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midterm onward


Make up a large, varied group that includes both multicellular and unicellular organisms


containing plant tissue through which water moves up and food moves down


flowering plants that produce seeds in fruit. Most plants are in this category


plants of the class Gymnospermae having seeds not enclosed in an ovary. Pine trees and evergreen are examples


Oldest group of seedless vascular plants that includes club mosses, spike mosses and quillworts (large in Carboniferous period)


Group of seedless vascular plants that includes ferns, horsetails and whisk ferns


A member of the green algal group that are considered the closest relatives of land plants.


Alternate name for land plants that refers to their shared derived trait of multicellular, dependent embryos.

Why are charophytes and embryophytes grouped?

Distinct circular rings of protein that synthesize
Presence of procosomes
Flagullated Sperm
Detailed process of Cell division

Advantages of Plants on Land

More C02
Excess Light
More Nutrients
Initially No Predators

Drawbacks of Plants on Land

Harder to get water
Less structural support that water would otherwise provide
Eventually herbivores exist

Vascular tissue...

Allowed plants to grow tall
Allowed greater intake of sunlight
Farther seed dispersion

Gymnosperm Traits

No flowers
seeds not enclosed (pinecone)
Appear 305 MYA
Predominant in Mesozoic
Primarily wind pollinated

Angiosperm Traits

Enclosed seeds
First appear 140 MYA
Predominant in Cenozoic
Mainly animal pollinated


considered a stem lineage within the fungi and may be paraphyletic. Contains 1000 species of aquatic and soil dwelling decomposers.


About 16 species. Mold that grows on bread and fruit. Others are parasitic or commensal symbiotes of animals


65,000 species. Marine, terrestrial and aquatic free living parasites that partner in lichens.


form sheaths of hyphae over a root


30,000 species. Shelf fungus such as mushrooms and puffballs. Rarely act as anything other than wood decomposers.


Symbiotic associations between a photoautotroph (either green algae or cyanobacteria) and fungus


organism that uses energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbon compounds


Photosynthetic, oxygen-producing bacteria (formerly known as blue-green algae).

Mycorrhizal Fungi

form associations with vascular plants and can enhance plant growth in soils poor in nutrients.




All animals rose from these


study of interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms


Long term prevailing weather conditions


A major type of biological assemblage defined by chars of the dominant vegetation

Population density

the number of individuals per unit area

How Ecologists Measure Density

Count Sample & Extrapolate
Mark and Recapture

Mark/Recapture Formula

Marked/Second Capture=First Capture/Total Population

Random Dispersion

Position of the individual is independent

Clumped Dispersion

Most common. Influenced by resource availability or social interactions

Life Tables

Age specific summary of mortality and fecundity

Age Structure

Proportion of individuals in each age class


Breed multiple times during life span


Breed only once during lifespan

Ecological Niche

Summary of an organisms tolerances and requirements

Fundamental Niche

Full range of conditions under which a species can survive

Realized Niche

portion of niche that species can actually occupy as a result of its interactions with other species

Joseph Grinnell

Developed niche concept

Niche concept

niche of a species is determined by the habitat in which it lives


A benefits B is unaffected


A benefits and B benefits


B harmed by A and A harmed by B

Predator/Prey or Host/Parasite

A benefits B is harmed

Interspecific Competition

Different species compete for a particular resource that limits survival and growth


Pioneered competitive exclusion principle

Competitive exclusion principe

Two species that coexist indefinitely on the same limiting resources cannot coexist

Character Displacement

Some divergence in resource exploiting traits such as jaws and beaks


Organisms that attain nutrients by ingesting things

Cyclical Population Behavior

When there's a time delay between a consumers ability to increase in number as a result of prey consumption and changes in prey population size.

Obligate mutualism

partners cannot live without one another

Facultative Mutualism

Partners can live without one another

Bottom up view

Abiotic nutrients primarily determines a community's structure

Top Down View

Predators limit herbivores, which limit primary producers, which limit uptake of nutrients

trophic cascades

happen when control is from the top down and you have effects on top level predators cascading down a food web

Liebig's Law of the Minimum

Growth of an individual or population is limited by the essential nutrients present in the lowest amount relative to the requirement

Trophic Efficiency

Only a fraction of production is transferred from one trophic level to the next

Energetic Hypothesis

Inefficiency of energy transfer along the chain causes food chains to be short

Dynamic Instability Hypothesis

Fluctuations at lower levels of the food chain lead to the extinction of top order predators

Green World Hypothesis

Only a small fraction of Net Primary Production is consumed by herbivores because their populations are kept in check by predators

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