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Terms in this set (116)
Also known as biological anthropology. The systematic study of humans as biological organisms.
The study of "human biology" within the framework of evolution and the interaction between biology and culture
The science concerned with the comparative study of human evolution, variation and classification through measurement and observation.
Looks at the ways in which humans are similar to and different from other species
A large flat grassland with scattered trees & shrubs. Savannas are found in many regions of the world with dry and warm-to-hot climates.
Colloquial term for members of the evolutionary group that includes modern humans and non-extinct bipedal relatives.
A group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring. members of one species are reproductively isolated from members of all other species.
The field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology; includes cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, and physical, or biological, anthropology.
Members of the mammalian order Primates,which includes lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans.
A change in the genetic structure of a population. The term is also frequently used to refer to the appearance of a new species.
An anatomical, physiological, or behavioral response of organisms or populations to the environment. Adaptations result from evolutionary change, specifically as a result of natural selection.
Having to do with the study of gene structure and action and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring. Genetic mechanisms are the foundation to evolutionary charge.
Anything organisms do that involves action in response to internal or external stimuli; the response of an individual, group, or species to its environment. Such responses may or may not be deliberate, and they aren't necessarily the result of conscious decision making, which is absent in single-celled organisms, insects, and many other species.
A set of relationships in which all components fall along a single integrated spectrum, for example color. All life reflects a single biological continuum.
Behavioral aspects of human adaptation, including technology, traditions, language, religion, marriage patterns, and social roles. Culture is a set of learned behaviors transmitted from one generation to the next by nonbiological means.
General cultural orientation of perspective shared by the members of a society.
The mutual interactive, evolution of human biology, anatomy, neurological attributes, etc. Makes culture possible and that developing cultural further influences the direction of biological evolution, this is a basic concept in understanding the unique components of human evolution.
The practical application and archaeological theories and techniques. For example, many biological anthropologists work in the public health sector.
Detailed descriptive studies of human societies. In cultural anthropology, an ethnography is traditionally the study of a non-Western society.
Objects of materials made or modified for use by hominids. The earliest artifacts are usually tools made of stone or occasionally bone.
deoxyribonucleic acid-The double stranded molecule that contains the genetic code. DNA is a main component of chromosomes.
The study of skeletal material. Human osteology focuses on the interpretation of skeletal remains from archaeological sites, skeletal anatomy, bone physiology, and growth and development. Some of the same techniques are used in paleoanthropology to study early hominins.
A body of knowledge gained through observation and experimentation; from the Latin scientia, meaning knowledge.
Orderly framework for the explanation of events, through systematic observation and or experimentation.
A provisional explanation of a phenomenon. Hypotheses require verification or falsification through testing.
Tentative explanation for a phenomenon.
Relying on experiment or observation; from the Latin empiricus, meaning experienced.
An approach to research whereby a problem is identified, a hypothesis is stated and that hypothesis is tested by collecting and analyzing data.
Begins with a paradigm
Facts from which conclusions can be drawn; scientific information.
Pertaining to measurements of quantity and including such properties as size, number, and capacity. When data are quantified, they're expressed numerically and can be tested statistically.
A broad statement of scientific relationships or underlying principles that has been substantially verified through the testing hypotheses.
A theory is a system of validated hypothesis that show a systematic explanation.
Some theories hold over time some do not
Seriously, remember this - a theory is not a guess. A theory is the end result of extensive hypothesis testing and data collection/analysis/interpretation. And, in science, we are fine with the idea that we may have to revise a theory. No problem. It does not mean that we don't accept theories. It just means that if we get some new data tomorrow that forces us to revise our thinking, this is ok. After all, we are trying to explain our natural world. We are not trying to make up stories, create myths, or dream about our history, our environment, ourselves as biological creatures. We are trying to observe and understand our world and the creatures in it. That is what science is all about.
Cultural or social, archaeology, linguistic anthropology and physical or biological
is the study of recent & present cultures. The life ways of different cultural groups & the strategies humans use to adapt to the environment. Cultural anthropology focuses on observable human behavior. Specialties in cultural anthropology, include political, medical, business and economic.
the study of languages and the relationship between language and culture. Humans preserve and transmit culture through language. Specialites: historical linguistics, ethnosemantics, sociolinguistics, ethnolinguistics.
the history of languages and the relationship of one language to another.
the study of the meaning of words.
the social uses of speech
the study of language and culture
the study of past human groups through an examination of their material culture. by studying their material remains
Inportant to physical anthropology because
1. shows us how people adapted to their environments
2. applies archaeological techniques for excavation, preservation and restoration of early human sites and artifacts
Physical Anthropology-3 broad areas of study
3. Ethology or Primatology
study of human evolution through an examination of fossil record. They trace the ancestry of Homo Sapiens
study on genetics and biological variations, examining the biological characteristics that define us as humans, as well as the differences between groups.
Studies other non-human primates in an effort to learn more about our closest ancestors and perhaps to learn a bit more about ourselves.
Studies other non-human primates in an effort to learn more about our closest ancestors and perhaps to learn a bit more about ourselves.
Where do physical anthropologists work
university, teaching biology or anthropology, as a practitioner working with primate groups, forensic anthropologist, applying their knowledge to legal issues, or for a museum.
1. example; 2. model; 3. way of looking at things
something that serves as a model, example, or pattern; the framework of assumptions and understandings shared by a group or discipline that shapes its worldview
is the scientific information or facts that are gathered. Observations combine for form data
that one observes is Empirical data
an observation or experience that one personally witnessed or experienced.
using all four limbs to support the body during locomotion, the basic mammalian and primate form of locomotion
Viewing other cultures from the inherently biased perspective of one's own culture. This often causes other cultures to be seen as inferior to one's own.
Viewing entities as they relate to something else. Cultural relativism is the view that cultures have merits within their own historical and environmental contexts.
The most critical mechanism of evolutionary change, first described by Charles Darwin: the term refers to the genetic change or changes in the frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential reproductive success between individuals.
Fixity of Species
The notion that species, once created, can never change is diametrically opposed to theories of biological evolution.
A transition from one conceptual framework or prevailing and widely accepted viewpoint to another. The acceptance of the discovery that the sun is the center of our solar system is an example of a paradigm shift.
Pertaining to groups of organisms that mainly because of genetic differences are prevented from mating and producing offspring with members of other such groups. For example dogs can not mate with cats.
meaning two names, the convention established by Carolus Linnaeus, whereby genus and species names are used to refer to living things. for example Homo sapiens
the branch of science concerned with the rules of classifying organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationships.
The view that the earth's geological landscape is the result of violent cataclysmic events. Cuvier promoted this view, especially in opposition to Lamarck.
believed that species change was influenced by environmental change. He is best known for his theory of the inheritance of acquired characteristics.
the theory that the earth's features are the result of long term processes that continue to operate in the present just as they did in the past. Elaborated on by Lyell, this theory opposed catastrophism and greatly contributed to the concept of immense geological time.
considered the founder of modern geology. He was a lawyer, a geologist and Darwin's mentor. Wrote "Principles of Geology" published 1830-33
Principles of Geology 1830-33
by Charles Lyell-the geological process we see today are the same as those that existed in the past. Uniformitarianism.
Darwin, Charles 1809-1882
sailed on HMS Beagle on 12/17/1831
His greatest work, On Origin of Species 1859
Wallace, Alfred Russel 1823-1913
On the Tendency of Varieties to depart Indefinitely from the Original Type 1858. He describes evolution as a process driven by by competition and natural selection.
favorable traits increase the likelihood that they will survive to adulthood and reproduce.
individual who produce more offspring in comparison to others
different ecological circumstances
the ability to conceive and produce healthy offspring.
the entire genetic makeup of an individual or species. In humans, it's estimated that the human genome comprises about 3 billion DNA bases.
a biological continuum. when expressions of a phenomenon continuously grade into one another so that there are no discrete categories, they exist on a continuum. Color is one such phenomenon, and life-forms are another.
Adherents to a movement in American Protestantism that began in the early 20th century. This group holds that the teachings of the Bible are infallible and should be taken literally.
Scopes Monkey Trial
Clarence Darrow-John Scopes, a high school teacher was arrested and tried for teaching evolution-he was convicted and fined $100, this was later overturned.
1968 struck down the ban on teaching evolution in public high schools.
Linnaeus, Carolus 1707-1778
Swedish naturalist who developed a method of classifying plants and animals. "Systema Naturae" 1735, he standardized
A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions.
A movement of ideas that occurred in Europe between 1680 and 1790. Attempted to apply reason to understand, explain and even change the world.
Three dimensional molecules that serve a wide variety of functions through their ability to bind to other molecules.
A structure (organelle) found in all eukaryotic cells. The nucleus contains DNA and RNA, among other things.
Structures made up of two or more atoms. molecules can combine with other molecules to form more complex structures.
Ribonucleic Acid-a single stranded molecule similar in structure to DNA. 3 forms of RNA are essential to protein synthesis; messenger RNA (mRNA) transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
The semifluid, gel-like substance contained within the cell membrane. The nucleus and numerous structures involved with cell function are found within the cytoplasm.
The manufacture of proteins, that is the assembly of chains of amino acids into functional protein molecules. Protein synthesis is directed by DNA.
Structures contained within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that convert energy, derived from nutrients to a form that can be used by the cell.
Structures conposed of a form of RNA called ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and protein. Ribosomes are found in a cell's cytoplasm and are esssential to the manufacture of proteins.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
DNA found in the mitochondria. Mitochrondrial DNA is inherited only from the mother.
Basically all the cells in the body except those involved with reproduction.
Reproductive cells (eggs and sperm in animals) developed from precursor cells in ovaries and tested.
A cell formed by the union of an egg cell and a sperm cell. It contains the full complement of chromosomes, in humans 46, and had the potential of developing into an entire organism.
Basic units of the DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of the four DNA bases.
to duplicate. The DNA molecule is able to make copies of itself.
Specialized proteins that initiate and direct chemical reactions in the body.
In genetics, referring to the fact that DNA bases form pairs, called base pairs, in a precise manner. For example, adenine can bond only to thymine. These two bases are said to be complementary because one requires the other to form a complete DNA base pair.
A protein molecule that occurs in red blood cells and binds to oxygen molecules.
Substances, usually proteins, that are produced by specialized cells and that travel to other parts of the body, where they influence chemical reactions and regulate various cellular functions.
small molecules that are the components of proteins.
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
A form of RNA that assembled on a sequence of DNA bases. It carries the DNA code to the ribosome during protein synthesis.
Triplets of messenger RNA bases that code for specific amino acids during protein synthesis.
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
A type of RNA that binds to specific amino acids and transports them to the ribosome during protein synthesis.
A change in a gene or chromosome. The term can refer to changes in DNA bases, specifically called point mutations, as well as to changes in chromosome number and or structure.
A sequence of DNA bases that specifies the order of amino acids in an entire protein, a portion of a protein, or any functional product, such as RNA. A gene may be composed of thousands of DNA bases.
Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine
DNA that does not direct the productions of proteins. However, such DNA segments produce thousands of molecules, for example RNA, that are involved in gene regulation. Thus the term noncoding DNA is misleading.
Segments of genes that are transcribed and are involved in protein synthesis. the prefix ex denotes that these segments are expressed.
Segments of genes that are initially transcribed and then deleted. Because introns are not expressed, they are not involved in protein synthesis.
Genes that influence the activity of other genes. Regulatory genes direct embryonic development and are involved in physiological processes throughout life. They are critically important to the evolutionary process.
An evolutionarily ancient family of regulatory genes that directs the development of the overall body plan and the segmentation of body tissues. There are at least 20 families of homeobox genes.
A human genetic disease of red blood cells caused by the substitution of a single amino acid in the hemoglobin protein; it is the most common inherited disease among African Americans.
Severe inherited hemoglobin disorder in which red blood cells collapse when deprived of oxygen. it results from inheriting two copies of a mutant allele. The type of mutation that produces the sickle-cell allele is a point mutation.
A change in one of the 4 DNA bases.
discrete structures comprosed of DNA and proteins found only in the nuclei of cells. Chromosomes are visible under magnification only during certain phases of cell division.
the position of location on a chromosome where a given gene occurs. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with gene.
Alternate forms of a gene. Alleles occur at the same locus on paired chromosomes and thus govern the same trait, but because they're different, their action may result in different expressions of that trait.
The chromosomes of an individual, or what is typical of a species, viewed microsopically and displayed in a photograph. The chromosomes are arranged in pairs and according to size and position of the centromere.
Simple cell division, the process by which somatic cells divide to produce two identical daughter cells.
Cell division in specialized cells in ovaries and testes. Meiosis involves two divisions and results in four daughter cells, each containing only half the original number of chromosomes. These cells can develop into gametes.
the exchange of genetic material between paired chromosomes during meiosis, also called crossing over.
Organisms that are genetically identical to another organism. The term may also be used to refer to genetically identical DNA segments, molecules or cells.
The chance distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells during meiosis. Along with recombination, random assortment is an important source of genetic variation, but not new alleles.
Polymerase Chair Reaction (PCR)
A method of producing thousands of copies of a DNA sample.
Human Genome Project
An international effort aired at sequencing and mapping the entire human genome, completed in 2003.
stored in the nucleus
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