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4.2 States of Matter
Terms in this set (55)
The density of a substance undergoes the greatest change when the substance changes from a
Liquid to a solid
In general, most substances are
Most dense in the solid state
When water is warmed from its freezing temperature to its temperature of maximum density, it
Under which conditions do real gases most resemble ideal gases?
Low pressure and high temperature
What happens to the volume of a gas during compression?
The volume decreases
The compressibility of solids is generally
Lower than the compressibility of liquids and gases
If the rate of evaporation from the surface of a liquid exceeds the rate of condensation,
The concentration of the vapor is increasing
The difference between crystalline and amorphous solids is determined by
Amount of order in particle arrangement
The equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid increases with increasing temperature because
The average energy of the particles in the liquid increases
Which gases behave most like an ideal gas?
Gases composed of monatomic, nonpolar molecules
Compared with a crystalline solid, the particles in an amorphous solid
Occur in a random pattern
An ideal gas is a hypothetical gas
That conforms to all of the assumptions of the kinetic theory
What is the process of a substance changing from a solid to a vapor without passing through the liquid phase?
Which of the following is NOT correct about crystalline solids?
They are geometrically irregular
Molecules at the surface of a liquid can enter the vapor phase only if
Their energy is high enough to overcome the attractive forces in a liquid
Which is an example of gas diffusion?
The odor of perfume spreading throughout a room
When energy as heat is applied to a liquid - vapor system at equilibrium, a new equilibrium state will have
A higher percentage of vapor
Which of the following causes particles in a liquid to escape into a gas state?
High kinetic energy
Which of the following statements about ionic crystals is NOT correct?
They consist of molecules held together by intermolecular forces
According to the kinetic-molecular theory, which is the most significant difference between gases and liquids?
the distance between particles
Whenever a liquid changes to a vapor, it
The energy of the particles in a solid is
lower than the energy of the particles in liquids and gases
According to the kinetic-molecular theory, particles of matter are in motion in
solids, liquids, and gases
Which causes the high density of solids?
the particles are packed closely together
a solid forms when the average energy of a substance's particles
which type of crystal consists of positive metal cations surrounded by valence electrons that are donated by the metal atoms and belong to the crystal as a whole?
a volatile liquid
Forces holding particles together are strongest in a
During boiling, the temperature of a liquid
The intermolecular forces between particles are
stronger in liquids than in gases
Which is an example of effusion?
air slowly escaping from a pinhole in a tire
Which substance's solid state consists of covalent molecular crystals?
The intermolecular forces between particles in a liquid can involve all of the following EXCEPT
What is the total three-dimensional array of points that describes the arrangement of the particles in a crystal called?
At a given temperature, different liquids will have different equilibrium vapor pressures because
the attractive forces between the particles differ among liquids
unlike in an ideal gas, in a real gas
the particles exert attractive forces on each other
the compressibility of a liquid is generally
less than that of a gas
What determines the average kinetic energy of the molecules of any gas?
Solids have a definite volume because
the particles do not have a tendency to change positions
At its triple point, water can
exist in equilibrium in three different phases
The rate of diffusion in solids is very low because the
particles are not free to move about
Which process can be explained by the kinetic-molecular theory?
Two gases have the same temperature but different pressures. The kinetic-molecular theory does NOT predict that
both gases have the same densities
Particles within a solid
vibrate about fixed positions
Which of the following is an amorphous solid?
If the temperature of a liquid-vapor system at equilibrium is reduced, the
concentration of the vapor will decrease
Why would a camper near the top of Mount Everest find that water boils at less than 100 degrees Celsius?
there is less atmospheric pressure than at sea level
Which best describes the particles of a liquid compared to those of a gas?
When does the concentration of a vapor decrease?
when the rate of condensation is exceeds the rate of evaporation
The particles in a liquid are usually
closer together and lower in energy than those in a gas
Glycerol boils at a slightly higher temperature than water. This reveals that glycerol's attractive forces are
stronger than those of water
Why doesn't water in lakes and ponds of temperature climates freeze solid during the winter and kill nearly all the living things it contains?
The kinetic-molecular theory explains the behavior of
solids, liquids, and gases
Diffusion between two gases occurs most rapidly if the gases are at
high temperature and the molecules are small
According to the kinetic-molecular theory, how does a gas expand?
Its particles move greater distances.
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