Terms in this set (33)
is a mental position based on a person's knowledge, feelings, and experiences about someone or something influencing him/her to behave in a certain way in regard to that person or thing. Attitudes change as a result of life experiences. Attitudes and life experience may exist in a correlative relationship.
generally refers to groups of people with common ancestry and physical characteristics. Since no "pure" races exist, some prefer to avoid reference to race and instead discuss group differences under the heading of ethnicity.
refers to shared culture and background. Members of an ethnic group usually have common ancestry and generally share language, religion, and other cultural patterns.
is the act of regarding one's culture as the "center of the universe," and hence as the basis for all comparisons with other cultures.
is an adverse judgment or opinion formed beforehand or without knowledge of or examination of the facts
a way of thinking and acting based on tradition: learned behavior passed down form one generation to another.
acting on the basis of prejudice
Who is prejudiced?
Prejudice is a universal ill. All of us have some kind of prejudice. As we learn about other cultures and people who are different from us, we learn to judge them relative to the norms of our own cultural group.
The Functions of Prejudice: (6)
Stereotype and Categorical treatment
provides a source of egotistic satisfaction, through comparing others with oneself.
Stereotype and Categorical Treatment
affords a convenient grouping for people of whom one is not knowledgeable. Lumping or grouping such people together under a popular stereotyped description saves time and thought and provides a convenient grouping.
"scapegoating" provides a convenient group or person to blame when things go wrong in one's personal life or in the community.
provides an outlet for projecting one's tensions and frustrations onto other people.
symbolizes one's affiliation with a more dominant group
(fear and insecurity) leads to justification for various types of discrimination that are thought to be of advantage to the dominant group.
Four basic Feelings Or Attitudes Harbored by Most Prejudiced Persons:
Feeling of superiority
Others are strange and different
Feeling of Superiority
self-assured feeling on the part of certain individuals that they are superior or better than others, which is frequently expressed in expressed in inappropriate jokes and disparaging remarks directed to those regarded as inferiors.
Others are strange and different
feeling that the other group is alien or different which promotes the social exclusion of members of a particular group and blocks my acceptance of a person on individual merit.
as a member of the group, the individual believes he is entailed to exclusive or prior rights in a certain area.
fear is a basic to prejudice. It excites the emotions to the point of overshadowing rational judgment. We believe that someone is trying to intrude and threaten the things that belong to us.
Forms and targets of prejudice
Racial/Ethnic/Gender/National origin/Political affiliation/Authority figures/Sexual orientation/Differently abled/Religious/Age/Economic/Weight/Physically challenged/Individual perusal preferences
Concepts about human relations from the social scientists:
*Every Individual is entitled to equal rights and dignities. They are entitled to the by virtue of being human.
*The right to be free implies the right to be different
*We should try to understand people different from us
*Bill of Rights for Americans and individuals residing in U.S.
*We tend to categorize people and make judgments about them rather than evaluate them based on their individual character.
*Democracy cannot work for some unless it works for all
All people share certain common needs:
Social needs/Health/Employment/Shelter/Food/Positive self-image
Functions of Discrimination
*Tends to reinforce prejudice concerning the group's alleged inferiority
*Discrimination by any group limits the other groups' effectiveness in business, education, political office
*Affords an avenue to economic exploitation of the group being discriminated against
Role of the Police officer
includes enforcing laws in an impartial manner and supporting the concept that all persons, including criminal justice personnel, are equally subject to the law and will be treated equally by it.
The peace officer has an especially sensitive position regarding impartial enforcement for several reasons:
*Officers often work alone and makes decisions demanding impartiality on their part wit no one (but the citizen) present to witness fairness.
*The temptations provided by citizens for them to be partial can be overwhelming.
*Deviations from fair and equal treatment can often be easily excused as being necessary for maintenance of order crime prevention, and public relations.
*The impression held by most people of the impartiality of the law and the fairness of criminal justice amy well come from the treatment they have received in their contacts
To apply these principles of impartiality, the peace officer should:
*Take necessary enforcement action, basing its intensity on the nature of the situation and the severity of the offense.
*Participate in the processes of justice such as charging and testifying, in ways that do not favor one individual or one group over any others on the basis of factors not related to the crime.
*Communicate by word and action the public and to other criminal justice personnel, whenever appropriate, that all personal of riminal justice agencies are equally subject to the law and will not be given preferential treatment.
Important skills that should be used:
*Gather knowledge and information about the person
*Tolerate ambiguity in messages, approaches different than your won, and differences in general.
*Show warmth, genuine interest, and empathy
*Be willing to communicate.
Adverse consequences of insensitivity:
*Loss of personal and professional repeat
Positive consequences of sensitivity:
*Respect from fellow professionals
*Support for democratic principles
What is cross-cultural communication
a field of study that focuses on how people of differing cultures communicate with each other.
There are how many members on the TCOLE board?
9 members appointed by the governor
how many hours of continuing education must you complete:
40 hrs every two years
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