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Playing soccer and reading are examples of ________ traits.


Eye color and dimples on your face are examples of _______ traits.


Strong allele, written as a capital letter, like D. It overrules any weak alleles and masks their presence.


Weak allele, written as a lowercase letter, like d. It must be paired with another weak allele, like dd, to be seen.


Two different alleles, shown by a capital and a lowercase, like Dd. It's also called "hybrid".


Two of the same alleles, like DD or dd. It's also called "purebred".


Segments of DNA, located on chromosomes, that carry instructions for the traits of an organism. It's the code for your traits.


The gene for a trait, shown by letters. Example: BB, Bb, or bb.


The outward appearance of a trait, controlled by the genes. Example: Brown hair.

Alleles, genes, DNA, chromosomes, nucleus, cell

The levels of hereditary organization, starting from the smallest.


Maintaining a stable, internal environment of an organism.

Feedback Mechanism

A process that helps an organism change an internal condition to return to homeostasis. Example: An athlete sweating to get his body temperature back to normal.

Punnett Square

A box drawn to determine the probability of offspring receiving certain traits.

Homozygous recessive

dd is an example of a __________ gene.

Homozygous dominant

DD is an example of a __________ gene.


The passing of genetic instructions, or traits, from one generation to the next is ____________.


Gregor Mendel is considered the Father of _____________ because his work most contributed to this field of science.


The "genetic material" found in the genes that make up the chromosomes inside the nucleus of cells.


Humans have ______ pairs of chromosomes, making 46 chromosomes total.

Asexual reproduction

Type of reproduction in which there is only one parent. Offspring have NO DIVERSITY (no differences). The babies are all identical to each other and to the parent.


Another word for "differences, variety, or variations". Example: The offspring that result from sexual reproduction are NOT all identical; instead, there is plenty of ___________.


A fertilized egg, formed through sexual reproduction.

Sperm and egg

The two types of sex cells, one from the male and one from the female, that will create offspring through fertilization.


Another word for an organism's babies. Example: The ___________ of a single bacterium are all identical clones of the parent.

Sexual reproduction

Type of reproduction that combines genes from two parents and results in diverse offspring.

Binary fission

Type of ASEXUAL reproduction in which an organism copies itself, then divides into two identical organisms. Example: bacteria, paramecia


One major advantage of sexual reproduction is that it allows species to _________ to their environment.


One major advantage of ASEXUAL reproduction is that it allows species to produce many offspring __________.


Type of ASEXUAL reproduction in which an organism produces an offshoot that breaks away to live on its own. Example: Hydra


Type of ASEXUAL reproduction in which an organism uses cell division to regrow body parts. Example: Starfish

Vegetative propagation

Type of ASEXUAL reproduction in which part of an existing plant is cut off and grows into a new plant. Example: Strawberries

25% (one fourth)

Using a punnett square, what percentage of offspring from Nn x Nn would be nn?

50% (half)

Using a punnett square, what percentage of offspring from EE x Ee would be Ee?


DNA makes up chromosomes, which are found in the ___________ of cells.

Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism

The levels of cellular organization, starting from the smallest.

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