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HL Physics - SHM and Waves
Terms in this set (25)
the instantaneous distance of the moving object from its mean position (in a specified direction).
the maximum displacement from the mean position.
the number of oscillations completed per unit time.
the time taken for one complete oscillation.
phase difference, φ (phi)
measure of how 'in step' different particles/waves are. If aligned the phase-difference is 0. Measured in radians.
simple harmonic motion
the motion that takes place when the acceleration of object is always directed towards the mean position and is proportional to its displacement from the mean position. Acceleration is caused by a restoring force that must always be pointed towards the mean position and also proportional to the displacement from the mean position.
involves frictional force that is always in the opposite direction to the direction of motion of the oscillating particle. Acts to reduce the amplitude of an oscillation over time.
natural frequency of vibration
the frequency at which a system will oscillate when it is temporarily displaced from its equilibrium position.
applying a driving force which varies at the desired frequency. The amplitude of the resulting oscillation depends on how close the driving force frequency is to the natural frequency of the system.
when system is subject to an oscillating force at exactly the same frequency as the natural frequency of oscillation of system.
a single oscillation of a medium. (All waves transfer energy through a medium with no net displacement of the particles of the medium.)
continuous progressive (travelling) wave
a repetitive oscillation of a medium, or a series of pulses. (All waves transfer energy through a medium with no net displacement of the particles of the medium.)
wave in which the direction of oscillation of the particles of the medium is perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer of the wave.
wave in which the direction of oscillation of the particles of the medium is parallel to the direction of energy transfer of the wave.
line/plane that joins points on a wave with same phase/crest/trough.
the direction of wave travel/energy propagation. Rays are perpendicular to the wavefront.
highest point on a transverse wave.
lowest point on a transverse wave.
point of maximum compression of the particles of a medium in a longitudinal wave.
point of maximum expansion of the particles of a medium in a longitudinal wave.
shortest distance along the wave between two points that are in phase with one another.
the distance travelled per unit time at which the energy of the wave / wave fronts pass a stationary observer.
for a wave passing from one medium to another, the ratio of the sines of the angles of incidence and refraction equals the ratio of the speeds of the wave in the two media respectively.
the spreading out of a wave as it passes a slit or obstacle beyond that predicted by the obstacle shape. The angle of spreading increases for smaller slits.
principle of superposition
the overall disturbance at any point and at any time where two waves meet is the vector sum of the disturbances that would have been produced by each of the individual waves.
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