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Adaptation, Food Chains
Terms in this set (61)
What does population size depend on?
A variety of factors including
- human influences
What may affec the distribution and behaviour of organisms?
changes in the environment
What do organisms need to survive?
a supply of materials from their surroundings and other living organisms there
Animals compete with each other for what?
Plants compete with each other for what?
water from the soil
nutrients from the soil
The organisms that are best adapted to make use of their resources in a a habitat are more likely to ...... and ........ in numbers.
Give some examples of adaptations that aid survival.
to be able to obtain a certain food better
to make it more difficult for predators to catch them
to survive in extreme climates (arctic, desert)
How do plants adapt to extreme climates?
As they lose water vapour from their leaves it is essential that they adapt to minimize this
What are extremophiles?
organisms that live in extreme environments
Give some examples of conditions extremophiles adapt to.
high levels of salt
Animals and plants may be adpated to cope with specific features of their environments. Give some examples.
thorns, poisons, warning colours to deter predators
How do animals adapt to deal with dry and arctic environments?
changes to surface area
thickness of insulating coat
amount of body fat
How has the camel adapted to desert conditions?
- can go without food water for 3 or 4 days
- fat stored in their humps provides long term food reserve and a supply of metabolic water
- the fat is not distributed around the body; this reduces insulation, allowing more heat loss
- they are tall and thin, increasing their surfac are to volume ration, increasing heat loss by radiation
How has the polar bear adapted to arctic conditions?
- has thick fur and fat beneath its skin to insulate it
-large furry feet help to distribute their weight as they walk on thin ice
- white fur camoflages them against the snow, helping them to hunt
- compact shape reduces surface area to volume ratio minimizing heat loss by radiation
How do plants adapt to dry conditions?
- changes to surface area, particularly to leaves
- water-storage tissues
- extensive root systems
How are desert plants adapted?
- require very little water to survive
-leaves are spines
- spines guard agains most browsing herbivores
- spines also reduce their surface area, reducing water loss by evaporation
- a thick waxy coating surrounds the plant to reduce evaporation
- fewer stomata, reducing water loss
- roots tend to spread sideways to catch rain water
Changes in the environment affect the distribution of living organisms. Such changes may be caused by .... or ..... factors.
Non-living (abiotic) factors that affect the environment are.....
Living (biotic) factors that affect the environment are....
competition for: food, light, water, space
What can living organisms be used as an indicator for?
What are lichens?
symbiotic associations of algae and fungi species that attach to tree trunks and rocks
What are lichen sensitive to?
changes in air quality, particularly sulphur dioxide
How does sulphur dioxide come to be in the air?
it is released from industry and burning fossil fuels, especially coal
How do lichens react with sulphur dioxide?
Lichens absorb sulfphur dioxide dissolved in water
The sulfur dioxide destroys the chlorophyll in the algae preventing it from photosynthesising and killing the lichen.
Some species of lichen only grown in non-polluted air making them good ........ of air pollution.
What organisms are used as indicators of water pollution?
some invertebrate animals which are sensitive to changes in the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water
What happens to oxygen concentrations when pollutants are released into rivers and lakes?
Some invertebrates can only survive in higher oxygen concentrations making them good ..... of water pollution.
What non-living indicators can be used to measure environmental changes?
Scientists continually ...... these factors to show ...... in environmental changes.
What is the source of energy for most communities of living organisms?
radiation from the sun
....... and ...... capture a small part of the solar energy which reaches them.
How is the energy captured by green plants and algae stored?
in the substances which make up the cells of plants
What is a food chain?
a diagram representig feeding relationships between organisms, showing direction of energy transfer
At each stage in a food chain less ...... and less ..... are contained in the biomass of the organisms.
Why is the amount of material and energy reduced in each successive stage in a food chain?
-materials and energy are lost in respiration required for living processes (eg movement, reproduction)
-materials and energay are lost in the organisms' waste
Much of this energy is eventually lost as ......
What is biomass?
mass of living material
What is a pyramid of biomass?
the biomass at each stage of a food chain drawn to scale
All pyramids of biomass are pyramid shaped, why?
because the mass of living material (biomass) at each stage is less than the previous stage
......... play an important part in decomposing dead plants and animals.
The same material is ...... over and over again and can lead to stable communities
What do living things remove materials from their environment for?
growth, movement, reproduction and other living processes
How are these materials returned to the environment?
either in waste materials or when living things die and decay
How do materials decay?
they are broken down (digested) by microorganisms
What are these microorganisms called?
In what conditions do microorganisms digest materials faster?
in warm, moist conditions
What other factor may impact how active microorganisms are?
What does the decay process release?
substances which plants need to grow
In a stable community, the processes which remove materials are ........... by processes which return materials.
What is the carbon cycle?
the constant cycling of carbon in ecosystems
How is carbon dioxide removed from the environment?
by green plants and algae during photosynthesis
What is the carbon removed from the environment used for by plants?
to make carbohydrates, fats and proteins
Green plants and algae return a small amount of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere during what process?
Green plants and algae are eaten by animals, animals are eaten by other animals passing the ........ along to make up their bodies.
Animals release some carbon dioxide into the atmosphere during what process?
What are detritus feeders?
animals that eat other dead animals
What are decomposers?
microorganisms that feed on dead plants and animals and their waste materials
........ is released into the atmosphere when detritus feeders and decomposers ..........
By the time the decomposers and detritus feeders have broken down the waste products and dead bodies of organisms in ecosystems and ... the materials as ......., all the energy originally captured by green plants has been transferred.
What other process involving wood and fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere?
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