HS Ch 12 (Pregnancy)
Terms in this set (96)
12-24 hours after ovulation
12-48 hours in female reproductive tract
5 days before to 1 day after ovulation
What destroys sperm?
Leaking from vagina or acidic environment. Also white blood cells in uterus.
Process by which membranes become fragile enough to release enzymes from their acrosomes.
Helmet-like coverings of the sperm's nuclei.
What prevents sperm from entering oocyte after fertilization?
Electrical reaction inside the oocyte cytoplasm. The oocyte swells and detaches sperm that cling to its outer layer.
Conversion of oocyte to human being
9 months allows conversion of 1 cell to 600 trillion cells.
4-5 days after fertilization; 100 cell structure
How long does implantation take?
One week. HCG secreted by blastocyst maintains uterine environment and prevents shedding of endometrium that would regularly occur in menstruation.
Blastocyst - Embryo - Fetus (8th Week)
Another word for pregnancy
Formed after 2 or 3 weeks of development
Parts of Embryonic Membrane
Amnion, Amniotic Fluid, Yolk Sac, Chorion
Amniotic Sac; Membranous sac that contains embryo and fluid
Producer of embryos first blood cells and germ cells that will develop into gonads
Embryos outermost membrane
Notable developments during gestation
4th Week: Digestive and Circulatory System - Spinal Cord and Nervous system begin to develop.
5th Week: Formation of arms and Legs
6th Week: Eyes and ears form
7th Week: Reproductive organs begin to differentiate in males, continue in females
8th Week: Fetus is size of thumb, head nearly as large as body. Brain begins functioning and internal organs grow. Facial features develop.
12th Week: Arms, hands, fingers, toes, eyes are almost fully developed.
15th Week: Fetus has strong heartbeat and some digestive functions.
Fetus covering; Fine, Downy Hair
Site of fetus nourishment. Develops from blastocyst following implantation. Serves as biochemical barrier.
Connects Fetus and Mother's bloodstream
Time of full term pregnancy
U.S. Births in 2009
4.1 Million births (3% less than 2009)
Those who expect and intend to remain non-parents.
Comprises interventions that aim to identify and modify medical, behavioral and social risks to woman's health and pregnancy outcome through prevention and management.
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
HCG; Produced right after a fertilized egg attached to the uterus and functions to promote the maintenance of the corpus luteum. Indicates pregnancy a week before a missed period.
Accuracy of blood tests in predicting baby's sex.
95% accuracy at 7 weeks; 99% accuracy at 20 weeks.
Blood test for predicting baby's sex.
Small sample obtained from mother's finger; Searches for Y chromosome.
Softening of the uterus just above the cervix; sign of pregnancy that can be felt during a vaginal examination.
Changes in women's relationships with mothers during pregnancy
Co-equal status as adults; Women who have been distant from, hostile to, or alienated from their mother may begin to identify with their mother's experience.
Causes changes in relationships; accompanies physiological gestation of the fetus.
First 3 months; women may experience nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and painful swelling of breasts. Sexuality may undergo changes, resulting in new needs and anxiety.
Can feel the fetus move; worries of miscarriage diminish. Women may look and feel radiant. May worry about size, attractiveness.
May be time of greatest difficulties in daily life. Uterus enlarges, Water retention (Edema), physical abilities limited by size.
Positive influences on pregnancy
Workout, Physical Activity, Possibly Music
Precautions of sexual behavior during pregnancy
With history of miscarriage, check with prof before sex or masturbation. Vaginal bleeding indicates that one should not participate in sexual acts. If sex causes pain, avoid. Pressure to abdomen should be avoided. Late in pregnancy, orgasms may induce contractions. Sex may be uncomfortable, but orgasm is intensely pleasurable.
Substances that cause defects in developing embryos or fetuses. 10% of birth defects are estimated to be caused by teratogens.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Caused by moderate alcohol use (4 drinks per week). Can include unusual facial characteristics, small head and body size, congenital heart defects, defective joints, and intellectual and behavioral impairment.
Fetal Alcohol Effect
Same symptoms and issues as FAS, without facial issues.
Influences endangering Fetus
Teratogens, Alcohol, Drugs, Tobacco, Diseases, STI, Maternal Obesity, Pregnancy after 35, Ectopic Pregnancy, Hypertension, Preterm Birth, Delayed Labor
Tubal Pregnancy - Occurs in about 1% of pregnancy
Growth of tissue outside the uterus; Can Increase risk of Ectopic Pregnancy
Previously referred to as toxemia or eclampsia - characterized by high blood pressure and edema along protein in the urine. Occurs in less than 10% of pregnancies.
Occur prior to 37 weeks of gestation. 12% of pregnancies in US.
Those who weigh less than 2.5K grams or 5.5 lbs at birth.
Pregnancies that go longer than 2 weeks after the expected due date - 10% of pregnancies.
Labor Inducing Drugs
Prostaglandins and Oxytocin
Used for late first-trimester screening - consists of high frequency sound waves that create a computer-generated picture, to measure the thickness of the back and neck of the fetus.
Chorionic Villus Sampling
CVS; For women found at high risk of having a down syndrome child - removal of a small sample of cells taken from the placenta sometime between 10 and 13 weeks gestation. Loss rate is between .6 and 4.6%
Small amount of amniotic fluid is withdrawn from the uterus at 14-20 weeks of gestation and tested for chromosomal defects. Loss rate is 1%.
Neural Tube Defect Screening
Performed on mother's blood to measure alpha-fetoprotein; reveals possible defects of spine, spinal cord, skull and brain.
Spontaneous Abortion; powerful natural selective force in bringing healthy babies to life. 40% pregnancies end in miscarriage. More than half due to chromosomal abnormalities. Signs and symptoms include spotting, pelvic cramps. Most occur between 6th and 8th weeks. May be avoided through use of multivitamins with folic acid, no drug use, and minimal caffeine use as well as regular exercise.
6.06 per 1,000 births in U.S. Ranked 30th world wide.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
Phenomenon wherein an apparently healthy infant dies suddenly while sleeping. One cause may be unsafe sleep practices.
Inability to conceive a child after a year of unprotected intercourse OR the inability to carry a fetus to term. 30% of cases are unexplained or attributable to either partner.
10% women aged 18-44 have difficulty getting or staying pregnant.
Varicose vein above the testicle, low sperm count, decreased sperm motility and poor sperm morphology - primary cause of male infertility.
Timing of Coitus with respect to women's menstrual cycle.
Medical Intervention Options
Fertility Meds, Surgery, AI, Assisted Reproductive Technology, Surrogate Motherhood
Artificial Insemination; Injecting women with sperm from partner or donor.
Assisted Reproductive Technology
ART; Fertility treatments in which both egg and sperm are handled.
Types of ART
IVF, ICSI, GIFT, ZIFT
In Vitro Fertilization; Extract women's eggs, fertilize in lab, transfer embryo into uterus through cervix.
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection; Inject single sperm directly into mature egg and transfer into uterus through fallopian tube.
Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer; Use of fiber-optic instrument to guide transfer of egg and sperm into fallopian tubes through small abdominal incisions.
Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer; Woman's eggs are fertilized in the lab and transferred to fallopian tubes.
Woman begins to become gestational mother (carries other women's fertilized egg/embryo).
Reproduction of an individual from a single cell taken from a parent.
Family Balancing; Technology that allows couples to choose whether to have a boy or a girl.
Lesbian Infertility Clinic Use
Hormone that increases flexibility in the ligaments and joints in the pelvic area.
Strong, non-painful contractions that exercise the uterus preparing it for labor.
Thinning of the cervix begun by contractions.
Gradual opening of the cervix begun by contractions.
How many stages are in labor?
End of the first stage of labor - contractions become quicker and more intense.
Waxy substance covering baby during labor.
Collective tissues from the third and final stage of labor
Total Score for infant evaluation ranging from 7-10 for healthy babies.
Bloody discharge for women after birth.
Circumcision as of 1975
93% received circumcision - with no medical indication for why. Now 54.7%.
Form of analgesics; provide pain relief without loss of movement. Administered through a tiny catheter placed in a woman's lower back.
Incision that enlarges a vaginal opening by cutting through the perineum toward the anus - has been found to actually cause more complications.
Those births which are scheduled prior to the intended birth date.
"C-Section"; Involves delivery through an incision in the mother's abdominal wall and uterus. 30% of births.
Natural Childbirth; Popularized by Grantly Dick-Read in 1972.
Qualified for routine deliveries and minor medical emergencies.
Medical professionals who do not make clinical decisions, but offer emotional support and manage pain.
Yellowish liquid secreted by nipples during pregnancy. Nourishes infant before mother's milk comes in. High in protein and contains antibodies that help protect the baby from infectious diseases.
3 months or so following childbirth; "Fourth Trimester"
Family and Medical Leave Act - Assures eligible employees up to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave for specified family and medical reasons with continued health insurance.
10-15% of new mothers and can have its onset at any time in the first year postpartum.
Most serious and rare mental illness in postpartum women. Thought to be exclusively biological and related to hormones.