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Concepts of Fitness-Final Test

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The epidemic of physical inactivity in the United States is called:
Sedentary Death Syndrome
is calculated by subtracting years of ill health from overall life expectancy.
Healthy life expectancy
Examples of physical activity include:
Walking to get groceries from a nearby store
Exercise is a subset of physical activity that is:
Planned, structured, and repetitive
The greatest benefit of health benefits is that physically fit individuals:
Enjoy a better quality of life
The most important factor affecting personal well-being is:
Lifestyle.
Resting heart rate is assessed when
You have been reading in bed quietly for about half an hour
is NOT an example of a toxic environment for wellness.
Bicycle lanes and jogging trails
When people think that tomorrow, next week, or after the holiday is the best time to start change, they are practicing the ____ barrier to change.
Procrastination
Saying: "I'll deal with the consequences later" is the ____ barrier to change
Risk complacency
The belief that our destiny is in our genes is the ____ barrier to change
Indifference and helplessness
The belief that unhealthy behaviors might harm others but not them is a(n) ____ barrier to change.
Illusions of invincibility
People with an internal locus of control
Have better exercise adherence
People with an external locus of control
Say things happen by chance
What of the following theories/models believe(s) that behavior change is influenced by the environment, self-efficacy, and characteristics of the behavior itself?
Learning theories
Critical in the move from the Precontemplation stage to the Contemplation stage of the Transtheoretical Model is for the individual to:
Get educated about the problem.
During the ____, the person continues the new behavior for up to 5 years.
Maintenance stage
Relapse in the Transtheoretical Model:
May occur at any level of the model.
SMART Goals refer to those that are:
Specific, measurable, acceptable, realistic, and time-specific
Proper nutrition means that a person's diet:
Supplies the essential nutrients.
Essential nutrients include:
Carbohydrates, fat, protein, vitamins, minerals, and water.
Which of the following is associated with lower risk for coronary heart disease?
HDL
The National Academy of Sciences states that ____ percent of the calories should come from fats in a well-balanced diet
20-35
MyPyramid healthy eating guide contains the following five major food groups and oils:
Grains, vegetables, fruits, milk, and meats and beans
____ do not eat red meat but do eat fish, poultry, milk products, and eggs.
Semivegetarians
A food that offers specific health benefits beyond those supplied by the traditional nutrients it contains is called a ____ food.
Functional
Most of the ATP supplied for 200-meter run comes from the ____ system.
Lactic acid
The typical amount of essential fat in men is ____ percent of the body
3
The typical amount of essential fat in women is ____ percent of the body.
12
The body composition assessment technique that is based on the principle that the amount of subcutaneous fat is proportional to total body fat is:
Skinfold thickness
A technique used to assess body composition by measuring circumferences at specific body sites is called:
Girth measurements.
A technique used to determine thinness and excessive fatness that incorporates height and weight to estimate critical fat values at which the risk for disease increases is called
Body mass index.
A waist circumference ____ indicates a higher risk for cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes.
Above 40 inches in men and 35 inches in women
Starting at age 25, an average person in the United States loses ____ lean weight each year.
0.5 pound
A person can gain weight on a weight control and exercise program because:
Lean weight is gained.
Most of the blame for the alarming increase in obesity in the U.S. lies in:
Over eating and physical inactivity.
Obesity has been defined as a BMI of ____ or higher
30
The second leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. is
Overweight & physical inactivity.
Various studies indicate that most people, especially obese people
Underestimate their energy intake
An eating disorder characterized by a refusal to eat enough food to maintain a minimally normal body weight is
Anorexia nervosa
A difference between anorexic and bulimic individuals is that bulimics
Are closer to recommended body weight.
Although both bulimic and binge-eating individuals eat large amounts of food in a short period of time, a difference between bulimic and binge-eating individuals is that binge-eaters:
Do not purge
One pound of fat represents ____ calories.
3,500
mechanism that appears to regulate how much a person weighs is known as:
Setpoint
The suggested lower limits of daily caloric consumption are ____ for men and ____ for women (respectively).
1,500 and 1,200 Calories
As you start your diet plan, pay particular attention to:
Food serving sizes
Weight management is accomplished by:
Making a lifetime commitment to physical activity and proper food selection.
The single most important component of health-related physical fitness for the general population EXCEPT for the older adults is:
Cardiorespiratory endurance
As a person's cardiorespiratory endurance increases, the
Resting heart rate decreases.
Blood ejected each beat of the heart is called the:
stroke volume
The best indicator of cardiorespiratory or aerobic fitness is:
VO2max
Endurance training increases stroke volume significantly due to:
A stronger heart muscle.
The a-v O2 difference is:
The amount of oxygen removed from blood.
Which of the following tests can be used to estimate VO2max?
1.5-mile Run Test.
To develop the cardiorespiratory system, the heart muscle has to be:
Overloaded
Maximal heart rate is estimated by:
Subtracting age from 220
Heart rate reserve (HRR) is calculated by
Subtracting resting heart rate from maximal heart rate.
Three 20- to 30-minute cardiorespiratory training sessions per week, on nonconsecutive days, will maintain cardiorespiratory fitness
As long as the heart rate is in the appropriate target zone.
An increase in the size of a cell is called:
Hypertrophy.
A benefit of strength training, accentuated even more when combined with aerobic exercise, is:
A decrease in adipose tissue around muscle fibers themselves
ability of a muscle to exert submaximal force repeatedly over time is known as:
Muscular endurance.
Increasing the number of repetitions can be used to:
Overload in strength-training.
Strength training method referring to a muscle contraction that produces little or no movement, such as pushing or pulling against an immovable object is referred to as:
Isometric training
Strength training should be done either through a total body workout ____ a week, or more frequently if using a split body routine.
2-3 times
Strength gains
Are seen in the first 8 weeks of training
Which of the following is a benefit of having strong core muscles?
Decreased low back pain.
The ability of a joint to move freely through its full range of motion is known as:
Flexibility
Decreased flexibility causes older adults to
Lose mobility for simple daily tasks.
Permanent lengthening of soft tissue is called:
Plastic elongation
Temporary lengthening of soft tissue is called
Elastic elongation
The modified sit-and-reach test:
Considers arm and leg lengths in determining the flexibility measurement.
Slow-sustained stretching:
Causes the muscles to relax.
The general recommendation for a beginning flexibility development session is to hold the final stretch position ____ seconds.
15-30
A major contributor to back pain is ____, which causes back muscles to shorten, stiffen, and become weaker.
Excessive sitting
The ability to change body position and direction quickly and efficiently is the definition of:
Agility.
The ability to maintain the body in proper equilibrium is the definition for
Balance.
integration of the nervous and muscular systems to produce correct, graceful, and harmonious body movements is the definition for:
Coordination
Soda Pop Test is used to assess:
Coordination.
Standing Long Jump Test is used to assess:
Power.
The objective of ____ Test is used to measure hand reaction time in response to a visual stimulus.
Yardstick
A person should ____ following a meal before participating vigorously exercise.
Wait about 2 hours
You should avoid exercising if you have a:
Fever.
Exercise intolerance may result from exercising:
Beyond your target heart rate zone.
The body's mental, emotional, and physiological response to any situation that is new, threatening, frightening, or exciting is called:
Stress
Positive stress is also referred to as
Eustress
____ seems to be more important in the development of disease than the amount and type of stress itself.
How people perceive and cope with stress
The psychological response of the body to stress that prepares the individual to take action by stimulating the vital defense systems is referred to as
Fight-or-flight.
Exercise helps:
A person cope with stress
stress-management technique that uses progressive contraction and relaxation of muscle groups throughout the body is referred to as
Progressive muscle relaxation
____ helps prevent Type II diabetes in the first place.
Aerobic exercise
Carcinoma in situ is a critical turning point for cancer because it is when
A tumor reaches about 1 million cells.
The most effective way to protect against cancer is to
Adopt healthy behaviors.
Fat intake should be primarily monounsaturated and ____ fats, which seem to offer protection against colorectal, pancreatic, breast, oral, esophageal, and stomach cancers.
Omega-3
One of the most unpleasant, dangerous, and life-threatening effects of drinking is the synergistic action of alcohol when combined with other drugs, particularly:
Heroin
The most widely used illegal drug in the United States is
Marijuana
HIV can be transmitted
By body fluid exchange
you are contemplating membership in a fitness facility, you should make sure that
The facility and equipment meet your activity interests.
When selecting a personal trainer, you should select one who has
A professional certification
Adhering to your new lifestyle will not be difficult if you implement your program based on:
Your interests and what you enjoy doing most
One-Foot Stand Test is used to measure:
Balance