181 terms

Ch 16: Integumentary System

Flashcards from Ch 16 of Building a Medical Vocabulary 7th edition by Peggy C. Leonard
A covering or skin
Integumentary system
The skin and its glands, hair, nails, and other structures that are derived from it
The top layer of skin, consisting of four or five layers
A waterproofing scleroprotein that hardens over several days
The formation of keratin, a horny material
The thicker layer of the skin; noncellular connective tissue that is composed of collagen and elastic fibers that provide strength and flexibility; contains blood vessels, nerves, and glands; also called the corium
Subcutaneous adipose tissue
Serves as a cushion against shock and insulates the body; just under the dermis
The medical speciality that focuses on the skin
A physician who specializes in the skin
The outermost germ layer, from which skin is derived
The middle germ layer
The innermost germ layer
Accessory skin structures
Hair, nails, sebeceous glands, and sweat glands embedded in the dermis
Area of the armpit
Arrector pili muscles
Contract under stresses of cold or fright, straighten the hair follicles, and rais the hairs, producing goosebumps
Sebaceous glands
Structurally associated with hair folicles, but those of the eyelids, nipples, and genitalia are freestanding; found in all areas of the body that have hair; produce the oily material sebum
The oily material secreted by the sebaceous glands; keeps hair and skin soft and pliable and also inhibits the growth of bacteria on the skin
Sudoriferous gland
Sweat gland; found in most parts of the skin, most numerous in the palms and soles
Sweat, the substance produced by the sweat glands, a mixture of salt, water, and other waste products; principal function is to regulate body temperature
The whitish, crescent-shaped area of the nail matrix responsible for nail growth
One who habitually bites the nails
Pertaining to the nail
Removal of a small piece of living tissue
Punch biopsy
An instrument called a punch is used to remove a small amount of material at least to the level of the dermis for microscopic study
Shaved specimen
Performed on superficial lesions, using a razor blade to obtain the specimen
The scraping of material from a lesion using an instrument called a curet
An instrument used to scrape material from a lesion for testing
Wood lamp
An ultaviolet light
Skin test
A test performed to determine the reaction of the body to a substance by observing the results of either injecting or applying the substance
Allergy test
A skin test performed to determine if an allergy to a particular substance exists
Sweat test
A test of the composition of sweat; performed to diagnose cystic fibrosis, increased levels of sodium and chloride present
A falling away of tissue in scales or layer
Hardening of tissue, especially the skin; usually caused by edema and inflammation
Bluish appearance of the skin; caused by severe heart or lung disease
Unusually yellow skin; suggestive of greater than normal amount of bile pigment in the blood
A partial or total absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes
A person affected with albinism
A condition in which the skin is dry and scaly, resembling fish skin; some forms, but not all, are hereditary
A mild, nonhereditary form of icthyosis characterized by roughness or dryness of the skin
A dry condition; especially excessive dryness of the skin
Infestation by human lice
Discoid lupus erythematosus
A disease primarily of the skin characterized by lesions that are covered with scales; named for the reddish facial rash present in some patients giving them a wolflike appearance; believed to be an autoimmune disorder
Redness or inflammation of the skin
Hardening and thickening of the skin
Systematic scleroderma
An autoimmune disorder of the connective tissue
An inflammatory condition of the skin; may be acute or chronic
A superficial dermatitis characterized by inflammation on the surface of the skin
Contact dermatitis
Skin rash resulting from exposure to an irritant or antigen
An abnormal skin reaction to light, a common symptom of DLE
A contagious dermatitis caused by the itch mite and transmitted by close contact
Seborrheic dermatitis
A chronic inflammatory condition of the skin characterized by greasy scales and yellowish crusts (e.g. dandruff)
Excessive production of sebum
Acne vulgaris
A skin disease common where sebaceous glands are most numerous (face, chest, and upper back) characterized by blackheads, whiteheads, pimples, nodules, and cysts
Caused by hair follicles being blocked by increased sebaceous activity
Bacterial infection of a blocked follicle, results in filling of pus
Production of pus
Production of pus
Production of pus
A localized suppurative infection that begins with infectino of a hair follicle or sebeceous gland by pathogenic staphylococci; also called a boil
A benign warty skin lesion with a rough surface caused by a common contagious virus
Herpes simplex virus
The most common viral infection affecting adult skin
Herpes simplex virus type 1
Causes fever blisters
Herpes zoster
Causes shingles and occurs with reactivation of the herpes virus in individuals who previously had chickenpox; characterized by the developmet of painful vesicles that follow the underlying route of cranial or spinal nerves inflamed by the virus; a disease of immunosuppression; occurs most often and with greater severity in older persons
Herpes simplex virus type 2
Causes genital herpes infections
A superficial fungal infection
A superficial fungal infection
A group of dermatomycoses that affect various parts of the body; also called ringworm
Any visible, local abnormality of the tissues of the skin, such as a sore, a rash, or a rumor
Any pus-containing cavity that is surrounded by inflamed tissue and is characteristically caused by infection with staphylococci; healed by draining or incision
A raised area of the overlying skin filled with fluid or semisolid material
A raised area of the overlying skin that is solid and more than one centimeter wide and deep
Primary lesions
Initial reactions to an underlying problem
A nonraised, small dark spot on the skin; also called a freckle
A small elevated and circumscribed area (e.g. a small mole)
An elevated and circumscribed area greater than a centimeter in diameter (e.g. dandruff)
Smaller blister-like lesions that contain fluid
Larger blister-like lesions that contain fluid
Blister-like lesions that contain pus
An allergic skin eruption characterized by transient, elevated, irregularly shaped lesions called wheals; also called hives
Secondary lesions
Changes in the appearance of the primary lesion, can occur with normal progression of the disease
Thinning of the skin with loss of skin markings (e.g. stretch marks)
Deep, irregular erosions that extend into the dermis
Linear crackes in the epidermis (e.g. athlete's foot)
Composed of dried serum, sebum, blood, or pus on the skin surface; frequently seen in psoriasis
A common skin disease characterized by circumscribed red patches covered by thick, dry, silvery scales; treated with UV light therapy
Tiny purple or red spots appearing on the skin as a result of tiny hemorrhages within the dermal or submucosal layers, flush with the skin and ranging in size from pinpoint to pinhead
A hemorrhagic spot, larger than a petechia; forms a nonelevated blue or purplish patch
A common, benign tumor consisting of mature fat cells, usually removed by surgical excision
A flat, poorly defined mass, often on the sole over a bony prominence and caused by pressure; also called a calculus
A round or conical mass caused by pressure of friction; usually painful
A condition of the skin characterized by the formation of horny growths or excessive development of epithelium
Seborrheic keratosiss
A common benign, circumscribed lession with well-defined edges and definite boundaries that may occur anywhere on the body of an older person, more commonly found on the face, neck, upper trunk, and arms
Actinic keratosis
A premalignant lesion that is common in people with chronically sun-damaged skin; may progress to skin cancer if not removed
Squamous cell carcinoma
A common type of skin cancer that is rarely invasive
Basal cell carcinoma
A common type of skin cancer that is rarely invasive; a malignant epithelial cell tumor that begins as a papule and continues to enlarge
Malignant melanoma
A cancer that arises from moles with irregular edges or varegated colors; such moles are usually removed and examined as a preventative action; a pigmented neoplasm that originates in the skin and is compsed of melanocytes; highly metastatic, aggressive, and lethal
Kaposi sarcoma
The most common malignancy associated with AIDS; characterized by small, purplish-brown papules that spread throughout the skin, lymph nodes, and internal organs; also associated with diabetes and malignant lymphoma
A physical injury involving a break in the skin, usually caused by an act or accident other than a disease
Intentional wounds
The result of a planned invasive therapy treatment, as in surgery; characterized by clean edges, controlled bleeding, and low risk of infection
Unintentional wounds
The result of unexcpected trauma of forcible injury as in scrapes, burns, or stabbing; characterized by jagged edges, potential uncontrolled bleeding, higher risk of infection, and longer healing time
Free of pathogenic organisms or infected material
Decubitus ulcers
A type of injury to the skin that occurse almost exclusively in people with limited mobility; sores that occur as a result of mechanical trauma and lack of adequate blood flow to the affected area; also called pressure ulcers or bedsores
A mark that is left by healing of a lesion where excess collagen was produced to replace the injured tissue
Excessive overgrowth of unsightly scar tissue; occurs most commonly in black individuals
A torn, jagged wound
A wound made by piercing
A wound characterized by the scraping or rubbing away by friction of skin
A would caused by a blow to the body that causes subcutaneous bleeding and does not disrupt the integrity of the skin; characterized by swelling, discoloration, and pain; also called a bruise
Tissue injuries resulting from excessive exposure to heat, electricity, chemicals, radiation, or gases, in which the extent of the injury is determined by the amount of exposure and the nature of the agent that causes it; magnitude based on depth and total body surface area affected
Superficial burn
Involves only the epidermis, characterized by redness, no immediate blisters; 1st degree
Deep-partial thickness
Extends into the dermis, red and moist, blistered; 2nd degree
Throughout the dermis and epidermis, sometimes into subcutaneous fat layer, hard, drye, and leathery, white, deep red, yellow, brown to black; 3rd degree
Deep full-thickness
No skin layers remain, underlying bone and muscle are damaged, wound is blackened and depressed, muscle and bone exposed; 4th degree
Rule of nines
A formula for estimating the percentage of adult body surface covered by burns
Lund-Browder system
A system of calculating the total body surface area affected that takes into account the patient's age
Damage to skin, tissues, and blood vessels as a result of prolonged exposure to cold
A condition in which the amount of oxygen is below normal
Localized tissue death that occurs in response to diesase or injury; can be caused by a jellyfish sting
Any disease of the hair
Superficial bacterial infection involving the hair follicles
A localized bacterial invasion of subcutaneous tissue; can occur independently or be a consequence of folliculitis; characterized by pain, heat, swelling, and redness
Abnormal growth or development of hair
Any disease of the nails
Atrophy or other unhealthy condition of the nails, often caused by a fungal infection
A condition of the nails resulting from a fungus
Abnormal softening of the nails
Inflammation of a sweat gland; can be caused by closure of the pores with secondary bacterial infection of apocrine sweat glands, chiefly in the axillary or anogenital areas; characterized by the development of a tender red abscess that enlarges and eventually breaks through the skin or forms a cyst
Excessive sweating
A condition in which the body temperature is below normal
A greatly increased body temperature that overrides or bypasses normal heat regulation (e.g. heatstroke and sunstroke)
An increased body temperature that is mediated by an increase in the heat regulatory set point; fever
Heat paralysis; heatstroke or sunstroke
Wound irrigation
Flushing of an open wound using a medicated solution, water, sterile saline, or an antimicrobial liquid preparation
Pertaining to a substance that acts against microorganisms, either killing or inhibiting their growth
Antimicrobial irrigation
Flushing of an open would with an antimicrobial liquid preparation to cleanse and remove debris and excessive drainage
Superficial wounds
Often heal without suturing
Deep wounds
Generally stapled or sutured to stop the bleeding, hold the tissues together, and enhance the healing process
Adhesive sprays
Used for closing certain wounds
Negative-pressure wound therapy
Uses suction and controlled negative pressure to remove drainage and speed wound healing; pulls infections materials and other fluids from the wound via tubing; suitable for acute or traumatic wounds, ulcerated wounds, or surgical wounds that have dehisced; also called vacuum-assisted closure
The rupture of a would closure or the separation of a surgical incision, typically an abdominal incision
Skin graft
Transplantation of skin to cover areas where skin has been lost through a burn or other trauma, or to replace diseased skin that has been removed
A graft using skin from the patient's own body
A graft of tissue between two genetically differeny individuals of the same species
Skin flap
A special type of skin graft that involves moving a section of skin to a nearby area without cutting off the end of the transplanted tissue in order to leave some of the blood circulation in tact
Instrument used to cut thin slices of skin for grafting
Surgical removal of a limb or part of the body
Ability of transplanetd tissue to survive without ill effects
Topical medications
Medications placed directly on the skin
Topical antimicrobials
Agents and dressings that are applied to injured or burned tissue to prevent infection
Without infection
Surgical incision into necrotic tissue resulting from a severe burn; done ro relieve pressure that results from severe swelling
The removal of foreing material and dead or damaged tissue, especially from a wound
To remove by dissection
Excision of the nail
Medications that help clean a wound and inhibit the growth of microorganisms
Medications used to treat infections
Medications used to relieve or prevent itching
A liquid medication that is vaporized and propelled into the air by gas under pressure within the container
A medicated, fatty, soft substance for external application to the body
Topical anesthetics
Applied to produce a lack of feeling
Salicylic acid
Used in wart treatments
Tissue of a wart is destroyed by burning it with electricity
Exposing tissues of warts to extreme cold to preoduce well-defined areas of cell destruction
Collagen injections
Enhance lips or "plump" sagging facial skin
A treatment for removing the superficial scars on the skin or tattoos
Originally meant excision of a mass of subcutaneous fat tissues, as from the abdominal wall; has been extended to mean the removal of fat from the neck, legs, arms, belly, and elsewhere by placing a narrow tube under the skin and applying a vacuum; liposuction
The breakdown or destruction of fat; offers alternative treatments to liposuction (e.g. injection lipolysis and laser lipolysis)
Used to destroy the hair follicles when hair is growing in an undesirable place
Compounds that are structurally related to substances that exhibit vitamin A activity, such as retinal and retinol; increase the sloughing of epithelial cells anc cause extrusion of blackheads
Treatment of disease by exposing the body to sunlight
Heat hydrotherapy
Use of warm water to assist in the healing of certain wounds
Passing high-frequency current through tissue to generate heat in a particular part of the body; used to increase circulation to an inflammed area
Use of high-frequency sound waves as a deep-heating agent for soft tissue to increase circulation to an inflammed area
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
An electrical stimulation to the skin and subcutaneous tissue to offer pain relief
Transdermal drug delivery
A method of applying a drug to unbroken skin; the drug is absorbed through the skin and enters the circulatory system; used for estrogen, nicotine, and scopolamine (to prevent motion sickness)