Chapter 1 History
Terms in this set (44)
legendary king of Uruk who was part man and part god
Around 2340 B.C.E Sargon, leader of the Akkadians, overran the Sumerian city-states and established a dynastic empire. His power was based on the military, his 5,400 men army. Sargon's empire included all of Mesopotamia as well as lands westward toward the Mediterranean, inspired generations of Near Eastern leader to emulate his accomplishment
With a well-disciplined army of foot soldiers, he conquered Sumer and Akkad by attacking enemies one by one. Hammurabi used this unification of Mesopotamia to create his law code and positive state affairs.
c. 1480-c. 1450 B.C.E. led seventeen military campaigns into Canaan and Phoenicia. The Egyptians occupied these but permitted local native princes to rule. Egypt, no longer content to remain in isolation, now pursued an active political and diplomatic policy
Female pharaoh in the New Kingdom. She initially served as regent for her stepson Thutmosis III but she assumed the throne for herself. Dedicated a temple to herself. However, Hatshepsut's official statues sometimes show her clothed and bearded like a king, and she was addressed as ''His Majesty.''
Introduced the worship of Aten, god of the sun disk, as the chief god and pursued his worship with great enthusiasm. He changed his name to Akhenaten "Servant of Aten." He changed capital from Thebes to Akhetaten. His attempt of change failed; it was too much to ask Egyptians to ignore their traditional ways and beliefs, especially since they saw the destruction of the old gods as subversive to the cosmic order on which Egypt's survival and continuing prosperity depended. His preoccupation with religion caused him to ignore foreign affairs and led to loss of both Syria and Canaan.
1279-1213 Under him the Egyptians regained Canaan but were unable to reestablish the borders of their earlier empire.
Period of human history (c. 2,500,000- 10,000 B.C.E.). Paleolithic Nomadic hunters and gatherers, both men and women were responsible for finding the food(the chief work of paleolithic people). Fire and tools were the biggest innovations. Did not know how to grow crops or raise animals
"New stone". Age where the living patterns changing from nomadic to systematic agriculture.
(10000-4000 B.C.E.) The biggest change was the shift from hunting and gathering plants to producing food by systematic agriculture. Some agricultural villages were Jericho in Canaan (8000 BCE), and Çatal Hükuk, located in Turkey. Walls closed 32 acres, high point 6700 BCE and 5700 BCE and lived in mud brick houses. They built houses for protection and by 4000 BCE the invention of writing enabled records to be kept. Women's rights went lower as men accepted the right to work in the fields instead of hunting.
Epic of Gilgamesh
Form of Mesopotamian Literature. After the death of Enkidu from the poison of the gods (for killing Ishtar's bull) and lamenting morality, Gilgamesh seeks immortality(from Utnapishtim) but ultimately learns that humanity and divinity cannot coexist. No human can be immortal
Came about in 3000 BCE to 1200 BCE. Discovered that combination of copper and tin produced bronze a much harder and more durable metal than copper.
The earliest humanlike creatures existed as long as 3-4 million years ago. Known as Australopithecines, were the first to make simple stone tools.
"upright human being" emerged. Made use of more of larger and more varied tools and was the first hominid to leave Africa and move into both Europe and Asia.
"Wise human being" came about 250,000 years ago and crucial stage in human development. We are Homo sapiens sapiens
Lascaux/Altamira Cave Paintings
Cave painting of large animals found in southwestern France and northern Spain that demonstrate the cultural activity of Paleolithic people.
main method of sustenance in the Paleolithic Age
Valley in Mesopotamia, the land "between the rivers." Region receives little rain, but layers of silt made the soil fertile. While people needed flooding of silt for farming, floods were often catastrophic. Therefore, irrigation and drainage were needed to regulate unpredictable floods
A civilization is a complex culture in which large numbers of human beings share a variety of common elements. There are six basic characteristics which are an urban focus:
cities became the center
a distinct religious structure
new political and military structures: an organized government and army
a new social structure based on economic power
the development of writing
new forms of significant artistic and intellectual activity.
City-states like Ur, Uruk and more. They were the different cities in Mesopotamia. Cities were surrounded by walls. Plenty of mud in these cities
Sumerians believed that the gods ruled the cities.
They were the creators of Mesopotamian civilization were the Sumerians, a people whose origins remain unclear. By 3000 B.C.E had established a number of cities in southern mesopotamia, including Eridu, Ur, Uruk, Umma, and Lagash. Sumerian cities surrounded by walls. The Sumerians were plagued by incessant warfare between their many city-states. Governments came to view the kings as the agents of the Gods. The Sumerians believed that a divine force ruled the cities (theocracy). Economy was agricultural.
The most prominent building in a Sumerian city was the temple which was dedicated to the chief god or goddess of the city and often built atop a massive stepped tower called Ziggurats.
Religion of Sumer
The Sumerians believed that the gods and goddesses owned the cities, and much wealth was used to build temples as well as elaborate houses for the priests and priestesses who served the gods. The Sumerians believed that the gods ruled the cities Theocracy and therefore Kingship was viewed as divine.
Role of women in Sumer
A woman's place was in the home, and failure to fulfill her duties was ground for divorce. Some did work in the fields and others in businesses, where they were especially prominent in running taverns
"Wedged shaped" Sumerians used it as their system of writing. Using reed stylus, they made wedged shaped impressions clay tablets, which were baked or dried in the sun. It evolved from pictures of objects to simplified and stylized signs, leading eventually to a phonetic system that made possible he written expression of abstract ideas.
A collection of 282 laws. It reveals a society with a system of strict justice. Penalties for criminal offenses were severe and varied according to the social class of the victim.(lower class) "An eye for an eye and tooth for a tooth" was fundamental to this law code. It also took the responsibilities of public officials very seriously, had consumer protection laws, had laws of agriculture and trade, interest rates were watched and the largest of amount of laws was dedicated to the family.
Central importance to the development of Egyptian civilization was the Nile River. The Egyptians recognized its significance.
First period of long term stability. Menes unites lower and upper Egypt in around 3100 B.C. It was the age of the pyramids, and the pharaohs were seen as gods that ruled with absolute power
A decline in centralized government, a drought caused by low levels of the Nile and decline in rainfall led to the end.
King of Thebes, Mentuhotep, defeated the ruler of Heracleopolis and achieved reunification of all Egypt after the First Intermediate Period and began Middle Kingdom, 2055-1650. Seen as golden age. Nome structure reorganized, Nomarchs were confirmed as hereditary office holders. The Pharaoh was now seen as Shepherd of his people. Pharoah's had a newfound care for their people. Came to end with an incursion into the delta region by the Hyksos.
Ahmose reunited Egypt and founded 18th dynasty. 1550-1070. More professional army was developed, viziers, who were in charge of the state bureaucracy, were now chosen only from the ranks of military commanders. Egypt became the most powerful state in the Near East. Egypt was not longer content to remain in isolation and pursued an active political and diplomatic policy. Invasions from the "Seas people" destroyed Egyptian power in Canaan and drove Egypt within borders.
A spiritual precept that conveyed the idea of truth and justice, especially right order and harmony. To them this had fundamental order and harmony had existed throughout the universe since the beginning of time. Pharoah's were supposed to maintain this.
"priests-carvings" or "sacred writings." Hieroglyphs were signs that depicted objects and had a sacred value at the same time. They were later simplified into for writing into two script, they never developed into an alphabet. first in stone but later into Papyrus.
Book of the Dead
a book of magical incantations that were used to ensure a favorable journey to a happy afterlife. Specific instructions on what to do when there. Demonstrated skill unique to the world at the time.
large structures built as tombs but also to display the power of the pharaohs. Largest and greatest pyramids were built in the Old Kingdom.
Egyptian Social Life
Kings at the top surrounded by upper class nobles and priests. Below was the merchants and artisans. majority though worked the land, most of them were serfs who were common people bound to the land and their estates. This was cosmic order and not to go against it. god -> king -> people.
They brought an end to the middle kingdom with an incursion into the delta region. They were semitic-speaking people, and came to dominate much of Egypt during the Second intermediate period. They weren't all that negative because taught them how to use bronze in new agricultural tools and weapons, brought aspects of warfare to Egypt, including the chariot, heavier sword, and the compound bow.
brought end to Egyptian power in Canaan and drove the Egyptians back within their old frontiers. The days of Egyptian empire was over. Also partly brought end to the Hittite power as result of their attacks around 1200 B.C.E.
Ramesses II made a remarkable non aggression treaty between Egypt and the Hittites who had been in conflict for so long.
They were indo-europeans who began to spread outward around 1600 B.C.E but it wasn't until 200 years later that a new line of kings created the Hittite New Kingdom or empire. Especially notable was Suppiluliumas I, one of strongest rulers who established control from western turkey to northern Syria. Destroyed power of the Mitanni Kingdom. First Indo-Europeans to make use of Iron. During high time was one of the great powers in Western Asia. Hittite ruler known as "Great King," controlled the core areas of the kingdom. Interesting ability to assimilate other cultures into it's own. Borrowed a lot from Mesopotamia.
Refers to people who used language derived from a single parent tongue. It has been suggested the the original Indo-European speaking peoples were based somewhere in the steppe north of the black sea or in southwestern asia, in Iran or Afghanistan. Recent theory says that it derived in Anatolia near turkey.
Many languages derive from the Indo-Europeans including Greek, Latin, Persian, Sanskrit, and the Germanic languages.
The Bronze Age in northwestern Europe is known for its megaliths, large standing stones. Mostly for astronomical purposes.
The most famous megalithic structure is Stonehenge
Most famous of these structures in stonehenge in England. Consists of series of concentric rings of standing stones. Its construction between 2100 and 1900 was no small accomplishment 80 bluestones used at stonehenge weigh 4 tons each and were transported to the site from 135 miles away.
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