Neuroscience Final Exam
Terms in this set (141)
The destruction of brain tissue followed by an assessment of subsequent changes in behavior.
An amine that serves as a neurotransmitter at many synapses in the peripheral and central nervous systems, including the neuromuscular junction.
An enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at the synaptic cleft (the space between two nerve cells) so the next nerve impulse can be transmitted across the synaptic gap.
A brief fluctuation in membrane potential caused by the rapid opening and closing of voltage-gated ion channels; also known as spike, nerve impulse, or discharge. Action potentials sweep like a wave along axons to transfer information from one place to another in the nervous system.
A threatening or defensive form of aggression accompanied by vocalizations and a high level of ANS activity.
The study of the neural mechanisms of emotion. This interdisciplinary field combines neuroscience with the psychological study of personality, emotion, and mood.
Carry nerve impulses from receptors or sense organs towards the CNS.
Chemical that acts like a neurotransmitter; increases the effect of a neurotransmitter.
An almond-shaped nucleus in the anterior temporal lobe thought to be involved in emotion and certain types of learning and memory.
Chemical that blocks the action of a neurotransmitter.
The inability to form new memories.
The middle of the three meninges, the three membranes that cover the surface of the central nervous system.
A glial cell in the brain that supports neurons and regulates the extracellular ionic and chemical environment.
A condition in which a muscle has lost its strength; refers to the paralyzed or extremely relaxed state of skeletal muscles in REM sleep.
A neurite specialized to conduct nerve impulses, or action potentials, normally away from the soma.
A collection of associated cell groups in the basal forebrain, including the caudate nucleus, putamen, globes plaids, and subthalamus.
A neuron with two neurites.
A region of the (left) frontal lobe associated with Broca's (motor) aphasia when damaged; region of the brain responsible for the muscle movement that coordinates speech.
The neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine whose precursors are tyrosine.
The sulcus in the cerebrum that divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.
A structure derived from the rhombencephalon, attached to the brainstem at the pons; an important movement control center.
The layer of gray matter that lies just under the surface of the cerebrum.
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
In the CNS, the fluid produced by the choroid plexus that flows through the ventricular system to the subarachnoid space.
Describing neurons or synapses that produce and release acetylcholine.
A physiological cycle of about 24 hours that is present in all eukaryotic organisms and that persists even in the absence of external cues.
A gene that is critically involved in the molecular mechanism of the circadian rhythm; clock genes are translated into proteins that regulate their own transcription, and their expression rises and falls over a cycle of about 24 hours.
An assembly of six proteins called connexins that form the pore for a gap junction between the cytoplasm of two adjacent cells.
An anatomical reference meaning on the opposite side of the midline.
The great cerebral commissar, consisting of axons connecting the cortex of the two cerebral hemispheres.
Memory for facts and events.
A neurite specialized to receive synaptic inputs from other neurons.
A change in membrane potential, taking it from the value at rest (-65 mV) to a less negative value (0 mV).
A region of skin innervated by the pair of dorsal roots from one spinal segment.
A region of the brain stem derived from the prosencephalon (forebrain). Diencephalic structures include the thalamus and hypothalamus.
A catecholamine neurotransmitter synthesized from dopa. Important for movement and reward/motivation.
A bundle of sensory neuron axons that emerges from a spinal nerve and attaches to the dorsal side of the spinal cord. Dorsal root axons bring information into the spinal cord.
The outermost of the three meninges, the membranes that cover the surface of the central nervous system.
A measurement of electrical activity generated by the brain and recorded from the scalp.
A natural (endogenous) chemical that binds to, and activated, cannabinoid (CB) receptors.
One of many endogenous opioid peptides with actions similar to those of morphine; present in many brain structures, particularly those related to pain.
The physical representation or location of a memory; also called a memory trace.
A cortical region in the medial temporal lobe that occupies the medial bank of the rhinal sulcus; provides input to the hippocampus and receives input from the olfactory bulbs.
A type of glial cell that provides the lining of the brain's ventricular system.
A catecholamine neurotransmitter synthesized from norepinephrine; also called adrenaline.
a technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. MRI scans show brain anatomy; fMRI scans show brain function.
A bundle of axons that originates in the hippocampal formation, loops around the thalamus, and terminates in the diencephalon.
The region of the cerebrum lying anterior to the central sulcus under the frontal bone.
An amino acid synthesized from glutamate; the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
A collection of neurons in the peripheral nervous system.
An amino acid; the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Referring to cells that use glutamate as their synaptic transmitter.
An amino acid; an inhibitory neurotransmitter at some locations in the central nervous system.
A mathematical relationship used to predict membrane potential from the concentrations and membrane permeabilities of ions.
A method of staining brain tissue that shows neurons and all of their neuritis; names for its discoverer, Italian histologist Camillo Golgi (1843-1926).
A generic term for a collection of neuronal cell bodies in the central nervous system. When a freshly dissected brain is cut open, neurons appear gray--lacks myelinated axons.
A bump or bulge lying between the sulci of the cerebrum.
A region of the cerebral cortex lying adjacent and medial to the olfactory cortex. In humans, the hippocampus is in the temporal lobe and may play a role in learning and memory.
Same as depolarization. An increase in the membrane potential that decreases the possibility of generating a nerve impulse.
The ventral part of the diencephalon, involved in the control of the autonomic nervous system and the pituitary gland. Maintains homeostasis.
The cortex of the inferior temporal lobe, in which is located an area of secondary visual cortex that is involved in object recognition.
Receptors that are associated with ligand activated ion channels.
An anatomical reference meaning on the same side of the body.
A subtype of glutamate receptor; a glutamate-gated ion channel that is permeable to Na+ and K+.
A constellation of symptoms resulting from bilateral temporal lobectomy in humans and monkeys that includes decreased fear and aggression (flattened emotions), the tendency to identify objects by oral examination rather than visual inspection, and altered sexual behavior.
A neurological syndrome resulting from chronic alcoholism, characterized by confusion, confabulations, apathy, and amnesia.
Lateral Intraparietal Cortex
A cortical area buried in the intraparietal sulcus that is involved in guiding eye movements; the responses of LIP neurons suggest that they are involved in working memory.
A group of structures, including those in the limbic lobe and Papez circuit, that are anatomically interconnected and are probably involved in emotion, learning, and memory. Hippocampus, hypothalamus, and amygdala.
Nerve pathways in a lobe are severed from other parts of the brain, designed to help those with Schizophrenia, manic depression, etc.
Any sensory receptor selective for mechanical stimuli, such as hair cells of the inner ear, various receptors of the skin, and stretch receptors of skeletal muscle.
An anatomical reference meaning toward the midline.
The part of the hindbrain caudal to the pons and cerebellum; responsible for heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing, and digestion.
A photopigment present in ganglion cells in the retina whose axons transmit information to the SCN, the thalamus, and the olivary pretectal nuclei. Plays a role in controlling the circadian rhythm.
A hormone manufactured by the pineal gland that produces sleepiness.
Three membranes that cover the surface of the central nervous system: dura, arachnoid, and pia (outside to inside).
A G-protein-coupled receptor whose primary action is to stimulate an intracellular biochemical response.
A type of cell that functions as a phagocyte in the nervous system to remove debris left by dead or dying neurons or glia.
Neurotransmitters that do not directly evoke post-synaptic potentials but modify the cellular response to excitatory postsynaptic potentials and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials generated by other synapses.
A hypothesis suggesting depression is caused by a reduction in the level of monoamine neurotransmitters, particularly serotonin and norepinephrine, in the brain.
Cortical areas 4 and 6, which are directly involved in the control of voluntary movement
A neuron with three or more neurites.
A subtype of acetylcholine receptor that is G-protein-coupled.
A membranous wrapping, or sheath, around axons provided by oligodendroglia in the central nervous system and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system
An equation used to determine a cell's electromotive force when conditions are not standard. Ecell = E˚cell - (0.0592/n) log Q. (n = mol e⁻ transferred in the redox reaction). Used to calculate an ionic equilibrium potential.
A chemical released by a presynaptic element upon stimulation that activates postsynaptic receptors.
A class of ACh gated ion channel found in various locations, notably at the neuromuscular junction.
A class of basic dyes that stain the somata of neurons; named for Franz Nissl.
A subtype of glutamate receptor; a glutamate-gated ion channel that is permeable to Na+, K+, and Ca 2+. Inward ionic current through the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor is voltage dependent because of a magnesium block at negative membrane potentials.
Any receptor selective for potentially harmful stimuli; may induce sensations of pain.
Node of Ranvier
A space between two consecutive myelin sheaths where an axon comes in contact with the extracellular fluid.
Memory for skills, habits, emotional responses, and some reflexes.
A stage of sleep characterized by large, slow EEG waves, a paucity of dreams, and some muscle tone.
Sleep stages 1 through 4, which are marked by an absence of rapid eye movements, relatively little dreaming, and varied EEG activity.
The region of the cerebrum lying under the occipital bone; responsible for visual information.
A bulb-shaped brain structure derived from the telencephalon that receives input from olfactory receptor neurons.
A type of neuroglial cell that produces myelin in the CNS.
A division of the autonomic nervous system that maintains heart rate, respiratory, metabolic, and digestive functions under normal conditions; its peripheral axons emerge from the brain stem and sacral spinal cord.
The region of the cerebrum lying under the parietal bone; responsible for sensation and perception of sensory (touch) stimuli.
A method that enables an investigator to hold constant the membrane potential of a patch of membrane while current through a small number of membrane channels is measured.
A cortical region in the medial temporal lobe that occupies the lateral bank of the rhinal sulcus. Lesions to this area in humans produce profound anterograde amnesia.
Brain surgery used to treat mental or behavioral disorders.
The innermost of the three meninges, the membranes that cover the surface of the central nervous system.
A neuron in the rat hippocampus that responds only when the animal is in a certain region of space.
The part of the rostral hindbrain that lies ventral to the cerebellum and fourth ventricle; helps coordinate and integrate movements on each side of the body.
The clusters of neurons that relay information from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellar cortex.
Attack behavior, often with the goal of obtaining food, accompanied by few vocalizations and low ANS activity.
A cortical area at the rostral end of the frontal lobe that receives input from the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus. Part of frontal lobe responsible for thinking, planning, and language.
Neurons in the cerebellum, extremely complex ranching dendritic tree, extremely 2-dimensional, branching and flat dendrites. Projects an axon to the deep cerebellar nuclei.
Memory required to perform a delayed non-match to sample task.
A stage of sleep characterized by low-amplitude, high frequency EEG waves, vivid dreams, rapid eye movements, and atonia.
Resting Membrane Potential
The membrane potential, or membrane voltage, maintained by a cell when it is not generating action potentials; also called resting potentials. Neurons have a resting membrane potential of about -65 mV.
A region of the brain stem ventral to the cerebral aqueduct and fourth ventricle; involved in many functions, including the control of posture and locomotion.
Memory loss for events before an illness or brain trauma.
An anatomical plane of section that is parallel to the midsagital plane. Divides the brain into left and right hemispheres.
The propagation of an action potential down a myelinated axon.
A glial cell that provides myelin in the peripheral nervous system.
(Raphe nuclei). Referring to neurons that use serotonin as their synaptic transmitter.
5-HT: A neurotransmitter used by cells in parts of the brain involved in the regulation of sleep, mood, and eating.
A form of synaptic inhibition in which the main effect is to reduce membrane resistance, thereby shunting depolarizing current generated at excitatory synapses.
The central region of the neuron containing the nucleus; also called cell body or perikaryon.
A brain area at the front of the parietal lobes (post central gyrus) that registers and processes body sensations.
Memory for the physical environment; it includes things such as location of objects, direction and cognitive maps.
Primary visual cortex, Brodmann's area 17; also called V1.
A groove in the surface of the cerebrum running between neighboring gyro.
A small nucleus of the hypothalamus just above the optic chiasm that receives retinal innvervation and synchronizes circadian rhythms with the daily light dark cycle.
A division of the ANS that in fight or flight situations activates responses including increases in heart rate, respiration, blood pressure, and energy mobilization, and decreased digestive and reproductive functions; its peripheral axons emerge from thoracic and lumbar spinal cord.
The region of contact where a neuron transfers information to another cell.
The region separating the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes of neurons.
A membrane enclosed structure, containing neurotransmitters and found at a site of synaptic contact.
The region of the cerebrum lying under the temporal lobe; responsible for intelligence.
A toxin that blocks Na+ permeability through voltage-gated sodium channels, thereby blocking action potentials.
The dorsal part of the diencephalon, highly interconnected with the cerebral neocortex; the relay station.
A sensory receptor selective for temperature changes.
A collection of central nervous system axons with a common site of origin and a common destination.
Any rhythm with a period significantly less than 1 day: the Circadian Rhythm.
A neuron with a single neurite.
A bundle of motor neuron axons that emerges from the ventral spinal cord and joins sensory fibers to form a spinal nerve. Ventral root axons carry information away from the spinal cord.
The midline region of the cerebellum.
A device that enables an investigator to hold the membrane potential constant while transmembrane currents are measured.
A membrane protein forming a pore that is permeable to Ca2+, K+, or Na+ and is gated by depolarization of the membrane.
An area on the superior surface of the temporal lobe between auditory cortex and the angular gyrus; comprehension of language.
Information storage that is temporary, limited in capacity, and requires continual rehearsal.
Any environmental cue, such as the light-dark cycle, that signals the passage of time.
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