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Terms in this set (43)
A group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Condition in which impaired glucose tolerance results because of destruction of beta cells in the pancreatic islets; results in deficient insulin production, but the patients retains normal sensitivity to insulin action; also called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes in which the body produces insulin, but not enough, or there is insulin resistance (a defective use of the insulin that is produced)--the patient usually is not dependent on insulin for survival
Type of metabolic acidosis which is caused by high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids.
Develops during pregnancy; will have normal glucose levels within 6 weeks post partum; risk for developing type II diabetes in 5 to 10 years is increased; treated with nutritional therapy and then insulin therapy if that is not sufficient
diagnosed when fasting glucose levels are higher than normal (100 mg/dl) but lower than 126 mg/dl; people with prediabetes usually develop type II diabetes within 10 years; treat with weight loss and exercise to prevent onset of type II diabetes
longest acting insulin, Name the insulin preparation based on the peak effect and duration of action. • Peak, 8 to 16 hours; duration, 24 to 36 hours
Signs and Symptoms of type 1 diabetes
- use mnomonic CAUTION
- Constant urination and glycosuria, Abnormal thirst, Unusual hunger, The rapid loss of weight, Irritability, Obvious weakness and fatigue, Nausea and womiting
Short acting:Regular insulin:
onset 30-60 mins
peak 2-4 hrs
duration 6-8 hrs
used for dosing pts with sliding scale
only form of insulin that can be given IV
monitor for hypoglycemia, have oral carb availible.
What are the classic signs and symptoms of Diabetes mellitus
Polyuria, Polydipsia, and Polyphagia
the quantity of nitrogen in the blood in the form of urea. The normal concentration is 8 to 25 mg/100 mL; An increase in the BUN level often indicates decreased renal function
abnormally high blood sugar usually associated with diabetes
abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet
do not mix this insulin with any other medications. It is Clear. Administer Sub Q. Monitor for weight. Monitor for hypoglycemia & redness at injection site., insulin glargine
Insulin lispro, Rapid-Acting Insulin, Onset: 15-30 min, Peak: 0.5-2.5 hrs, Duration: 3-6.5 hrs
Signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia
Cold clammy skin
Rapid heart rate
Seizures (severe cases)
Signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia
Excessive urination, excessive thirst, dry mouth, and dry skin, acetone breath (fruity smell) blurred vision and headache, rapid pulse, lower blood pressure, and loss of consciousness. Record info let dentis know. More blood sugar in blood level.
Why are diabetics more prone to infection
Due to poor wound healing.
Usually occurs during the night, but manifests as an elevated glucose in the morning and may be inadvertently treated with an increase in insulin dosage. Check blood glucose around 3:00 a.m. Adjusting insulin to avoid peaking during the night will correct this effect.
Another tx for Diabetes Insipidus (not often used) - 1st generation sulfonuric agent that was used for type II diabetes but is not often used any more. It can increase ADH secretion or it can improve the affect ADH has on the kidneys. Given to pts with nephrogenic DI b/c it improves the use or ability of the existing ADH to have an effect.
stimulate release of insulin from pancreatic islets; decrease glucogenolysis and gluconeogenesis; enhance cellular sensitivity to insulin. increases insulin secretions
Normal blood glucose range
Administration of insulin
Syringe and needle most common)
Inhalation: not used much
Portable insulin pumps
Implantable insulin pumps (common Type I's)
Diabetes and exercise
check bg first
extra food (10-15g carbs for every 45 min)
Risk factors of diabetes type 2
Impaired beta cell function and insulin secretion,
Peripheral insulin resistance, Increased hepatic glucose production, genetic predisposition, obesity, race (Asian, afrocarribean, maori or aboriginal), a women who has given birth to a large baby, increasing age
Diabetic ketoacidosis treatment
-Restore hydration & electrolyte balance
-Provide IV insulin until blood glucose levels near normal; then subcutaneous route
-Monitor vital signs
Early morning glucose elevation produced by the release of growth hormone, which decreases peripheral uptake of glucose resulting in elevated morning glucose levels. Admin of insulin at a later time in day will coordinate insulin peak with the hormone release.
Is a chronic disease/disorder
unresponsiveness of cells to the effect of insulin, reducing their ability to absorb glucose, resulting in hyperglycemia
hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas
produced in pancreas by alpha cells of the islet, increases the blood glucose levels by stimulating the liver to convert glycogen (starch) into glucose
break down of glycogen into glucose
The formation of glycogen, a glucose storing compound, from fatty acids and proteins rather than carbohydrates.
Impaired glucose tolerance
blood glucose levels higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes; sometimes called prediabetes.
breakdown of subcutaneous fat at the site of repeated insulin injections
blood test that measures the average blood sugar concentration over the life span of the red blood cell
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
performed to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and to aid in diagnosing hypoglycemia
hormones that work to oppose the effects of insulin; include glucagon, epinephrine, growth hormone and cortisol
buildup of subcutaneous fat at insulin injection sites
Hyperclycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome
Profound Hyperglycemia with out ketoacidosis in a diabetic
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