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Reproductive System

Final Exam Review
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the secretory phase
A sample of a woman's blood is analyzed for reproductive hormone levels. The results indicate a high level of progesterone, relatively high levels of inhibin, and low levels of FSH and LH. The female is most likely experiencing ________ of the uterine cycle.
lobules
Inward projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septa, divide the testis into
seminiferous tubules
Sperm production occurs in the
bulbo-urethral glands.
The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the
meiosis.
The special type of cell division required to produce gametes is called
deliver spermatozoa to the epididymis.
Scarring of the rete testis would interfere with a man's ability to
rete testis
Straight tubules originate at the seminiferous tubules and form a maze of passageways called the
secondary spermatocytes
The cells that are formed during spermatogenesis by the first meiosis are called
estradiol
The granulosa cells of developing follicles secrete
a castrated adult male
In which of the following cases would the level of GnRH be highest?
a muscular tube extending between the uterus and the external genitalia
The vagina is
areola
The pigmented skin that surrounds the nipple is the
progesterone
Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of
a bundle of tissue that contains the ductus deferens, blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics that serve the testis
The spermatic cord is
uterus
The organ that provides mechanical protection and nutritional support for the developing embryo is the
peristaltic contractions
Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by
ejaculation
Contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles result in
23
How many tetrads form during synapsis?
ovulation
The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers
LH
The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is
body
The ________ is the largest portion of the uterus.
infundibulum
Which region of the uterine tube captures the ovum?
production of spermatozoa
Functions of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system include all of the following, except
synapsis; tetrad
During meiosis I, maternal and paternal chromosomes fuse together during the process called ________ to form a ________.
meiosis
The special type of cell division required to produce gametes is called
enters the inguinal canal
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term round ligament?
urinary bladder
The broad ligament attaches to all of the following organs, except the
thick layer of smooth muscle cells
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term myometrium?
primordial follicle
The primary follicle develops from the
cervix
The inferior portion of the uterus that projects into the vagina is the
four; 23
A primary spermatocyte matures into ________ spermatids having ________ chromosomes
the menses
The uterine phase that develops because of a fall in progesterone levels is
both produce progesterone
Which of the following is not a similarity between the testis and ovary?
prostate gland
The organ that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the
consists of stratum basalis and stratum functionalis
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term endometrium?
infundibulum
The portion of the uterine tube that ends in fingerlike fimbriae is the
mimics the symptoms of menopause
Which of the following is not an action of estrogen?
uterine tube
The organ that transports the ovum to the uterus is the
28 days
The average length of the menstrual cycle is
milk will not be ejected into the lactiferous sinuses.
If oxytocin receptors are blocked,
be sterile
A boy has a genetic mutation such that FSH is not produced, but LH is normal. After the boy grows to maturity, it is likely he will
an extensive mesentery that encloses the ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterus.
The broad ligament is
epididymis
Spermatozoa are functionally matured within the
female external genitalia
Another term for vulva is
corpora cavernosa
The paired erectile bodies in the penis are the
the old functional layer is sloughed off
During the menses
initiate sperm production in the testes.
The role of FSH in males is to
penis
The organ that delivers semen into the female reproductive tract is the
23 chromosomes
Secondary spermatocytes each contain
tightens the scrotal sac.
Contraction of the dartos muscle
with a higher than normal pH
If the prostate stopped secreting fluid, this would result in semen
dysmenorrhea
Painful menstruation is called
Both will produce a fixed number of gametes
Which of these is NOT a similarity between the male and female reproductive systems?
ducts that receive and transport the gametes, gonads and external genitalia, and accessory glands and organs that secrete fluids
The reproductive system includes
tenses the scrotal sac and pulls the testes closer to the body cavity
Contraction of the cremaster muscles
are also called Leydig cells, respond to luteinizing hormone, and produce testosterone
Interstitial cells
interstitial cells
Which of these are not found in the seminiferous tubules?
spermatogonia, nurse cells, interstitial cells, primary spermatocytes
secondary spermatocyte
The first haploid cell formed during spermatogenesis is the __________
spermatogonia
Sperm develop from stem cells called
dartos
Which muscle is found beneath the skin of both the penis and the scrotum?
ductus deferens
The organ that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra is the
LH
Interstitial cells surrounding seminiferous tubules produce testosterone in response to
epididymis
The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the
androgens
Interstitial cells produce
bulbo-urethral glands
The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the
epididymis
The first organ that sperm pass through is the __________
spermatogonia
Which of these is oldest type of cell present in the testis?
secondary spermatocytes
spermatids
primary spermatocytes
spermatogonia
interstitial cells
Testosterone is produced by __________
seminal gland (seminal vesicle)
The organ that produces a secretion that contains fructose, prostaglandins, and fibrinogen is the
tunica albuginea
The __________ is the dense connective tissue that surrounds each testis.
both the cremaster and the dartos
Which of the following muscles move the testes towards the body?
the tunica muscularis
the biceps brachii
the cremaster
the dartos
both the cremaster and the dartos
secrete testosterone.
The nurse cells of the seminiferous tubules do all of the following, except that they
support spermiogenesis.
secrete testosterone.
secrete androgen-binding protein.
secrete inhibin.
maintain the blood-testis barrier.
spermatocytes.
When spermatogonia divide, the daughter cells are called
spermatozoa
The process of spermiogenesis produces
4, 1, 3, 2
Arrange the four structures listed below into the order in which sperm pass from the testis to the urethral meatus.

1. ductus deferens
2. urethra
3. ejaculatory duct
4. epididymis
spermatogonia
Semen contains all of the following, except
prostaglandins.
spermatogonia.
spermatozoa.
fibrinogen.
seminal fluid.
prepuce.
The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the
glans penis.
The urethral meatus is an opening in the
corpus spongiosum.
The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the
urinary
The male reproductive system is most closely associated with which of the following systems?
are found in the seminiferous tubules, form the blood-testis barrier, and coordinate spermatogenesis
Nurse cells
tunica vaginalis
The delicate layer of serous membrane that covers the testis is called the
40-45
The ductus deferens is approximately ________ cm long.
250 million
A typical ejaculation releases approximately ________ sperm
in the ductus deferens and ejaculatory duct
Where in the male reproductive system would you expect to find the most mature spermatozoa?
increased sex drive, decreased levels of GnRH, decreased levels of LH and FSH
A male bodybuilder starts taking injections of testosterone (an anabolic steroid) on a daily basis. After 3 weeks, what would you expect to observe?
inguinal canal
The ________ is an opening through which the spermatic cord passes
dartos
The ________ is a layer of smooth muscle in the skin of the scrotal sac.
spermiogenesis
Spermatids mature into spermatozoa by the process of ________
head
The ________ is the part of the sperm that contains the DNA
mitochondria
The middle piece of the sperm contains the ________ in a spiral arrangement
20-100 million
A normal sperm count ranges from approximately ________ to ________ spermatozoa per milliliter.
acrosomal cap
The ________ within the head of a sperm contains the enzymes essential for fertilization
2
A spermatozoon passes through the epididymis in about ________ weeks
prostatic urethra
The portion of the urethra that passes through the prostate is called the ________
membranous urethra
The portion of the urethra that penetrates the urogenital diaphragm is the ________
spongy urethra
The portion of the urethra that passes through the corpus spongiosum to the external urethral meatus is the ________
circumcision
The surgical removal of the prepuce is called ________
ejaculatory duct
The ________ carries fluid from the seminal gland (seminal vesicle) through the prostate.
scrotum
The ________ is a fleshy pouch suspended below the perineum and anterior to the anus.
may develop in response to testosterone and to estrogen.
Secondary sexual characteristics
isthmus
The segment of the uterine tube where fertilization commonly occurs is the
infundibulopelvic ligament
What structure extends from the lateral surface of the ovary, past the open end of the uterine tube, to the pelvic wall?
formation of immature gametes, secretion of hormones, production of oocytes, secretion of inhibin
Which is the function of the ovaries?
lateral margins of the uterus, through the inguinal canal to the external genitalia
The round ligaments extend from the
follicle maturation
A rise in the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone at the beginning of the ovarian cycle is responsible for
the functional zone of the endometrium is restored
During the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle
endometrial glands enlarge., the corpus luteum is formed, the fertilized ovum implants, progesterone levels are high
During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle
vestibule
The space bounded by the labia minora is the
progesterone
The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is
fornix
The ________ is the region of the vagina that surrounds the cervix
fundus
The ________ is the rounded portion of the uterine body superior to the attachment of the uterine tubes.
ovarian hilum
The region where blood vessels enter the ovary is called the
infundibulopelvic ligament
The fold of peritoneum that extends out from the ovary to the wall of the pelvis is called the
tertiary follicle
This causes a prominent bulge in the surface of the ovary
luteinizing hormone
A mature follicle releases an ovum in response to a surge in
both estrogen and progesterone.
After ovulation, the ovary secretes
the process of capacitation involves the removal of some inhibiting substances from the sperm
Sperm cannot fertilize an ovum unless it has been in the female reproductive tract for several hours. This enhanced ability of the sperm to fertilize the ovum is called capacitation. In vitro studies indicate that freshly ejaculated sperm can fertilize the ovum if they are first rinsed in salt solution before being introduced to the ovum. These observations suggest that
prevent the synthesis of estrogen, reduce the risk of breast cancer, bring on symptoms of menopause, increase the risk of osteoporosis
A drug that blocked the enzyme aromatase would do what to a patient?
has ciliated epithelium
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term uterine tube?
ovarian
The ________ ligament extends from the uterus, near the attachment of the uterine tube, to the medial surface of the ovary.
suspensory
The ________ ligament extends from the lateral surface of the ovary to the pelvic wall.
infundibulum
The funnel-like opening at the distal end of the uterine tube is called the ________
fimbriae
The ________ are fingerlike projections that capture the freshly ovulated ovum.
ampulla
The expanded, initial segment of the uterine tube is called the
external os
Sperm enter the cervical canal through the ________.
perimetrium
The ________ is the outer lining of the uterus.
endometriosis
The painful condition that develops because endometrial tissue is present in the peritoneal cavity is ________
endometrium
The ________ is the inner lining of the uterus.
zona pellucida
The ________ is the glycoprotein-rich region between the developing oocyte and the granulosa cells.
antrum
The fluid-filled cavity that appears in a secondary follicle is called the ________
functionalis
The stratum ________ is the endometrial layer that undergoes dramatic changes during the menstrual cycle.
Vaginitis
________ is an inflammation of the vaginal canal, caused by fungi, bacteria, or parasites.
Mammary glands
________ are the organs of milk production.
seminal vesicle, ampulla, prostate
Emission of semen depends on smooth muscle contraction in which organs?
begins with peristaltic contractions of the ampulla, is responsible for propelling semen into the female reproductive tract, occurs under sympathetic stimulation, involves contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscle.
Emission and ejaculation
there must be sufficient blood hydrostatic pressure, the sacral spinal cord must be intact, nitric oxide must be present.
For erection to occur
prostate
Contraction of the smooth muscle within the ________ acts to pinch off the urethra.
detumescence
The subsidence of an erection after ejaculation is known as _______
estrogen levels rise
Which of the following does NOT occur after menopause?
GnRH secretion increases
estrogen levels rise
menstrual cycles cease
FSH secretion increases
ovulation ceases
FSH and LH
After menopause, the production of two pituitary hormones increases. They are ________ and ________
interstitial cells.
Testosterone is secreted by the
Follicle-stimulating hormone
What stimulates spermatogenesis and stimulates maturation of primordial follicles in the ovary?
development
The gradual modification of anatomical structures during the period from conception to maturity is
third
The period of gestation that is characterized by rapid fetal growth and fat deposition is the ________ trimester.
first
The period of gestation when the rudiments of all major organ systems are established is the ________ trimester.
23
How many chromosomes do human gametes contain?
46
How many chromosomes do human somatic cells contain?
second
The period of gestation when organs and organ systems complete most of their development and the fetus looks distinctly human is the ________ trimester.
first
Embryological and early fetal development occur in the ________ trimester.
human chorionic gonadotropin, relaxin, progesterone, placental lactogen
Which hormones are produced by the placenta?
All of the above
Which of the following is one of the critical events of the first trimester?
placentation
embryogenesis
cleavage
implantation
relaxin
The hormone that increases the flexibility of the pubic symphysis during pregnancy is
corpus luteum; human chorionic gonadotrophin
If fertilization occurs, the ________ is maintained because the embryo secretes ________
ectopic pregnancy
In ________, implantation occurs somewhere other than in the uterus.
No
Does the umbilical cord contains a pair of arteries and a pair of veins.
umbilical vein
The blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood AWAY from the placenta is the ________
2
Blood flows to the placenta through ________ umbilical arteries.
umbilical arteries
The blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood TO the placenta are the ________
No
Is Blood in umbilical arteries is oxygenated?
50%
By the end of gestation, maternal blood volume normally increases by almost ________ percent.
false labor
Uterine contractions that are irregular and brief that occur toward the end of gestation are called ________
dilation
The first stage of labor is the ________ stage.
expulsion
The stage of labor during which the fetus emerges from the vagina is called the ________ stage.
dizygotic twins or Fraternal
Twins that result from two different ova are called ________
monozygotic twins or identical
Twins that occur when blastomeres separate are called ________
placental
The ________ stage is the stage of labor during which the placenta is expelled from the uterus.
episiotomy
In a(n) ________ an incision is made in the perineal musculature.
neonatal
The ________ period extends from birth to 1 month.
infancy
The period from 1 month to 2 years is known as ________
childhood
The period from 2 years to puberty is known as ________
genotype
The original 46 chromosomes and their component genes constitute an individual's ________
amniocentesis
In ________, a sample of amniotic fluid is removed and the fetal cells it contains are analyzed.
ejaculation
The ejection of semen from the penis as a result of muscular contractions of the bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus muscles
emission
occurs under sympathetic stimulation. process begins when the peristaltic contractions of the ampulla push fluid and spermatozoa into prostatic urethra
It doesn't give you an obvious symptom; they are vague. They include abdominal swelling, bloating and pain; pelvic pain; feeling full quickly when eating; and frequent urination and urgency. There may also be changes in bowel habits, appetite and body weight, plus fatigue, indigestion and nausea.
Why is ovarian cancer so hard to detect?
cortical reaction
What activity during oocyte activation prevents penetration by additional sperm?
Period of embryological and early fetal development. Rudiments of all major organ systems appear.
Characterize the first trimester of gestation.
Dominated by the development of organs and organ systems, a process that nears completion by the end of the 6th month. Body shape and proportions change. Fetus looks distinctively human.
Characterize the second trimester of gestation.
Characterized by rapid fetal growth and deposition of adipose tissue. Most of fetuses major organ systems become fully functional.
Characterize the third trimester of gestation.