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34 terms

2017 Unit 3 AOS 2 - Chapter 8: Immunity, immune malfunctions and immunotherapy

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AIDS
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Acquired immunity
Formation of antibodies and lymphocytes after exposure to an antigen - cells remember and recognize foreign substances so they can be destroyed
Active immunity
A resistance of the body to infection in which the host produces its own antibodies in response to natural or artificial antigens
Allergic responses
typical allergic responses from pollen, chemicals initiating the immune response cascade, resulting in swelling and itching
Antibodies
An antigen-binding immunoglobulin, produced by B cells, that functions as the effector in an immune response.
Antigen
A protein that, when introduced in the blood, triggers the production of an antibody
Auto-immune diseases
disease characterized by a specific antibody or cell-mediated immune response against the body's own tissues Eg. arthritis, multiple-sclerosis, Lupus and diabetes mellitus
B cells
Cells that mature in the bone marrow and create antibodies for isolating and destroying invading bacteria and viruses.
B-memory cells
particular kind of B cells that can respond quickly to a specific antigen that has been previously encountered
Cellular immunity
Also called cell-mediated immunity. This process results in the production of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells that directly attach to foreign cells. This immune response fights invasion by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and cancer.
Complement proteins
proteins that circulate in the blood in an inactive form; provides a major mechanism for destroying foreign substances in the body
Cytotoxic T cells (Tc)
act against infected or abnormal body cells including virus-infected cells bacteria infected cells and some cancer cells; recognize the MHC I class
Helper T cells (Th)
phagocytized antigens combines with MHC II expressed on cell surface and is presented to CD4 bearing
Histamine
A chemical released by the body during an inflammatory response that causes the blood vessels to dilate
Humoral immunity
specific immunity produced by B cells that produce antibodies that circulate in body fluids
Immune deficiency
Malfunction or deficiency in one or more components of the immune system; may be inherited or acquired
Immunoglobulins
Antibodies such as IgA, IgE, IgC, IgM, and IgD that are secreted by plasma cells in humoral immunity.
Interferons
A class of chemicals that block viral infections
lymphocytes
A class of white blood cells that consist of small and large lymphocytes. The small lymphocytes bear variable cell-surface receptors for antigen and are responsible for adaptive immune responses. There are two main classes of small lymphocyte—B lymphocytes (B cells) and T lymphocytes (T cells). Large granular lymphocytes are natural killer (NK) cells, lymphocytes of innate immunity.
Macrophages
Found within the lymph nodes, they are phagocytes that destroy bacteria, cancer cells, and other foreign matter in the lymphatic stream.
Mast cells
Cells that release chemicals (such as histamine) that promote inflammation.
Monocytes
An white blood cell that is able to migrate into tissues and transform into a macrophage.
Natural Killer Cells
A type of white blood cell that can kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells; an important component of innate immunity.
Neutrophils
A type of white blood cell that engulfs invading microbes and contributes to the nonspecific defenses of the body against disease.
Non-self receptors
receptors that detect non-self molecules or cells
Non-specific immunity
defenses that stop the invasion of pathogens; requires no previous encounter with a pathogen. Eg. mucous, epidermis
Passive immunity
An individual does not produce his or her own antibodies, but rather receives them directly from another source, such as mother to infant through breast milk or an injection of antibodies made by another organism.
Phagocytes
Cells that use phagocytosis to engulf foreign organisms.
plasma cells
Cells that develop from B cells and produce antibodies.
Self antigens
A term used to describe all the normal constituents of the body to which the immune system would respond were it not for the mechanisms of tolerance that destroy or inactivate self-reactive B and T cells.
T cells
Cells that mature in the thymus and produce substances that attack infected cells in the body.
Vaccination
Administration of a vaccine to stimulate an immune response. May be an attenuated (destroyed) form of a virus or bacteria.
ebola
A contagious viral disease originating in Africa. It is transmitted by blood and body fluids and causes body organs and vessels to leak blood, usually resulting in death.
virus
An extremely small particle that has genetic material inside a protein coat.

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