Chapter 1 Vocab
Terms in this set (25)
The unit used to describe atomic and molecular dimensions, equivalent to 0.1 nm
Theory of biological organization, which has three tenets: all organisms are made up of one or more cells; the cell is the structural unit of life; cells only arise from the division of preexisting cells.
A complex nucleoprotein material that makes up the chromosomes of eukaryotes.
The region of fluid content of the cytoplasm outside of the membranous organelles of a eukaryotic cell.
The process through which unspecialized cells become more complex and specialized in structure and function.
embryonic stem (ES) cells
A type of cell that has virtually unlimited powers of differentiation, found in the mammalian blastocyst, which is an early stage of embryonic development comparable to the blastula of other animals.
Proposal, which is based on considerable evidence, that mitochondria and chloroplasts arose from symbiotic prokaryotes that took up residence within a primitive host cell.
Cells (e.g., plant, animal, protist, fungal) characterized by an internal structure based on organelles such as the nucleus, derived from eu-karyon, or true nucleus.
hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)
Cells that are situated primarily in the bone marrow that are capable of both self-renewal and of giving rise to all types of blood cells.
Outside the body. Cells grown in culture are said to be grown in vitro; and studies on cultured cells are an essential tool of cell and molecular biologists.
The total of the chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Measure of length equaling 10−6 meters.
An instrument that provides a magnified image of a tiny object.
Organisms that have been widely used for research so that a great deal is known about their biology. These organisms have properties that have made them excellent research subjects. Such organisms include the bacterium, E. coli; the budding yeast, S. cerevisiae; the nematode, C. elegans; the fruit fly, D. melanogaster; the mustard plant, A. thaliana; and the mouse, M. musculus.
Measure of length equaling 10−9 meters.
The process through which nitrogen gas is chemically reduced and converted into a component of organic compounds.
The poorly defined region of a prokaryotic cell that contains its genetic material.
The organelle that contains a eukaryotic cell's genetic material.
The organizationally and functionally diverse, membranous or membrane-bounded, intracellular structures that are the defining feature of eukaryotic cells.
Structurally simple cells, including archaea and bacteria that do not have membrane-bounded organelles; derived from pro-karyon, or "before the nucleus."
The term for viral DNA when it has been integrated into the DNA of its host cell's chromosome(s).
Cells situated in various tissues of the body that constitute a reserve population capable of giving rise to the various cells of that tissue. Stem cells can be defined as undifferentiated cells that are capable of both (1) self-renewal, that is, production of cells like themselves, and (2) differentiation into two or more mature cell types.
The form a virus assumes outside of a cell, which consists of a core of genetic material surrounded by a protein or lipoprotein capsule.
Small, obligatory intracellular pathogens, that, unlike viruses, consist only of an uncoated circle of genetic material, RNA.
Small, obligatory intracellular pathogens that are not considered to be alive because they cannot divide directly, which is required by the cell theory of life.