Terms in this set (75)
Early city in Mesopotamia. Had system of canals built by slaves. Had ziggurat (temple) & store house for grains.
Another important city/kingdom in Mesopotamia. Hammurabi was one of its kings. Had a big population but was not powerful.
Another important kingdom in Mesopotamia. Conquered Nineveh, Ashur, Egypt. Was hard to control and unify that level of diversity. The Assyrians were brutal but effective.
King of Babylon from 1792 to 1750 BCE.
Name of a city in Mesopotamia and also the name of the chief god of the Assyrians.
Communities working collectively to contribute to society. In ancient Mesopotamia farmers gave crops to public store houses and got paid in the form of grain.
Leaders are chosen by their ability, not by who they know. The Assyrian military was a meritocracy.
Art, architecture, sculpture designed to promote a specific agenda (for the Assyrians, world conquest).
= temple in Mesopotamia. There were many important ziggurats in Mesopotamia.
Tigris & Euphrates
Rivers in Mesopotamia. The Mesopotamian civilization originated between and near the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The rivers often flooded and were unpredictable.
System of writing in Mesopotamia. Symbols were pressed onto clay tablets with reeds.
"Meso-" means middle, and Mesopotamia means in the middle of (between) two rivers. The Mesopotamian civilization developed between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (in modern-day Iraq).
Epic of Gilgamesh
Stories of an ancient Mesopotamian king.
System of laws that dictated everything from wages to punishments (for example "an eye for an eye").
Why did the Assyrian empire fall?
1. Empire extended beyond their roads - couldn't control.
2. Worldview was too extreme.
3. Lost battle and civilization collapsed.
Why did the Indus Valley civilization fall?
1. They were peaceful and had almost no weapons; this made them vulnerable to conquest.
2. Environmental disaster: an earthquake changed the path of the river.
Name three major cities/kingdoms of Mesopotamia.
Uruk, Babylon, Assyria
Hammurabi was a king of which Mesopotamian city?
Ashur was the chief god of which Mesopotamian civilization?
What are characteristics of a civilization?
1. Surplus production
2. Specialization of labor (need to trade separate things)
3. Social stratification
4. Centralized government
5. Shared values in religion
7. Rivers (flat, well-watered, and when they flood they deposit a nutrient silt)
Where did the Indus River Valley civilization originate?
Near the Indus River, covering parts of modern-day Pakistan, India and Afghanistan.
Major city in the Indus River Valley civilization.
Major city in the Indus River Valley civilization.
Name two major cities of the Indus River Valley civilization.
Mohenjo and Harappa
What were some characteristics of the Indus River Valley civilization?
1. Dense multi-story homes made of bricks with block streets.
2. They were designed to catch the wind and had a gravity sewage system.
3. Traded with themselves and with other civilizations.
4. Peaceful - almost no weapons and no warfare.
Early capital city of the Mayan civilization
Became the northern coastal capital of the Mayan civilization
A giant city the Aztecs built on an island in the middle of a lake that had pyramids the size of Egypt's. This was the biggest pre-Columbian city.
A method of farming by the Aztecs. These were like floating gardens divided by canals.
Steps the Inca built into the hilly terrain to grow crops and prevent erosion and runoff.
The Incas sacrificed people in the mountains. They froze which preserved the bodies. The mountains were icy and the Incas put the people there while they were alive.
A huge structure built by the Incas. It was a city/palace built onto and into a peak in the Andes.
The Inca connected the tribes they conquered into one large civilization by using a network of roads and foot bridges that connected most of the length of the Andes mountains. The foot bridges all led ultimately to Cusco and were able to traverse over rivers and cliffs.
Conquered the Incas for Spain in 1533
Conquered the Aztecs for Spain in 1519
First leader of the Mongol empire. Made the first paper base currency.
Religion based on worship of nature (Mongols)
Religion with many gods. The Roman religion was polytheistic.
Religion with one god. Christianity is a monotheistic religion.
When people travel from place to place and have no fixed home. The Mongols had a nomadic culture; they roamed on horseback creating temporary settlements between conquests.
The Mongol empire was a patriarchy, because land and leadership passed only to males in the khan's family line
Privilege is based on ability
Major trade route connecting Europe to far East Asia
The first European to document Asian culture and economy via his travels.
A large structure in Rome built for entertainment and hosting gladiator battles, animal fights, and chariot races.
"The Discus Thrower" by artist Myron
Festival that the Greeks held for competitions to honor the Gods.
Ancient Greece was NOT an empire; it was made up of individual, self-governed city-states. Some of these were monarchies (ruled by one), some where oligarchies (ruled by few), and some were democracies (ruled by many).
Type of Greek column - the simplest
Type of Greek column - curls at top
Type of Greek column - the most ornate
The wealthy and ruling class in ancient Rome
Common people in ancient Rome (underneath the patricians)
Began in 509 BCE when the Romans overthrew the Etruscans. The government was made up of elected representatives (senators) who made the laws.
Began in 45 BCE when Caesar became emperor.
River that Rome is on.
Mountains in Italy
From 331-323 BCE, when the Macedonian Empire spread Greek culture.
Began when Phillip II came from the north (Macedonia) and took control of the Greek city-states. Alexander the Great continued expanding the Macedonian Empire toward Asia.
Why did the Macedonian Empire fall?
When Alexander the Great died no one assumed control of the Macedonian Empire, and the city-states couldn't unite to withstand the Romans.
Why did the Roman Empire fall?
1. Shift in religious values (polytheistic religion celebrated conquest but under Christianity killing was a sin)
2. Lead poisoning through lead pipes used to move water
3. Plague - epidemic spread throughout empire
4. Got too big - Rome couldn't make a working government that could control the most distant regions throughout the empire
Why did the Mongol empire fall?
By 1338 CE the empire was too large to manage. The Mongols failed to unite the people in the places they took over, and their traditions and culture died.
Were the Mongols religiously tolerant?
Yes in general because it kept conquered people content. The Mongols practiced shamanism but were tolerant toward Buddhists. They were NOT tolerant toward Muslim/Islamic religion, however.
Who developed concrete?
Who celebrated horses?
Name two major written works from ancient Rome.
The Aeneid by Virgil, and The Early History of Rome by Livy.
What was the most seafaring ancient civilization?
Greeks. They had a good climate for agriculture but the land was too mountainous to farm. They lived near the coast and relied on trade and seafood for sustenance. They expanded their influence through colonization and trade.
What was the Greek social structure from top to bottom?
1. Male citizens
2. Male children
3. Women/female children/foreigners
What was the Roman social structure from top to bottom?
1. Male citizens (had to be fit for military service)
2. Women (no rights as citizens, couldn't get into politics, had to marry at a very young age)
3. Slaves (the majority of people; they were farmers, teachers, or workers; they built the empire but got treated with no respect)
Whose art typically depicted scenes of daily life?
Whose art typically depicted someone's wealth or importance?
Where was the Roman Empire?
Italy, France, England, Spain, Sicily, some of Egypt and Northern Africa
A river in the north of Italy
Name some characteristics of shamanism, the Mongol religion.
1. Worshiped nature
2. Harm nature = bad luck
3. More than one god (polytheistic)
4. Men and women could be priests
5. Had to go through a huge life event to be a priest
Which civilization liked public baths?