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plants of the class Gymnospermae having seeds not enclosed in an ovary. Pine trees and evergreen are examples
Oldest group of seedless vascular plants that includes club mosses, spike mosses and quillworts (large in Carboniferous period)
A member of the green algal group that are considered the closest relatives of land plants.
Alternate name for land plants that refers to their shared derived trait of multicellular, dependent embryos.
Why are charophytes and embryophytes grouped?
Distinct circular rings of protein that synthesize
Presence of procosomes
Detailed process of Cell division
Drawbacks of Plants on Land
Harder to get water
Less structural support that water would otherwise provide
Eventually herbivores exist
Allowed plants to grow tall
Allowed greater intake of sunlight
Farther seed dispersion
seeds not enclosed (pinecone)
Appear 305 MYA
Predominant in Mesozoic
Primarily wind pollinated
First appear 140 MYA
Predominant in Cenozoic
Mainly animal pollinated
considered a stem lineage within the fungi and may be paraphyletic. Contains 1000 species of aquatic and soil dwelling decomposers.
About 16 species. Mold that grows on bread and fruit. Others are parasitic or commensal symbiotes of animals
65,000 species. Marine, terrestrial and aquatic free living parasites that partner in lichens.
30,000 species. Shelf fungus such as mushrooms and puffballs. Rarely act as anything other than wood decomposers.
Symbiotic associations between a photoautotroph (either green algae or cyanobacteria) and fungus
organism that uses energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbon compounds
form associations with vascular plants and can enhance plant growth in soils poor in nutrients.
portion of niche that species can actually occupy as a result of its interactions with other species
Different species compete for a particular resource that limits survival and growth
Competitive exclusion principe
Two species that coexist indefinitely on the same limiting resources cannot coexist
Cyclical Population Behavior
When there's a time delay between a consumers ability to increase in number as a result of prey consumption and changes in prey population size.
Top Down View
Predators limit herbivores, which limit primary producers, which limit uptake of nutrients
happen when control is from the top down and you have effects on top level predators cascading down a food web
Liebig's Law of the Minimum
Growth of an individual or population is limited by the essential nutrients present in the lowest amount relative to the requirement
Dynamic Instability Hypothesis
Fluctuations at lower levels of the food chain lead to the extinction of top order predators
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