Social Studies Final: Africa
Terms in this set (81)
A large, level area that rises above surrounding land; has at least one side with a steep slope
The height of land above or below sea level
A deep crack in Earth's surface
A river or stream that flows into a larger river
Rich in the substances plants need to grow well
Name four regions of Africa
North Africa, West Africa, East Africa, and South/Central Africa
What physical features do all of Africa's regions have in common?
Mountains and plateaus
Why might West Africa be the continent's most populated region?
It has good soil for farming
What are Africa's four major rivers?
The Nile, The Congo, The Niger, and The Zambezi
How do Africa's four major rivers affect the lives of its people?
It helps trade, travel, power, water, and irrigation
How did farming on the Nile change after the Aswan High Dam was built?
There were no more floods around the Nile
Why is Africa often called the "plateau continent"?
Africa is made up of raised level land, that drops sharply near the sea
What and where is Africa's tallest mountain?
Mount. Kilimanjaro in East Africa
Near what landform are most of Africa's major lakes located?
Great Rift Valley
What can't ships sail all the way from Africa's interior to the sea?
Because of rapids and waterfalls
Why have people farmed the land along the Nile River for thousands of years?
The Nile flooded its banks regularly, making the soil fertile
To supply with water though a ditch, pipe, channel, or sprinkler
A long period with little or no rain
A fertile place in a desert where there is water and vegetation
A region with tall grasses with scattered trees
A person who had no permanent, settled home and who instead moves from place to place
Name three factors that influence climate
Distance from the equator, elevation, and nearness to large bodies of water
Give and example of how one of these factors can influence climate
For elevation, when you go higher up, it tends to be colder
Identify the types of vegetation found in each of Africa's four regions
South: tropical savannas
East: savannas and grasslands
West: savannas and grasslands
How do climate and vegetation affect the ways Africans make a living?
Most people are farmers, so depending on the climate and vegetation, it makes you a successful farmer
What health risks do people and animals in different climate regions of Africa face?
Malaria and Sleeping Sickness
In which of Africa's climate regions do you think you would be least likely to contract malaria?
In the desert
What are the three major types or vegetation in Africa?
Rain forests, savannas, and deserts
What is the most common vegetation in Africa?
The tropical savanna
In Africa, how do farmers from dry regions prepare for the possible lack of rainfall?
They plant a variety of crops
Most nomads that live in the Sahara are...
Raising just enough crops to support one's family
A crop raised for sale
A system for producing, distributing, and consuming goods and services
To add variety to; to expand a country's economy by increasing the variety of goods produced
What makes most land Africans live on hard to farm?
It doesn't rain and there is poor soil
What are some important natural resources found in Africa?
Copper, gold, iron, diamonds, and petroleum
What do you think happens to most of Africa's mineral resources after they are mined?
They get turned into something pretty (like jewelry), and it gets sold to someone else
What kind of work is done by most Africans?
In what ways could African countries benefit from diversifying their economies?
If one cash crop starts to not cost a lot of money, they will have another cash crop to use, so they won't lose money
What crops do subsistence farmers in North Africa raise?
Barley and wheat
What crops are farmers able to grow in regions with more rainfall
Vegetables, fruits, and root crops
What is one effect of increasing planting of cash crops?
There is less land to plant crops for one family's needs
Why are a number of African countries planting thousands of trees?
In order to renew the resource
What countries are major oil producers in Africa?
Libya, Algeria, and Nigeria
What are some mineral resources found in Africa?
Gold, copper, iron, coal, diamonds, and silver
What happens in some African regions when cash crops fail?
There are food shortages
A feeling of pride in one's homeland; a group's identity as members of a nation
The belief that all Africans should work together for their rights and freedoms
A refusal to buy of use certain products or services
A government over which citizens exercise power
How did Africans respond to years of colonial rule?
They formed political parties and worked to overthrow the Europeans
Why did African leaders encourage people to feel pride about being African?
So they would stick together and not fight
What was Africa's role in World War II?
Most supported the allies in the British Army
How did World War II boost the independence movement in Africa?
The war inspired many people in Africa to seek freedom in their own Nation
What pressures forces European countries to give up their colonies?
World War II weakened France and England
How was Ghana's road to independence similar to that of Algeria? How was it different?
They both wanted freedom and got it by doing demonstrations. Ghana got its freedom from England, in a peaceful demonstration. Algeria had a war with France
What effect did the European borders have on African ethnic groups?
The European borders made some ethnic groups who disliked each other part of the same country
What did African leaders realize, that would have to be done, to get rid of colonial rule?
They would have to work hard at developing pride in being African
What groups worked to gain rights for Africans, including the right to vote?
The National Congress of British West Africa and the African National Congress
What did the Pan-Africanism movement stress? What was its slogan?
Unity and cooperation among Africans. "Africa for Africans"
Why were many new governments in Africa unstable?
After the European countries agreed to independence, they did nothing to prepare the new leaders
In what colony was the African National Congress formed?
After independence, the Gold Coast colony changed its name to...
The large-scale production of crops for sale
A plant that is created by breeding different types of the same plant
Able to read or write
The average length of time a person can expect to live
Do many African nations today have specialized economies?
Yes, about 75%
Why are African nations trying to diversify their economies?
So they are less sensitive to the rise and fall of world prices
What social issues at people facing in Africa today?
Boko Haram - an extremist group in Nigeria that opposes western education for women
Literacy rates in most African countries have increased since independence. Education has also improved. From these facts, what can you infer that people value in Africa?
Independence and education
Give an example of an environmental challenge African nations face today
Problems with soil, deforestation, and desertification
How is that challenge being addressed?
With science (education) and planting trees (for deforestation)
Economic Issues/Action Taken
Very sensitive to the rise and fall of world prices/trying to diversify the economy
Social Issues/Action Taken
Not having enough schools/parents helping to pay for new schools to open
Environmental Issues/Action Taken
The soil erodes when trees are removed, so farmers in rural areas struggle to make a living/farmers have planted crops like yams to hold the soil together
Most African economies are based on...
Farming and mining
What is one important educational goal in African countries today?
To improve the literacy rate
What African nation may serve as a model for preventing and controlling AIDS in other countries?
What is one serious environmental problem facing African countries today?