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construction system in which a wooden frame is left exposed and filled in with brick or plaster

Bible for the poor (Biblia Pauperum)

about educating the poor and illiterate, aka "cathedral"

rose window

large round medieval window with radiating tracery


pattern of curvilinear, perforated ornament within the upper part of a medieval window

pointed arch

consists of two curves and has a point at its top

ribbed vault

web of ribs supports, or seems to support, the vault


covered entranceway to a building


triangular space within the moldings of a pediment; North Porch - local religious figures, South Porch - Virgin Mary, Central Porch - Christ or Last Judgement


art of cutting stone into shapes or figures


physical light; transformed, sacred after passing through glass; passes through to human, associated with wisdom, knowledge

City of God (Civitas Dei)

cathedral was the imperfect version of the divine city

Abbey Cluny

Cluny, France
1095 CE

St. Denis

Paris, France
1144 CE
Abbey Suger

Chartres Cathedral

Chartes, France
ca 12th Century

Salisbury Cathedral

Salisbury, England
1220 CE

Villard de Honnecourt

had a sketchbook that showed the traditions of master masons as essentially the "architect" of the Middle Ages


roofed porch or gallery with an open arcade or colonnade on one or more sides


small, windowed tower on top of a roof or dome admitting light to the space below

Vitruvian Man

Leonardo da Vinci and others; ideal version of the body, part to whole relates, prompts interest in anatomy

linear perspective

lines drawn to a vanishing point; way to connect world to divinity

fortuna (fortune)


Hospital of the Innocents

Florence, Italy
1419 CE
Filippo Brunelleschi

Basilica of Santa Maria del Fiore

Florence, Italy
1296 CE
Filippo Brunelleschi


In the courtyard of St. Peter's in Montorio
Rome, Italy
ca 1500 CE
Donato Bramante

Tempio Malatestiano

Rimini, Italy
ca 1450 CE
Leon Battista Alberti

On the Art of Building

book by Leon Battista Alberti, written 1443-1452

The Prince

book by Machievelli, written 1513, publish 1532


book by Plato, ca 4th Century BC; elaborate account about formation of universe (logical explanation), anthropomorphic, Christian relevance

invention of printing press

1440 by Johannes Gutenberg; acts as a vehicle in distribution of knowledge

trampe-l'oeil (trump loy)

French for "fool the eye"

Teatro Olimpico (Olympic Theatre)

Vicenza, Italy
Andrea Palladio and Vincenzo Scamozzi

Tuleries Palace & Garden

Paris, France
Philibert de I'Orme & Bernard Palissy

Chateau d'Anet (Palace of Anet)

Dreux, France
Philibert de I'Orme

Hyperotomachia Poliphili

book about Poliphilo's strife of love in a dream
Venice 1499
Main character: Poliphilo and Polia


an impressive public building or private residence; palace


open area in a city usually surrounded by buildings or streets, paved and landscaped




a formally patterned flower garden


underwater multi-sensory scenes, places of wonder


a mechanical figure or contrivance constructed to act as if by its own motive power

7 hills of Rome

Capitoline, Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline, Celiam, Aventine, and Palatine

4 Papal Basilica of Rome

St. Peter, Santa Maria Maggiore, St Paul outside the walls, St. John Lateran

Tiber River

traffic way in Rome, Italy

Pope Sixtus V

promotes restoration of the city


a rioni or district of Rome near the Vatican

Map of Rome

1551 CE
Leonardo Bufalini

Fontana dell'Acqua Felice

Rome, Italy
1585 CE
Domenico Fontana

Piazza del Popolo

Rome, Italy

Castel Sant'Angelo

Rome, Italy

Santa Maria Maggiore

Rome, Italy

Boboli Gardens

Florence, Italy
ca 16th Century CE

Gardens of the Villa Lante

near Viterbo, Italy
ca 16th Century CE


a style in the fine arts developed principally in Europe during the 16th century, chiefly characterized by a complex perspectival system, elongation of forms, strained gestures or poses of figures, and intense, often strident color.


crowning feature over door or window

giant order

two story column order; example in Piazza del Campidoglio

console (or scroll)

type of bracket or corbel, particularly one with a scroll-shaped profile


sense of pushing perspective, no sense of start or end

Galileo Galilei

idea: book of nature is written in number

Rene Descartes

Mind/Spirit (res cogito) and Body/World (res extensa)

St. Peter's Basilica

Rome, Italy
Dome - Michelangelo, Giacomo della Porta
Facade - Carlo Moderno
Piazza with colonnade and interior Baldachinno - Gian Lorenzo Bernini

Laurentian Library

Florence, Italy
1525 CE

Piazza del Campidoglio

Rome, Italy
1538 CE

Santa Sindone

Turin, Italy
1667 CE
Guarnino Guarini

St. Andrea al Quirinale

Rome, Italy
1658 CE
Gian Lorenzo Bernini

Church of St. John Nepomuk

Zelena Hora, Czech Republic
Santini Aichel

San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane

Rome, Italy
1638 CE
Francesco Boromini

St. Ivo

Rome, Italy
1642 CE
Francesco Boromini

Karlskirche (Church of St. Charles)

Vienna, Austria
J.B. Fisher von Eriach, G.W. Leibniz

Quarrel of the Ancients and Moderns

questions about authority of past and ideas of progress


Nicholas Boileau & Francois Blondel


Claude and Charles Perrault & Fontenelle

Ordinance of the Five Kinds of Columns

book by Claude Perrault in 1683; Main points are right mean (juste milieu), rejects optical correction, positive beauty, arbitrary beauty

Palace and Gardens of Versailles

Versailles, France

Eastern Facade of Louvre

Paris, France
Claude Perrault

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