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40 terms

European Exploration Quiz

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Motivated by...
... a desire to obtain Asian Products (spices, silk, gunpowder, porcelain, paper)
Early Exploration (1200's - 1500's)
overland - regulated by Mongols (Silk Road)
becomes dangerous and is not cost efficient
Technological Advances
magnetic compass, astrolobe, advanced mapping, Caraval ship design
astrolobe
allowed scientists to plot position relative to the stars, allowed navigators to see how far they traveled
Prince Henry the Navigator
Portuguese
founds a navigatin school at Sagres
idea was to sail around Africa to reach Asia
Bartolomeo Dias
1488 reached the Cape of Good Hope
traveled around tip of Africa
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese who reaches India in 1497 (after discovery of Americas)
Portuguese "Empire"
trading network concentrated in Africa, Indian Ocean and S. Pacific
only American colony in Brazil
Christopher Columbus
1492 - sponsored by Spain, reached America, sailed west
product of Reconquista + Spanish inquisition
4 voyages, underestimated size of Earth
Ferdinand Magellan
1519 - 1522 first voyagetocircumnavitgate the globe
killed, only 10%of crew survived
Spanish Motivation
Gold, Glory, God
Spanish Empire
colonial expanses (Mexico, Peru, Argentina, America SW, Florida) coincided with fall/conquest of Aztec (Cortes) and Incan (Pizarro) empires
Conquistadores
Spanish Soldiers, goal was to bleed colonial areas dry of wealth
trained to kill during the Reconquista
Hierarchical System
(1) Peninsulares (2) Creoles (3) Mestizos
Peninsulares
european born and educated "manage colony"
Creoles
european descent born in the New World
Mestizos
"mixed blood" spanish/native american mix
Native American deaths
100 yrs. after discovery 90% of N.A. died because of diseases
Encomienda
massive ersecution and enslavement of native population
Line of Demarcation
1493 papal line
Treaty of Tordesillas
1494 new treaty moves line, line of negotiation
Papal decrees
allowed Spanish settlement west, Portuguese east
line down Atlantic Ocean
Dutch Exploration
gained prominence in 1600's: "businessmen" [non-missionary] *primary carriers of Transatlantic Slave Trade
dealt with Songhai Empire of West Africa* dealings with Songhai Empire
Dutch East India Company
1602; idea is monopolize trade through the South Pacific = Indian Oceans
Transatlantic Slave Trade
Middle Passage
sold into slavery by other Africans (songhai)
Why is slavery needed?
deaths of Native Americans
Roanoke Island
failed English settlement in 1587
British East India Company
1600 (95 yrs. after Columbus)
Jamestown VA
English settlement in 1607 (settle Atlantic Seaboard)
Influence of Reformation
delays English colonization
Reasons for English Colonization
high population [land shortage], land speculators, religious freedom, competition with Spain
English Colonization Strategy
ability to recognize growth in colonial economic pursuits
saw their colonies as investments (because they didn't find gold)
French Colonization
took what others hadn't, fragmented colonies with horrible land (Canada, Louisiana, Haiti)
Jacques Cartier
Frenchman who explores Canada and the St. Lawrence Basin
Samuel de Champlain
French explorer who establishes Quebec in 1608
French Colonies Failed because...
(1) location (2) no push factor out of France
joint stock companies
early ventures of mercantilism; idea is to offset loss taken by potential investors & reaise capital quick
Mercantilism
colonial holdings exist to provide raw materials; exports exceed imports [inflation, prices increase]
PROBLEM: massive inflation in mother country
Salutary Neglect
English encourage (ignored) economic development in own colonies
Columbian Exchange
Transfer of products, ideas, customs from old to new worlds and vice versa