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In science, a theory is

a synthesis of a large body of well-tested knowledge

The scientific method is most effective in

gaining, organizing, and applying new knowledge

In science, an educated guess is a


What is an area of physics that studies motion and its causes?


A baker makes a loaf of bread. Which area of physics does this involve?


According to the scientific method, how does a physicist formulate and objectively test hypotheses?

by experiments

In the steps of the scientific method, what is the next step after formulating and objectively testing hypotheses?

interpreting results

A hiker uses a compass to navigate through the woods. Which area of physics does this involves?


What two dimensions, in addition to mass, are commonly used by physicists to derive additional measurements?

length and time

The SI base unit used to measure mass is the


The SI base unit for time is

1 second

How does a scientist reduce the frequency of human error and minimize a lack of accuracy?

take repeated measurements
use the same method of measurement
maintain instruments in good working order

Three values were obtained for the mass of a metal bar: 8.83 g; 8.84 g; 8.82 g. The known mass is 10.68. The values are


Calculate the following, and express the answer in scientific notation with the correct number of significant figures: 21.4+15+17.17+4.003

5.8 x 10^1
(the number with the lowest amount of sig figs is 15, which has two sig figs so the answer must have 2 sig figs)

Calculate the following, and express the answer with the correct number of significant figures: 1.23 x 0.89


What is not a step that is part of the scientific method?

Repeat the experiments until the answers match the predictions (doesn't have to match your predictions)

A hypothesis

an educated guess that has yet to be proved by experiment

A theory is

a synthesis of a large collection of information including well-tested guesses

One difference between a hypothesis and a theory is that a hypothesis

is a guess that has not been well tested, whereas a theory is a synthesis of well-tested guesses

What is an example of a scientific hypothesis?

Atoms are the smallest particles of matter that exist (If it is a valid hypothesis, there must be a test for proving that it is wrong)

To test a scientific hypothesis you would

set up many experiments and look at the results

How many sig figs does the number 0.006080?


A human hair is approximately 50 micrometers in diameter. Express this is meters.

5.0 x 10^-5 m
(50micrometers x 1x10^-6m/1micrometer = 50 x 10^6 = 5.0 x10^-5)

When a hypothesis has been tested over and over again and has not been contradicted, it may become a


physics is the most basic science because

it is about the nature of basic things like forces, energy, and motion

Listening to the radio involves what area of physics?

vibrations and wave phenomena

The SI basic unit for temperature is


What is 0.000000452 written in scientific notation?

4.52 x 10^-7 m

The law of inertia states that an object

-will continue moving at the same velocity unless an outside force acts on it
-will continue moving in a straight line unless an outside force acts on it
-that is not moving will never move unless a force acts on it
-at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an outside force

The law of inertia applies to

both moving and nonmoving objects

A sheet of paper can be withdrawn from under a container of milk without toppling it if the paper is jerked quickly. The reason this can be done is that

the milk carton has inertia

Compared to its weight on Earth, a 10-kg object on the moon will weigh


What is the tendency of an object to maintain its state of motion


The magnitude of the gravitational force acting on an object is


A measure of the quantity of matter is


According to Newton's law of inertia, a railroad in motion should continue going forever even if its engine is turned off. We never observe this because railroad trains

always have forces that oppose their motion

How many sig figs does the number 500,000 have?


Convert 5.52x10^8 g into kg using scientific notation.

5.52x10^5 kg

How does acceleration of an object change in relation to the applied force? It is

directly proportional

If the force acting on a cart doubles, what happen's to the cart's acceleration?

It doubles

Suppose a cart is being moved by a force. If suddenly a load is dumped into the cart so that the cart's mass doubles, what happens to the cart's acceleration?

It halves

How much force is needed to accelerate a 4.0 kg physics book to an acceleration of 2.0 m/s^2?

8.0 N

If shopping cart A has five times more mass in it than shopping cart B and the two cars are pushed with equal forces, you can expect the acceleration of shopping cart A to be

1/5 times that of shopping cart B

A bag of groceries has a mass of 11 kg. What is the bag's weight?

108 N

What is the cause of acceleration?


What statements describe force?

-force causes objects to start moving
-force causes objects to stop moving
-force causes objects to change direction

A newton is equivalent to which quantities?

kg x m/s^2

A net force of 6.8 N accelerates a 31 kg scooter across a level parking lot. What is the magnitude of the scooter's acceleration?

0.22 m/s^2

What is the speed of an object at rest?

0.0 m/s

Suppose you take a trip that covers 180km and takes 3 hours to make. Your average speed is

60 km/h

A school bus takes 0.530h to reach the school from your house. If the average velocity is 19km/h to the east, what is the displacement?

(average velocity=change in x/ change in t)
(19=change in x/ 0.530)
19x.530=10.07 km
convert to m (x 1000) = 10,070 m to the east

Speed is

-a measure of how fast something is moving
-always measured in terms of a unit of distance divided by a unit of time
-the distance covered per unit time

Acceleration is defined as

the rate of change of velocity

A car accelerates at 2 m/s^2. Assuming the car starts from rest, how much time does it need to accelerate to a speed of 20m/s?

10 seconds

The motion of a ball on an inclined plane is described by the equation: change in x=1/2a(change in time)^2. Which of the following must have a value of zero?

initial velocity (vi)

Suppose an object is in free fall. Each second the object falls

a larger distance than in the second before

Objects that are falling toward Earth in free fall move

faster and faster

Would a leaf or a stone fall with greater acceleration in a vacuum?

they would accelerate at the same rate

A baseball catcher throws a ball vertically upward and catches it in the same spot as it returns to the mitt. At what point in the ball's path does it experience zero velocity and nonzero acceleration at the same time?

at the top of its path

At the instant a ball is thrown horizontally with a large force, an identical ball is dropped from the same height. Which ball hits the ground first?

Neither. They both hit the ground at the same time.

Identify the following quantities as scalar or vector: the mass of an object, the number of leaves on a tree, wind velocity.

scalar, scalar, vector

What physical quantity has both magnitude and direction?


A ball thrown in the air will never go as far as physics ideally would predict because

air friction slows the ball

What is a physical quantity that has magnitude but no direction?


At what part of a path does a projectile have minimum speed?

At the top of its path

In the absence of air resistance, the angle at which a thrown ball will go the farthest is

45 degrees

What is the resultant of a 3-unit vector and a 4-unit vector at right angles to each other?

5 units

Which of the following is a vector quantity: velocity, temperature, volume, mass?


A projectile is fired horizontally in a vacuum. The projectile maintains its horizontal component of speed because it

is not acted on by any horizontal forces

A person is attracted towards the center of Earth by 440-N gravitational force. The force with which Earth is attracted toward the person is

440 N

Suppose the force of friction on a sliding object is 25 N. The force needed to maintain a constant velocity is

25 N

What is the path of a parabola (in the absence of friction)?

a parabola

In a coordinate system, the magnitude of the x component of a vector and theta, the angle between the vector and x-axis, are known. The magnitude of the vector equals the x component

divided by the cosine of theta

What is the name of the type of friction that opposes the movement of two surfaces that are in contact and are sliding over each other?

kinetic friction

When representing velocity as a vector,

-the direction of the arrow shows the direction of motion
-the length of the arrow represents the speed
-the length of the arrow is drawn to a suitable scale

The gravitational force b/w two massive spheres

-is always an attraction
-depends on how massive they are
-depends inversely on the square of the distance b/w them

Two objects move toward each other b/c of gravitational attraction. As the objects get closer and closer, the force b/w them


Suppose the gravitational force b/w two massive spheres is 100N. If the distance b/w the spheres is doubled, what is the force b/w the masses?

25 N

Suppose the gravitational force b/w two spheres is 30N. If the magnitude of each mass doubles, what is the force b/w the masses?

120 N

The gravitational force b/w two masses is 36 N. What is the gravitational force if the distance b/w them is tripled?

4.0 N

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