GPN Honors Biology Final Exam
Vocabulary that will be tested on the Semester 2 Honors Biology Exam.
Terms in this set (126)
90% of cell cycle: the cell performs its normal functions. Includes G1, S, and G2.
The first phase after mitosis, in which the cell grows and performs its normal functions
The cell has already copied its DNA and now grows in preparation for mitosis.
The part of the cell cycle when the nucleus is divided (via mitosis), its chromosomes are distributed to the daughter nuclei, and the cytoplasm divided (via cytokinesis), producing two daughter cells.
The stage between G1 and G2 where the cell copies all of its DNA.
Specialized cells like mature muscle cells or neurons enter this phase, which is permanent G1. They won't undergo mitosis anymore.
When certain genes get mutated, cells ignore stopping points in the cell cycle and continue dividing non-stop.
When generic cells (stem cells) develop into specific cells for specific functions (eg. Muscle cells or liver cells).
An unspecialized cell that can become any type of cell.
Microtubules that make up the mitotic spindle during mitosis. Extend from the centrosomes and connect to the centromere of each chromosome.
Only found in animal cells. Make up the centrosomes during mitosis and release microtubules (spindle fibers).
Copying DNA. DNA Helicase splits the two complementary strands and then DNA polymerase adds complementary bases to each strand, creating two copies of the original.
The first stage of mitosis, during which the chromatin condenses to form structures (sister chromatids) and the mitotic spindle begins to form, the nucleolus disappears, and the nucleus breaks down. Sometimes the second half is called prometaphase.
The second stage of mitosis, during which all the cell's duplicated chromosomes are lined up on the equator of the cell.
The third stage of mitosis, beginning when sister chromatids separate from each other and ending when a complete set of daughter chromosomes arrives at each of the two poles of the cell.
The fourth and final stage of mitosis, during which daughter nuclei form at the two poles of a cell. The mitotic spindle breaks down, the nuclear membrane reforms and the nucleolus reappears. Usually occurs together with cytokinesis.
The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells. Usually occurs during telophase of mitosis.
A huge molecule made of coiled DNA. Humans have 23 pairs of them.
Half of a double chromosome (tetrad). Identical to the other half and connected at the centromere.
The region of a duplicated chromosome where two sister chromatids are joined and where spindle microtubules attach during mitosis and meiosis.
Matching. Having the same genes in the same locations, but different versions of those genes.
The division of a single nucleus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei. Occurs with cytokinesis to create two identical daughter cells.
In a sexually reproducing organism, the division of a single diploid nucleus into four haploid daughter nuclei. Produces haploid gametes from diploid cells in the reproductive organs of the parents.
The exchange of DNA between chromatids of homologous chromosomes during synapsis in prophase I of meiosis. Creates genetic variation and keeps us from being identical to our parents or siblings.
The creation of identical offspring by a single parent, without the participation of sperm and egg.
The creation of a unique offspring by the fusion of two haploid sex cells (gametes), forming a diploid zygote.
The fertilized egg, which is diploid, that results from the union of a sperm cell nucleus and an egg cell nucleus.
A small group of cells that came from a zygote and is developing into a fetus.
A sex cell; a haploid egg or sperm.
Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell. A "body cell".
An accident of meiosis or mitosis in which a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to separate at anaphase. Results in a monosomy or trisomy.
A picture of a person's chromosomes, matched up and sorted by size.
Having only one copy of a chromosome.
Having three copies of a chromosome.
Containing two homologous sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent; a 2n cell.
In the life cycle of an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing a single set of chromosomes; an n cell.
A double-stranded nucleic acid that contains our genes. Has a double-helix shape and is made of nucleotides containing a sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate, and nitrogenous base. Contains thymine.
A single-stranded nucleic acid that acts as a copy of DNA. Can leave the nucleus and is made of nucleotides containing a sugar (ribose), phosphate, and nitrogenous base. Contains uracil.
The building blocks of nucleic acids. Made of a sugar, phosphate, and nitrogenous base.
Any of the 5 bases Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine, or Uracil that form the genetic code in DNA or RNA.
A 5-carbon sugar that connects to phosphates to make the "backbone" of DNA.
A 5-carbon sugar that connects to phosphates to make the "backbone" of RNA.
A single-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA. Pairs with Adenine.
A double-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA. Pairs with Cytosine.
A single-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA. Pairs with Guanine.
A double-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA. Pairs with Thymine.
A single-ring nitrogenous base found only in RNA. Pairs with Adenine.
A weak bond formed between a slightly positive Hydrogen and a slightly negative atom. DNA base pairs are connected via this type of bonding.
The type of ribonucleic acid that encodes genetic information from DNA and conveys it to ribosomes, where the information is translated into amino acid sequences.
The protein factory of the cell. Uses mRNA and tRNA to build proteins from amino acids.
Making and RNA copy of DNA.
Making an amino acid chain (protein) using mRNA and tRNA. Occurs at the ribosome.
A three-nucleotide sequence in mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid during translation.
On a tRNA molecule, a specific sequence of three nucleotides that is complementary to a codon triplet on mRNA.
An enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription, using a DNA strand as a template. Creates mRNA.
A type of ribonucleic acid that functions as an interpreter in translation. Each one has a specific anticodon, picks up a specific amino acid, matches with a codon of mRNA.
An organic molecule containing a carboxyl group and an amino group; serves as the monomer (building block) of proteins.
A sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for a specific protein.
A change in the nucleotide sequence of an organism's DNA.
A coding portion of a gene. Is expressed.
A noncoding portion of a gene that gets cut out before translation. Found in between coding regions.
The process of passing and receiving traits and genes from parents to offspring
A feature or characteristic of an individual
Different versions of a gene, for example the gene for seed color in pea plants, comes in a yellow and green variety.
An allele or trait that is always expressed, it cannot be hidden or covered by a different allele, conventionally dominant alleles are represented with capital letters
An allele or trait that is only expressed in individuals who are homozygous recessive, or have two copies of a recessive allele, conventionally recessive alleles are represented with lower case letters
The genetic makeup of an individual or combination of alleles that an individual possesses examples of genotypes include heterozygous and homozygous dominant and recessive.
An inheritable feature or characteristic determined by an individual's genotype
Children or young from a progenitor or parents
A grid used to represent inheritance due to sexual reproduction
Heterozygote or individual with two different alleles for a certain gene, ex: Rr
An individual with two of the same alleles for a certain gene, ex: RR, rr
Carrier or an individual with two different alleles for a gene, ex: Rr
A family tree used to track and analyze the inheritance of a trait
Gene found on the X-chromosome, if the gene is x-linked recessive the trait is more commonly found in males
Which antigens are found on your blood cells. Determines who you can donate to or receive blood from. Can be A, B, AB, or O. Can also be + or -.
A protein on the surface of the cell membrane used to help the body identify foreign cells
O negative blood can be used for transfusions for patients with any blood type because it contains no antigens
More than two alleles exist in a population, for example the A, B and O blood alleles are found in the human population
In heterozygotes both traits are expressed, for example breeding a white feathered chicken with a black feathered chicken results in offspring that have both black and white feathers together
In the heterozygote two traits are blended, for example breeding a white flower with a red flower results in a pink flower.
Multiple genes control a single trait, which results in the trait coming a wide variety such as height
Genes that are inherited together more often because they are located close together on the same chromosome, thus crossing over is less likely to separate the genes into different sex cells
Has a nucleus and many organelles.
Very simple and small. No nucleus and very few organelles.
Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry.
A process in which organisms with certain inherited characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce than are organisms with other characteristics.
The selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to promote the occurrence of desirable traits.
A past species which split into two or more different modern species.
An inherited characteristic that enhances an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.
Differences in the genetics of organisms in the same population.
All the alleles for all the genes in a population.
An organism that makes its own food (often by photosynthesis), thereby sustaining itself without eating other organisms or their molecules. Examples: plants, algae, and numerous bacteria.
An organism that cannot make its own food and must obtain them by consuming other organisms.
A group whose members possess similar anatomical characteristics and have the ability to interbreed and produce viable, fertile offspring.
The system for taking in oxygen and giving off carbon dioxide
The system that moves blood through the body, consisting of the heart, blood vessels, and blood
A muscular organ that pumps blood through the circulatory system
Tubular structures that carry blood throughout the body
Extremely small blood vessels located within tissue
A blood vessel that carries oxygen depleted blood to the heart
A blood vessel that carries oxygen rich blood away from the heart toward tissue
Organ consisting or expanding and contracting sacs that exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with the blood stream
Or windpipe is the tube that carries air from the mouth and nose to the lungs
Branching tubes that come off the trachea and transport air from the trachea into each lung.
Small sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
Cavity that connects the back of the mouth to the trachea and esophogus
Chamber on the left side of the heart that receives blood from arteries which is then pumped through the aorta to deliver oxygen rich blood to tissue
Chamber on the right side of the heart that pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
Chamber on the left side of the heart that pumps oxygen rich blood to the right ventricle
Chamber on the right side of the heart that pumps deoxygenated blood to the right ventricle
Largest artery of the body connected to the left ventricle that distributes blood to all other arteries in the body
Large vein that carries deoxygenated blood into the right atrium
Blood carrying oxygen which is bound to the cell by hemoglobin
A protein complex that carries oxygen in red blood cells
Red Blood Cells
Specialized cell which helps deliver oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from body tissues
A membranous structure that opens and closes to control the flow of blood in the heart
Organ that filters waste from the blood and excretes that waste and water in urine.
Small tubes in the kidney that function to filter waste and water from blood into urine
Membrane surrounding a nephron that begins to filter waste from the blood
A cluster of capillaries that delivers blood to the nephron
Nitrogenous Waste (Ammonia/Urea/Uric Acid)
Waste products produced by human metabolism that must be removed through the human excretory system
The maintenance of stable internal conditions that support life