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Mrs. Rybicki Biology sheet 1
Terms in this set (148)
Inherited characteristic of an organism that enhances its survival and reproduction in a specific environment
Having characteristics that are similar because of convergent evolution, not homology.
The selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits
The evolution of similar features in independent evolutionary lineages
Referring to a species that is confined to a specific geographic area.
Descent with modification; the idea that living species are descendants of ancestral species that were different from the present-day ones; also defined more narrowly as the change in the genetic composition of a population from generation to generation
Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry.
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
A feature of an organism that is a historical remnant of a structure that served a function in the organism's ancestors.
Genetic drift that occurs when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population and form a new population whose gene pool composition is not reflective of that of the original population.
The aggregate of all copies of every type of allele at all loci in every individual in a population. The term is also used in a more restricted sense as the aggregate of alleles for just one or a few loci in a population.
Differences among individuals in the composition of their genes or other DNA segments.
The state of a population in which frequencies of alleles and genotypes remain constant from generation to generation, provided that only Mendelian segregation and recombination of alleles are at work.
Greater reproductive success of heterozygous individuals compared with homozygotes; tends to preserve variation in a gene pool.
A group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed, producing fertile offspring.
The formation of new species in populations that are geographically isolated from one another.
Biological species concept
Definition of a species as a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring but do not produce viable, fertile offspring with members of other such groups.
Ecological species concept
Definition of a species in terms of ecological niche, the sum of how members of the species interact with the nonliving parts of their environment.
Offspring that results from the mating of individuals from two different species or from two true-breeding varieties of the same species.
Evolutionary change above the species level. Examples of macroevolutionary change include the origin of a new group of organisms through a series of speciation events and the impact of mass extinctions on the diversity of life and its subsequent recovery.
Evolutionary change below the species level; change in the allele frequencies in a population over generations.
Morphological species concept
Definition of a species in terms of measurable anatomical criteria.
A symbiotic relationship in which both participants benefit.
Phylogenetic species concept
Definition of a species as the smallest group of individuals that share a common ancestor, forming one branch on the tree of life.
A chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets. It is the result of an accident of cell division.
Post zygotic barrier
A reproductive barrier that prevents hybrid zygotes produced by two different species from developing into viable, fertile adults.
a reproductive barrier that impedes mating between species or hinders fertilization if interspecific mating is attempted.
An evolutionary process in which one species splits into two or more species.
A population of group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring but do not produce viable, fertile offspring with members of other such groups.
An approach to systematics in which organisms are placed into groups called clades based primarily on common descent.
In Linnaean classification, the taxonomic category above the level of order.
In Linnaean classification, the taxonomic category above genus.
A taxonomic category above the species level, designated by the first word of a species' two-part scientific name.
A taxonomic category, the second broadest after domain.
In Linnaean classification, the taxonomic category above the level of family.
The evolutionary history of a species or group of related species.
In Linnaean classification, the taxonomic category above class.
Pertaining to a group of taxa that includes distantly related organisms but does not include their most recent common ancestor.
A scientific discipline concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life.
An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms or substances derived from other organisms. Autotrophs use energy from the sun or from oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones.
An organism that absorbs nutrients from nonliving organic material such as corpses, fallen plant material, and the wastes of living organisms and converts them to inorganic forms; a detritivore.
An organism that feeds on the cell contents, tissues, or body fluids of another species while in or on the host organism. Parasites harm but usually do not kill their host.
An organism or virus that causes disease
The smaller participant in a symbiotic relationship, living in or on the host.
A solid-bodied animal lacking a cavity between the gut and outer body wall.
The endoderm-lined cavity, formed during gastrulation, that develops into the digestive tract of an animal
Body symmetry in which a central longitudinal plane divides the body into two equal but opposite halves
In a gastrula, the opening of the archenteron that typically develops into the anus in deuterostomes and the mouth in protostomes,
A hollow ball of cells that marks the end of the cleavage stage during early embryonic development in animals.
A fluid- or air- filled space between the digestive tract and the body wall.
A body cavity lined by tissue derived only from mesoderm
The outermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos; gives rise to the outer covering and, in some phyla, the nervous system, inner ear, and lens of the eye.
The innermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos; lines the archenteron and gives rise to the liver, pancreas, lungs, and the lining of the digestive tract in species that have these structures.
An embryonic stage in animal development encompassing the formation of three layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
The middle primary germ layer in a triploblastic animal embryo; develops into the notochord, the lining of the coelom, muscles, skeleton, gonads, kidneys, and most of the circulatory system in species that have these structures
Symmetry in which the body is shaped like a pie or barrel (lacking a left side and a right side) and can be divided into mirror-imaged halves by any plane through its central axis.
A marine lophophorate with a shell divided into dorsal and ventral halves; also called lamp shells.
A complete digestive tract, consisting of a tube running between a mouth and an anus.
A member of a subgroup of the major arthropod clade Chelicerata. Arachnids have six pairs of appendages, including four pairs of walking legs, and include spiders, scorpions, ticks, and mites.
A segmented ecdysozoan with a hard exoskeleton and jointed appendages. Familiar examples include insects, spiders, millipedes, and crabs.
A specialized cell unique to the phylum Cnidaria; contains a capsule-like organelle housing a coiled thread that, when discharged, explodes outward and functions in prey capture or defense.
A slow-moving or sessile marine deuterostome with a water vascular system and, in larvae, bilateral symmetry. Echinoderms include sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, feather stars, and sea cucumbers.
Open circulatory system
A circulatory system in which fluid called hemolymph bathes the tissues and organs directly and there is no distinction between the circulating fluid and the interstitial fluid.
A free-living flatworm found in ponds and streams.
A member of the clade of tetrapods that includes salamanders, frogs, and caecilians.
Referring to organisms for which external sources provide most of the heat for temperature regulation.
Referring to organisms that are warmed by heat generated by their own metabolism. This heat usually maintains a relatively stable body temperature higher than that of the external environment.
A member of the clade Mammalia, amniotes that have hair and mammary glands
A mammal, such as a koala, kangaroo, or opossum, whose young complete their embryonic development inside a maternal pouch called the marsupium.
Referring to a type of development in which young hatch from eggs laid outside the mother's body.
Referring to a type of development in which young hatch from eggs that are retained in the mothers uterus.
A member of the clade of amniotes that includes tuataras, lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodilians, and birds.
Referring to a type of development in which the young are born alive after having been nourished in the uterus by blood from the placenta.
A member of the clade of tetrapods that includes salamanders, frogs, and caecilians.
A small, finger-like extension of the vertebrate cecum; contains a mass of white blood cells that contribute to immunity.
A mixture of substances that is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder; enables formation of fat droplets in water as an aid in the digestion and absorption of fats.
A lubricated ball of chewed food
An animal that mainly eats other animals
The blind pouch forming one branch of the large intestine
The mixture of partially digested food and digestive juices formed in the stomach.
The largest section of the vertebrate large intestine; functions in water absorption and formation of feces
The second stage of food processing in animals: the breaking down of food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb.
The first section of the small intestine, where chyme from the stomach mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder as well as from gland cells of the intestinal wall.
The fourth and final stage of food processing in animals: the passing of undigested material out of the body.
A muscular tube that conducts food, by peristalsis, from the pharynx to the stomach.
Essential amino acid
An amino acid that an animal cannot synthesize itself and must be obtained from food in prefabricated form
Essential fatty acid
An unsaturated fatty acid that an animal needs but cannot make
A substance that an organism cannot synthesize from any other material and therefore must absorb in preassembled form.
The wastes of the digestive tract.
An organ that stores bile and releases it as needed into the small intestine.
A digestive fluid secreted by the stomach.
A central cavity with a single opening in the body of certain animals, including cnidarians and flatworms, that functions in both the digestion and distribution of nutrients.
A hormone secreted by pancreatic alpha cells that raises blood glucose levels. It promotes glycogen breakdown and release of glucose by the liver.
Hepatic portal vein
A large vessel that conveys nutrient-laden blood from the small intestine to the liver, which regulates the blood's nutrient content.
An animal that mainly eats plants or algae
The first stage of food processing in animals: the act of eating.
A hormone secreted by pancreatic beta cells that lowers blood glucose levels. It promotes the uptake of glucose by most body cels and the synthesis and storage of glycogen in the liver and also stimulates protein and fat synthesis.
A tiny lymph vessel extending into the core of an intestinal villus and serving as the destination for absorbed chylomicrons
The portion of the vertebrate alimentary canal between the small intestine and the anus; functions mainly in water absorption and the formation of feces
A large internal organ in vertebrates that performs diverse functions, such as producing bile, maintaining blood glucose level, and detoxifying poisonous chemicals in the blood
A viscous and slippery mixture of glycoproteins, cells, salts, and water that moistens and protects the membranes lining body cavities that open to the exterior.
The process by which an organism takes in and makes use of food substances.
An animal that regularly eats animals as well as plants or algae.
The mouth of an animal.
A gland with exocrine and endocrine tissues. The exocrine portion functions in digestion, secreting enzymes and an alkaline solution into the small intestine via a duct; the ductless endocrine portion functions in homeostasis, secreting the hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood
Alternating waves of contraction and relaxation in the smooth muscles lining the alimentary canal that push food along the canal. 2- A type of movement on land produced by rhythmic waves of muscle contractions passing from front to back, as in many annelids.
(1) an area in the vertebrate throat where air and food passages cross. (2) In flatworms, the muscular tube that protrudes from the ventral side of the worm and ends in the mouth.
An enzyme that digests proteins by hydrolysis....
The terminal portion of the large instestine, where the feces are stored prior to elimination
a gland associated with the oral cavity that secretes substances that lubricate food and begin the process of chemical digestion
The longest section of the alimentary canal, so named because of its small diameter compared with that of large intestine; the principal site of the enzymatic hydrolysis of food macromolecules and the absorption of nutrients.
A ringlike band of muscle fibers that controls the size of an opening in the body, such as the passage between the esophagus and the stomach
An organ of the digestive system that stored food and performs preliminary steps of digestion
(1) A finger-like projection of the inner surface of the small intestine. (2) A fingerlike projection of the inner surface of the small intestine. (2) A finger-like projection of the chorion of the mammalian placenta. Large numbers of villa increase the surface area of these organs.
One of the dead-end air sacs where gas exchange occurs in a mammalian lung.
A vessel that conveys blood between an artery and a capillary bed.
Cardiovascular disease in which fatty deposits called plaques develop in the inner walls of the arteries, obstructing the arteries and causing them to harden
Region of specialized heart muscle tissue between the left and right atria where electrical impulses are delayed for about 0.1 second before spreading to both ventricles and causing them to contract
A heart valve located between each atrium and ventricle that prevents a backflow of blood when the ventricle contracts
A chamber of the vertebrate heart that receives blood from the vein and transfers blood to a ventricle
Connective tissue with a fluid matrix called plasma in which red blood cells, white blood cells, and cel fragments called platelets are suspended
A lowering of the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, caused by a drop in pH. It facilitates the release of oxygen from hemoglobin in the vicinity of active tissues
A fine branch of the bronchi that transports air to alveoli
One of a pair of breathing tubes that branch from the trachea into the lungs
microscopic blood vessel that penetrates the tissues and consists of a single layer of endothelial cells that allows exchange between the blood and interstitial fluid
A network of capillaries in a tissue or organ
The alternating contractions and relaxations of the heart
closed circulatory system
A circulatory system in which blood is confined to vessels and is kept separate from the interstitial fluid
sheet of muscle that contracts to pull air into the lungs.
The stage of the cardiac cycle in which a heart chamber is relaxed and fills with blood.
blood cell that contains hemoglobin, which transports oxygen. red blood cell.
The uptake of molecular oxygen from the environment and the discharge of carbon dioxide to the environment
muscular pump that uses metabolic energy to elevate pressure of the circulatory fluid
iron- containing protein in red blood cells that reversible binds oxygen
in invertebrates with an open circulatory system, the body fluid that bathes tissues
The portion of the respiratory tract containing the vocal cords; also called the voice box
a blood cell that functions in fighting infections; also called a white blood cell
infolded respiratory surface of a terrestrial vertebrate, land snal, or spider
colorless fluid, derived from interstitial fluid, in the lymphatic system
organ located along a lymph cessel. Filters lymph and contain cells that attack viruses and bacteria
open circulatory system
positive pressure breathing
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