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Motivated by...

... a desire to obtain Asian Products (spices, silk, gunpowder, porcelain, paper)

Early Exploration (1200's - 1500's)

overland - regulated by Mongols (Silk Road)
becomes dangerous and is not cost efficient

Technological Advances

magnetic compass, astrolobe, advanced mapping, Caraval ship design


allowed scientists to plot position relative to the stars, allowed navigators to see how far they traveled

Prince Henry the Navigator

founds a navigatin school at Sagres
idea was to sail around Africa to reach Asia

Bartolomeo Dias

1488 reached the Cape of Good Hope
traveled around tip of Africa

Vasco da Gama

Portuguese who reaches India in 1497 (after discovery of Americas)

Portuguese "Empire"

trading network concentrated in Africa, Indian Ocean and S. Pacific
only American colony in Brazil

Christopher Columbus

1492 - sponsored by Spain, reached America, sailed west
product of Reconquista + Spanish inquisition
4 voyages, underestimated size of Earth

Ferdinand Magellan

1519 - 1522 first voyagetocircumnavitgate the globe
killed, only 10%of crew survived

Spanish Motivation

Gold, Glory, God

Spanish Empire

colonial expanses (Mexico, Peru, Argentina, America SW, Florida) coincided with fall/conquest of Aztec (Cortes) and Incan (Pizarro) empires


Spanish Soldiers, goal was to bleed colonial areas dry of wealth
trained to kill during the Reconquista

Hierarchical System

(1) Peninsulares (2) Creoles (3) Mestizos


european born and educated "manage colony"


european descent born in the New World


"mixed blood" spanish/native american mix

Native American deaths

100 yrs. after discovery 90% of N.A. died because of diseases


massive ersecution and enslavement of native population

Line of Demarcation

1493 papal line

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494 new treaty moves line, line of negotiation

Papal decrees

allowed Spanish settlement west, Portuguese east
line down Atlantic Ocean

Dutch Exploration

gained prominence in 1600's: "businessmen" [non-missionary] *primary carriers of Transatlantic Slave Trade
dealt with Songhai Empire of West Africa* dealings with Songhai Empire

Dutch East India Company

1602; idea is monopolize trade through the South Pacific = Indian Oceans

Transatlantic Slave Trade

Middle Passage
sold into slavery by other Africans (songhai)

Why is slavery needed?

deaths of Native Americans

Roanoke Island

failed English settlement in 1587

British East India Company

1600 (95 yrs. after Columbus)

Jamestown VA

English settlement in 1607 (settle Atlantic Seaboard)

Influence of Reformation

delays English colonization

Reasons for English Colonization

high population [land shortage], land speculators, religious freedom, competition with Spain

English Colonization Strategy

ability to recognize growth in colonial economic pursuits
saw their colonies as investments (because they didn't find gold)

French Colonization

took what others hadn't, fragmented colonies with horrible land (Canada, Louisiana, Haiti)

Jacques Cartier

Frenchman who explores Canada and the St. Lawrence Basin

Samuel de Champlain

French explorer who establishes Quebec in 1608

French Colonies Failed because...

(1) location (2) no push factor out of France

joint stock companies

early ventures of mercantilism; idea is to offset loss taken by potential investors & reaise capital quick


colonial holdings exist to provide raw materials; exports exceed imports [inflation, prices increase]
PROBLEM: massive inflation in mother country

Salutary Neglect

English encourage (ignored) economic development in own colonies

Columbian Exchange

Transfer of products, ideas, customs from old to new worlds and vice versa

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