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Early Exploration (1200's - 1500's)
overland - regulated by Mongols (Silk Road)
becomes dangerous and is not cost efficient
allowed scientists to plot position relative to the stars, allowed navigators to see how far they traveled
Prince Henry the Navigator
founds a navigatin school at Sagres
idea was to sail around Africa to reach Asia
trading network concentrated in Africa, Indian Ocean and S. Pacific
only American colony in Brazil
1492 - sponsored by Spain, reached America, sailed west
product of Reconquista + Spanish inquisition
4 voyages, underestimated size of Earth
1519 - 1522 first voyagetocircumnavitgate the globe
killed, only 10%of crew survived
colonial expanses (Mexico, Peru, Argentina, America SW, Florida) coincided with fall/conquest of Aztec (Cortes) and Incan (Pizarro) empires
Spanish Soldiers, goal was to bleed colonial areas dry of wealth
trained to kill during the Reconquista
gained prominence in 1600's: "businessmen" [non-missionary] *primary carriers of Transatlantic Slave Trade
dealt with Songhai Empire of West Africa* dealings with Songhai Empire
Reasons for English Colonization
high population [land shortage], land speculators, religious freedom, competition with Spain
English Colonization Strategy
ability to recognize growth in colonial economic pursuits
saw their colonies as investments (because they didn't find gold)
took what others hadn't, fragmented colonies with horrible land (Canada, Louisiana, Haiti)
joint stock companies
early ventures of mercantilism; idea is to offset loss taken by potential investors & reaise capital quick
colonial holdings exist to provide raw materials; exports exceed imports [inflation, prices increase]
PROBLEM: massive inflation in mother country
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