as criminal while others are not.

Functionalists
Conflict theorists
Feminist theorists
Symbolic interactionists
Strain theorists
conflict theorists
Conflict theorists often focus on which type of crime?

violent crime
property crime
white collar crime
organized crime
victimless crime
white collar crime
Mr. Davis, an accounting executive at Alpha Inc., participated in tax fraud for several years, which saved the company millions of dollars in taxes. Mr. Davis is guilty of

cybercrime.
occupational crime.
corporate crime.
organized crime.
industrial crime.
corporate crime
The symbolic interaction perspective suggests that people _____ deviant behavior.

are born with
develop
study
learn
recognize
learn
The basic idea behind differential association theory is that

one's environment has little
influence on deviance and crime.

most deviant and criminal behavior is spontaneous.

labeling is a major factor in explaining deviance.

primary deviance leads to secondary deviance.

most people learn deviant behavior through interaction.
most people learn deviant behavior through interaction.
"Society's reaction to behavior is a major factor in defining someone as deviant." This statement best exemplifies which theory of deviance?

differential association
labeling
strain
crime control
feminist theory
labeling
_____ deviance is the initial violation of a norm or law and can range from relatively minor offenses to serious offenses.

Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Street
Corporate
primary
The criminal justice system relies on three major approaches to crime control. Which of the following is not one of these approaches?

avoidance
prevention
intervention
punishment
rehabilitation
avoidance
____ is the global leader in the number of inmates per capita.

Mexico
Iraq
Ireland
Japan
The United States
The United States
In the article "Code of the Street" by Elijah Anderson, he argues that interpersonal violence and aggression is part of the code of the street in inner cities poor neighborhood.

true
false
violence was not the topic.
code is about language.
true
The conclusion in the article "The Impact of Internet Communications on Social Interaction" is that

there is no difference between face-to-face interaction and internet interaction.

Goffman's rules on interaction apply to internet interaction.

face-to-face interaction is different from internet interaction.

None of the above is true.
face-to-face interaction is different from internet interaction.
The main topic in "Clique Dynamics" by Patricia Adler and Peter Adler is the study of _______.

primary groups
secondary groups
reference groups
in-groups and out-groups
in-groups and out-groups
The article "The Social Organization of Toy Stores" by Christine Williams discussed about

race problem in the toy store.
gender problem in the toy store.
neither a or b is correct.
both a and b are correct.
race problem in the toy store.
gender problem in the toy store.
The main argument in article "The Medicalizaiton of Deviance" is that we redefine certain deviant behaviors as "illness" rather than as "badness", so that they are treated medically rather than punishment.

true
false
true
The main theoretical perspective used in article "The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison" by Jeffrey Reiman is

functionalist perspective.
conflict perspective.
symbolic interactional perspective.
feminist perspective.
conflict theorists
The hierarchical ranking of people who have different access to valued resources is referred to as

social networking.
the division of society.
dependency.
social stratification.
inequality.
social stratification
In a/n _____ stratification system, a person's ability to change social positions is limited and often based on gender or race.

rigid
open
closed
caste
slavery
closed
In open stratification systems, social classes are based on _____ statuses.

ascribed
achieved
hereditary
religious
official
achieved
In the U.S., the top one percent of U.S. households has _____ of all wealth and _____ of all income.

10%; 20%
17%; 34%
29%; 59%
43%; 35%
52%; 34%
43%; 35%
While the U.S. economy has expanded since the late 1960s, income inequality has

increased.
decreased.
fluctuated.
stayed the same.
none of the above
increased
Identify which social class the following description illustrates: Some individuals in this social class flaunt their money and spend it on lavish goods and services to enhance their prestige.

upper-upper class
lower-upper class
upper-middle class
lower-middle class
working class
lower-upper class
Compared to thirty-five years ago, the number of people living in poverty has

increased.

decreased.

stayed the same.

fluctuated.

None of the above - poverty statistics were not collected thirty-five years ago.
increased
The Johnson family cannot afford to buy food for their children. The Johnson family is living in

absolute poverty.
relative poverty.
subjective poverty.
objective poverty.
squalor.
absolute poverty
The _____ view contends that the poor are "deficient" --that they share some problems, values, attitudes, and beliefs about life which are different from those who are not poor.

world-systems
culture of poverty
feminization of poverty
modernization
dependency
culture of poverty
_____ is a person's movement up or down the class hierarchy.

Social stratification
Social mobility
Social movement
Social change
Social hierarchy
social mobility
Stratification is both necessary and inevitable. This statement best represents which theoretical perspective?

conflict
functionalist
symbolic interactionist
feminist
exchange theory
functionalist
Stratification is dysfunctional because it harms society and individuals. This statement best represents which theoretical perspective?

conflict
functionalist
symbolic interactionist
feminist
exchange theory
conflict
Karl Marx argued that capitalism benefits the rich and that society would ultimately be reduced to just two classes: _____ and _____.

middle; lower
lower; upper
bourgeoisie; lower
bourgeoisie; proletariat
proletariat; capitalist
bourgeoise; proletariat
According to _____, low-income societies are poor because of "traditional" attitudes about technology and institutions.

modernization theory
attitudinal theory
dependency theory
traditional theory
world-systems theory
modernization theory
High-income countries have greater access to _____ than low-income countries.

education
safe water
income
health services
all of the above
education
safe water
income
health services
Biological characteristics (anatomy, hormones, etc) determine one's

sex.
gender.
gender roles.
sex roles.
sexual identity.
sex
_____ refers to learned attitudes and behaviors that characterize women and men.

Sex
Gender
Gender identity
Sex roles
Sexual identity
gender
_____ is/are an attitude or behavior that discriminates against one sex based on the assumed superiority of the other sex.

Sex identities
Gender roles
Sex stereotypes
Sexism
Racism
sexism
If American women were free to choose, _____ would prefer to be employed rather than stay home to take care of their house and family.

10 percent
20 percent
30 percent
50 percent
80 percent
50 percent
On average, women earn approximately _____ for every dollar men earn.

$1.04
$0.98
$0.77
$0.66
$0.50
$0.77
Women's jobs tend to be "feminine" and require

care-giving.
serving others.
working with people.
none of the above.
all of the above.
care-giving.
serving others.
working with people.
Which of the following is commonly used to explain the gender pay gap?

women choose fields with lower earnings
the glass ceiling
women are more likely to work part-time
all of the above
none of the above
women choose fields with lower earnings
the glass ceiling
women are more likely to work part-time
_____ is any unwanted sexual advance, request for sexual favors, or other conduct of a sexual nature that makes a person uncomfortable and interferes with his or her work.

Sexual misconduct
Sexual harassment
Sexism
Feminism
Pregnancy discrimination
sexual harassment
_____ refers to a preference for sexual partners of the same sex, of the opposite sex, or of either sex.

Sexual discrimination
Sexual orientation
Sexuality
Gender role
Gender identity
sexual orientation
A division of gender roles helps society function smoothly. Which sociological perspective does this statement illustrate?

functionalist
conflict
symbolic interactionist
feminist
exchange
functionalist
Gender inequality is built into the social structure, in and out of the home. Which sociological perspective does this statement illustrate?

functionalist
conflict
symbolic interactionist
feminist
exchange
conflict
Sexuality is linked to gender inequality and the control of women's sexual behavior by men. Which sociological perspective does this statement illustrate?

functionalist
conflict
symbolic interactionist
feminist
exchange
feminist
Social constructionist theories contend that sexual behavior is largely the result of

social pressure and culture.

sexual orientation has a strong genetic basis.

sexual identity is based on cultural factors.

sexual orientation is based on social structure.

none of the above
sexual behavior is largely the result of social pressure and culture.
Gender discrimination often goes unnoticed because

beliefs about male superiority are internalized.

laws prohibit such discrimination.

there are more males than females.

gender discrimination is poorly defined.
it is uncommon.
beliefs about male superiority are internalized.
_____ refers to our awareness of ourselves as male or female and the ways we express our sexual values, attitudes, feelings, and beliefs.

gender identity
sexual identity
gender roles
sexual roles
sexual orientation
sexual identity
This chapter opens with a brief description of a study in which the researchers submitted 5,000 fake résumés to potential employers. The résumés with names that sounded white received _____ callbacks for interviews than those with names that sounded African American.

10 percent more
25 percent more
50 percent more
25 percent fewer
10 percent fewer
50 percent more
About _____ of the human body's 35,000 genes determine the color of a person's skin. 6
16
26
36
No one knows for sure.
6
A/n _____ is any physically or culturally distinctive group that has the most economic and political power.

popular group
apartheid group
dominant group
majority group
principle group
dominant group
For social scientists, race is a(n)

social construct.
personality trait.
temporary characteristic.
variable trait.
myth.
social construct
_____ refers to a group of people who share physical characteristics that are passed on through reproduction.

Gender
Ethnicity
Racism
Race
Racial-ethnic group
race
Language, geographic roots, traditions, and religion are all components of

assimilation.
colonialism.
ethnicity.
race.
apartheid.
ethnicity
_____ refers to the advantages that people enjoy because of their race.

"White power"
"White privilege"
"White advantage"
"Racial privilege"
"Racial opportunity"
"white privilege"
A/n _____ is a group of people who may be subject to differential and unequal treatment because of their physical, cultural, or other characteristics.

minority group
majority group
dominant group
subordinate group
principal group
minority group
Systematic attempts to destroy members of particular minority groups is called

genocide.
internal colonialism.
segregation.
assimilation.
pluralism.
genocide
_____ segregation, or legal segregation, has been declared unconstitutional, but _____ segregation has replaced this form of segregation in the United States.

De facto; de jure
De jure; de facto
De jure; de inform
De facto; de legal
none of the above
De jure; de facto
_____ is/are a set of beliefs which claim that one's own racial group is "naturally" superior to other groups.

Stereotypes
Racism
Prejudice
Discrimination
Pluralism
racism
_____ is a positive or negative attitude toward people because of their group membership.

Stereotyping
Racism
Prejudice
Discrimination
Pluralism
prejudice
_____ is an action that treats people unequally or unfairly because of their group membership.

Prejudice
Scapegoating
Cultural relativism
Ethnocentrism
Discrimination
discrimination
While on vacation, Jose went to a local restaurant for lunch. Before he sat down, the owner came out from behind the counter and told Jose to leave the restaurant because his "kind aren't welcome." This is an example of

prejudice.
individual discrimination.
institutional discrimination.
gendered racism.
holistic discrimination.
individual discrimination
Natalie is a prejudiced person who actively discriminates against other groups. According to Merton, Natalie is a/n

"active bigot."
"timid bigot."
"fair-weather liberal."
"all-weather liberal."
"passive bigot."
"active bigot"
Racial hierarchies are supported and perpetuated through economic inequality. This statement represents the views of

functionalists.
conflict theorists.
symbolic interactionists.
feminist theorists.
exchange theorists.
conflict theorists
Prejudice and discrimination are learned, and can therefore be unlearned. This statement best illustrates which of the following theoretical perspectives?

functionalist
conflict
symbolic interactionist
feminist
social exchange
symbolic interactionist
_____ are the fastest-growing minority group in the United States.

Chinese
American Indians
Latinos
Cubans
Arabs
latinos
Of the following statements about African Americans, which one is true?

When compared with whites, their gap in educational achievement has increased in the last four decades.

They are the least diverse minority group in the United States.

They are the only group to have been brought to the United States involuntarily.

Most are foreign-born.

They live almost exclusively in urban areas.
They are the only group to have been brought to the United States involuntarily.
In 2010, nearly _____ of all married couples were interracial couples.

1 percent
5 percent
8 percent
12 percent
17 percent
8 percent
A _____ is a formal organization that has the authority to make and enforce laws.

bureaucracy
government
political structure
social group
police department
government
The U.S. government is made up of three branches. Which of the following is not one of these branches?

executive
judicial
administrative
legislative
None of the above - all of the above are branches of the U.S. government.
administrative
Which social theorist described three ideal types of legitimate authority?

Jane Addams
Max Weber
Robert Merton
C. Wright Mills
Karl Marx
Max Weber
Which of the following is not a principle of democracy?

Individuals are the best judges of their own interests and participate in decisions.

Citizens select leaders who are responsive to the wishes of the majority of the people.

Suffrage is universal, and elections are free, fair, secret, and occur frequently.

The government recognizes individual rights such as freedom of speech, press, assembly, and organizing political parties whose members compete for public office.

All of the above are characteristics of democracy.
Individuals are the best judges of their own interests and participate in decisions.
Citizens select leaders who are responsive to the wishes of the majority of the people.
Suffrage is universal, and elections are free, fair, secret, and occur frequently.
The government recognizes individual rights such as freedom of speech, press, assembly, and organizing political parties whose members compete for public office.
The governments of Burma, Cuba, North Korea, and Libya are examples of

democracies.
totalitarianism.
tyranny.
socialism.
communism.
totalitarianism
_____ is a political system in which the state controls the lives of its citizens but generally permits some degree of individual freedom.

Democracy
Communism
Socialism
Totalitarianism
Authoritarianism
authoritarianism
The _____ Party believes that the government should provide social programs; the _____ Party believes that the federal government should not be involved in social programs.

Republican; Independent
Democratic; Independent
Republican; Democratic
Democratic; Republican
Independent; Republican
democratic; republican
_____ is a political system where power is distributed among a variety of competing groups

Communism
Pluralism
Assimilation
Capitalism
Socialism
plualism
"The wealthy control politics." This statement reflects which sociological perspective of political power?

pluralist
power elite
feminist
symbolic interactionist
globalist
power elite
In U.S. presidential elections, the most important factor in winning is

the candidate's platform.
the number of registered voters.
the candidate's social class.
the candidates racial and ethic background.
money.
money
The _____ is a social institution that determines how a society produces, distributes, and consumes goods and services.

religious system
medical system
criminal justice system
economy
work
economy
_____ is an economic system where wealth is in private hands and is invested and reinvested to produce profits.

Capitalism
Communism
Socialism
Mercantilism
Pseudo-capitalism
capitalism
A/n _____ is a situation where one person or company controls a particular market or industry.

economy
oligarchy
monopoly
conglomerate
interlocking directorate
monopoly
_____ is an economic and political system based on the principle of the public ownership of the production of goods and services.

Economy
Monopoly
Socialism
Communism
Capitalism
socialism
_____ predicted that communism would dominate because exploited workers would revolt against capitalism.

Max Weber
Emile Durkheim
Auguste Comte
Harriet Martineau
Karl Marx
Karl Marx
_____ refers to the growth and spread of investment, trade, production, communication, and new technology.

Monopoly
Capitalism
Communism
Globalization
The economy
globalization
_____ is a process of social and economic change due to the reduction of industrial activity, especially manufacturing.

Conglomeration
Deindustrialization
Unionization
Undevelopment
none of the above
deindustrialization
Oliver works a full-time day shift at a fast food restaurant. He has a college degree and training in electrical engineering. Oliver is

unemployed.
underemployed.
self employed.
a contingent worker.
a part-time worker.
underemployed
Women make up about _____ percent of all workers in the United States.

20
25
34
43
54
43
"Capitalism brings prosperity to a society." This statement best represents the views of which sociological theory on work and the economy?

functionalist
conflict
feminist
symbolic interactionist
globalization
functionalist
"Low wages alienate workers." This statement best represents the views of which sociological theory on work and the economy?

functionalist
conflict
feminist
symbolic interactionist
globalization
conflict
Who of the following is most likely to have lost a job during the current recession?

A Black man, who is a construction worker, with no college education.

A Black man, who is a professional, with a college degree.

A Black woman, who is in manufacturing, with no college education.

A White man, who works for the government, with a college degree.

A White woman, who works in retails, with no college education.
A Black man, who is a construction worker, with no college education.
The textbook defines family as an "intimate group in which two or more people" do all of the following except

"live together in a committed relationship."
"have a legal relationship."
"care for one another and any children."
"share close emotional ties and functions."
All of the above are part of the definition.
have a legal relationship
Which of the following is not a function of the family?

sexual regulation
reproduction
religious placement
socialization
social placement
religious placement
Annie and Brandon recently married and are living with his parents. This is an example of a/n _____ residence pattern.

matriarchal
nuclear
patrilocal
matrilocal
patriarchal
patrilocal
Christina graduated from college last year. She moved back into her parents' home while she looks for a job. Christina is part of the

Generation X.
Generation Y.
boomerang generation.
baby boomer generation.
sandwich generation.
boomerang generation
In _____, prospective spouses can compare the "value" of eligible partners before selecting a mate.

family economics
family values
a love bazaar
a marriage market
none of the above
a marriage market
Compared with divorce rates between 1970 and 1990, divorce rates in 2008 were

much higher.
higher.
much lower.
lower.
about the same.
lower
No-fault divorce is a/n _____ reason for some divorces.

macro-level
micro-level
demographic
interpersonal
intrapersonal
macro-level
Early age at marriage is a/n _____ reason for some divorces.

macro-level
micro-level
demographic
interpersonal
intrapersonal
demographic
The average age at first marriage is _____ for men, and _____ for women.

22; 25
25; 26
26; 28
28; 26
30; 25
28; 26
Nearly _____ in ten American children are born to unmarried mothers.

three
four
five
six
seven
four
Which one of the following is the most likely to value familism?

Latino families
African American families
American Indian families
Asian American families
Middle Eastern families
latino families
Which of the following statements is true in intimate partner violence?

Half of all women have experienced intimate partner violence.

Men are more likely to be victims of intimate partner violence than women.

Males who earn less than $75,000 are more likely to be abusers than those who earn more.

Women are more likely than men to sustain serious physical injuries as a result of intimate partner violence.

Cultural factors have little effect on reporting intimate partner violence.
Women are more likely than men to sustain serious physical injuries as a result of intimate partner violence.
_____ is a social institution that transmits culture to its members through formal and systematic training.

Tracking
Credentialing
Education
Schooling
Magneting
education
Which of the following questions might a conflict theorist ask about education?

What are the benefits of education?

Why does education serve some people better than others?

What content is covered in the classroom?

Where should schools be located?

How do students and teachers communicate?
Why does education serve some people better than others?
_____capital refers to social assets, such as an elite education.

Economic
Cultural
Social
Class
Collective
cultural
Which of the following is not a latent function of education?

Schools provide child care.

High schools and colleges are matchmaking institutions.

Educational institutions create social networks.

Education increases upward mobility.

Education is good for businesses.
Education increases upward mobility.
Because of _____, teachers now spend much of their time on basic reading and math skills instead of higher order learning.

charter schools
magnet schools
Brown v. Board of Education
the No Child Left Behind Act
Title IX
The No Child Left Behind Act
Which one of the following statements about the U.S. education system is false?

The typical curriculum covers too many topics and too superficially.

Much school funding is inadequate, and teachers typically have little control over the curriculum.

Many K-12 teachers are out of field.
College education departments accept too many students with low GPAs.

Seventeen-year-olds are performing better in reading and math than their counterparts did in the early 1970s.
College education departments accept too many students with low GPAs.
Recent surveys have found that _____ of high school students admit to cheating on tests.

10 percent
35 percent
60 percent
75 percent
90 percent
60 percent
Many U.S. students are doing poorly in math and science compared to students in many other countries. Which one of the following reasons for many American students' low performance is false?

The typical U.S. curriculum is too demanding and rigorous.

American students have shorter school days.

American students have fewer school days.

Most American schools don't provide talented students with highly qualified teachers.

Most American schools don't have adequate funding.
The typical U.S. curriculum is too demanding and rigorous.
What is the main idea in the article named "Has the Power Elite Become Diverse?"

As the power elite became diverse, the values of power elite also changed.

As the power elite became diverse, there is no shared value any more.

Although the power elite became diverse, they endorse the same values of those already in power.

None of the above.
Although the power elite became diverse, they endorse the same values of those already in power.
In the article "Why You Voted" by Andrew Perrin, one of the reasons that Americans vote is for ritual purpose.

True.
false
The article did not talk about it.
true
The personal experience of the article "Nickel-and Dimes: On (Not) Getting By in America" tells us that

the wages of working class people are enough to live.

working class people do not work hard enough to make more money.

Working class jobs are not as stressful.

None of the above.
the wages of working class people are enough to live.
working class people do not work hard enough to make more money.
Working class jobs are not as stressful.
None of the above.
In the article "The Service Society and the Changing Experience of Work", the author argues that

U.S. economy has changed from manufacturing to service industries.

There are two tiers in service sector, one is core, and the other is periphery.

White males tend to be in core service jobs than non-whites and females.

All of the above is true.
U.S. economy has changed from manufacturing to service industries.
There are two tiers in service sector, one is core, and the other is periphery.
White males tend to be in core service jobs than non-whites and females.
The main idea in "The Unfinished Revolution - How a New Generation is Reshaping Family, Work, and Gender in America" is

Women want a balance of economic autonomy and emotional commitment.

Men want a 'neotraditional' family arrangement.

Both A and B are correct.

Neither A or B is correct.
Women want a balance of economic autonomy and emotional commitment.
Men want a 'neotraditional' family arrangement.
In the article "The Myth of the Missing Black Father", the authors found out that black fathers may not live with their children, but they do visit them often.

true
false
true
The main idea of the article "Historic Reversals, Accelerating Resegregation, and the Need for New Integration Strategies" is that school segregation is getting better than before.

true
false
false
The research result in article "Charter Schools and the Public Good" show that

Charter school students perform better than traditional public school students.

Charter schools students perform worse than traditional public schools students.

Charter school students do better in math than public school students.

Charter school students do better in reading than public school students.
Charter schools students perform worse than traditional public schools students.