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181 terms

Ch 16: Integumentary System

Flashcards from Ch 16 of Building a Medical Vocabulary 7th edition by Peggy C. Leonard
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Integument
A covering or skin
Integumentary system
The skin and its glands, hair, nails, and other structures that are derived from it
Epidermis
The top layer of skin, consisting of four or five layers
Keratin
A waterproofing scleroprotein that hardens over several days
Keratogenesis
The formation of keratin, a horny material
Dermis
The thicker layer of the skin; noncellular connective tissue that is composed of collagen and elastic fibers that provide strength and flexibility; contains blood vessels, nerves, and glands; also called the corium
Subcutaneous adipose tissue
Serves as a cushion against shock and insulates the body; just under the dermis
Dermatology
The medical speciality that focuses on the skin
Dermatologist
A physician who specializes in the skin
Ectoderm
The outermost germ layer, from which skin is derived
Mesoderm
The middle germ layer
Endoderm
The innermost germ layer
Accessory skin structures
Hair, nails, sebeceous glands, and sweat glands embedded in the dermis
Axillary
Area of the armpit
Arrector pili muscles
Contract under stresses of cold or fright, straighten the hair follicles, and rais the hairs, producing goosebumps
Sebaceous glands
Structurally associated with hair folicles, but those of the eyelids, nipples, and genitalia are freestanding; found in all areas of the body that have hair; produce the oily material sebum
Sebum
The oily material secreted by the sebaceous glands; keeps hair and skin soft and pliable and also inhibits the growth of bacteria on the skin
Sudoriferous gland
Sweat gland; found in most parts of the skin, most numerous in the palms and soles
Perspiration
Sweat, the substance produced by the sweat glands, a mixture of salt, water, and other waste products; principal function is to regulate body temperature
Lunula
The whitish, crescent-shaped area of the nail matrix responsible for nail growth
Onychophagia
Nail-biting
Onychophagist
One who habitually bites the nails
Ungual
Pertaining to the nail
Biopsy
Removal of a small piece of living tissue
Punch biopsy
An instrument called a punch is used to remove a small amount of material at least to the level of the dermis for microscopic study
Shaved specimen
Performed on superficial lesions, using a razor blade to obtain the specimen
Curettage
The scraping of material from a lesion using an instrument called a curet
Curet
An instrument used to scrape material from a lesion for testing
Wood lamp
An ultaviolet light
Skin test
A test performed to determine the reaction of the body to a substance by observing the results of either injecting or applying the substance
Allergy test
A skin test performed to determine if an allergy to a particular substance exists
Sweat test
A test of the composition of sweat; performed to diagnose cystic fibrosis, increased levels of sodium and chloride present
Exfoliation
A falling away of tissue in scales or layer
Induration
Hardening of tissue, especially the skin; usually caused by edema and inflammation
Cyanosis
Bluish appearance of the skin; caused by severe heart or lung disease
Jaundice
Unusually yellow skin; suggestive of greater than normal amount of bile pigment in the blood
Albinism
A partial or total absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes
Albino
A person affected with albinism
Ichthyosis
A condition in which the skin is dry and scaly, resembling fish skin; some forms, but not all, are hereditary
Xeroderm
A mild, nonhereditary form of icthyosis characterized by roughness or dryness of the skin
Xerosis
A dry condition; especially excessive dryness of the skin
Pediculosis
Infestation by human lice
Discoid lupus erythematosus
A disease primarily of the skin characterized by lesions that are covered with scales; named for the reddish facial rash present in some patients giving them a wolflike appearance; believed to be an autoimmune disorder
Erythema
Redness or inflammation of the skin
Scleroderma
Hardening and thickening of the skin
Systematic scleroderma
An autoimmune disorder of the connective tissue
Dermatitis
An inflammatory condition of the skin; may be acute or chronic
Eczema
A superficial dermatitis characterized by inflammation on the surface of the skin
Contact dermatitis
Skin rash resulting from exposure to an irritant or antigen
Photodermatitis
An abnormal skin reaction to light, a common symptom of DLE
Scabies
A contagious dermatitis caused by the itch mite and transmitted by close contact
Seborrheic dermatitis
A chronic inflammatory condition of the skin characterized by greasy scales and yellowish crusts (e.g. dandruff)
Seborrhea
Excessive production of sebum
Acne vulgaris
A skin disease common where sebaceous glands are most numerous (face, chest, and upper back) characterized by blackheads, whiteheads, pimples, nodules, and cysts
Blackheads
Caused by hair follicles being blocked by increased sebaceous activity
Pimple
Bacterial infection of a blocked follicle, results in filling of pus
Suppuration
Production of pus
Purulence
Production of pus
Pyogenesis
Production of pus
Furuncle
A localized suppurative infection that begins with infectino of a hair follicle or sebeceous gland by pathogenic staphylococci; also called a boil
Verruca
A benign warty skin lesion with a rough surface caused by a common contagious virus
Herpes simplex virus
The most common viral infection affecting adult skin
Herpes simplex virus type 1
Causes fever blisters
Herpes zoster
Causes shingles and occurs with reactivation of the herpes virus in individuals who previously had chickenpox; characterized by the developmet of painful vesicles that follow the underlying route of cranial or spinal nerves inflamed by the virus; a disease of immunosuppression; occurs most often and with greater severity in older persons
Herpes simplex virus type 2
Causes genital herpes infections
Dermatomycosis
A superficial fungal infection
Mycodermatitis
A superficial fungal infection
Tinea
A group of dermatomycoses that affect various parts of the body; also called ringworm
Lesion
Any visible, local abnormality of the tissues of the skin, such as a sore, a rash, or a rumor
Abscess
Any pus-containing cavity that is surrounded by inflamed tissue and is characteristically caused by infection with staphylococci; healed by draining or incision
Cyst
A raised area of the overlying skin filled with fluid or semisolid material
Nodule
A raised area of the overlying skin that is solid and more than one centimeter wide and deep
Primary lesions
Initial reactions to an underlying problem
Macule
A nonraised, small dark spot on the skin; also called a freckle
Papule
A small elevated and circumscribed area (e.g. a small mole)
Plaque
An elevated and circumscribed area greater than a centimeter in diameter (e.g. dandruff)
Vesicles
Smaller blister-like lesions that contain fluid
Bullae
Larger blister-like lesions that contain fluid
Pustules
Blister-like lesions that contain pus
Urticaria
An allergic skin eruption characterized by transient, elevated, irregularly shaped lesions called wheals; also called hives
Wheals
Hives
Secondary lesions
Changes in the appearance of the primary lesion, can occur with normal progression of the disease
Atrophy
Thinning of the skin with loss of skin markings (e.g. stretch marks)
Ulcers
Deep, irregular erosions that extend into the dermis
Fissures
Linear crackes in the epidermis (e.g. athlete's foot)
Crust
Composed of dried serum, sebum, blood, or pus on the skin surface; frequently seen in psoriasis
Psoriasis
A common skin disease characterized by circumscribed red patches covered by thick, dry, silvery scales; treated with UV light therapy
Petechiae
Tiny purple or red spots appearing on the skin as a result of tiny hemorrhages within the dermal or submucosal layers, flush with the skin and ranging in size from pinpoint to pinhead
Ecchymosis
A hemorrhagic spot, larger than a petechia; forms a nonelevated blue or purplish patch
Nevus
Mole
Lipoma
A common, benign tumor consisting of mature fat cells, usually removed by surgical excision
Keratoma
A flat, poorly defined mass, often on the sole over a bony prominence and caused by pressure; also called a calculus
Corn
A round or conical mass caused by pressure of friction; usually painful
Keratosis
A condition of the skin characterized by the formation of horny growths or excessive development of epithelium
Seborrheic keratosiss
A common benign, circumscribed lession with well-defined edges and definite boundaries that may occur anywhere on the body of an older person, more commonly found on the face, neck, upper trunk, and arms
Actinic keratosis
A premalignant lesion that is common in people with chronically sun-damaged skin; may progress to skin cancer if not removed
Squamous cell carcinoma
A common type of skin cancer that is rarely invasive
Basal cell carcinoma
A common type of skin cancer that is rarely invasive; a malignant epithelial cell tumor that begins as a papule and continues to enlarge
Malignant melanoma
A cancer that arises from moles with irregular edges or varegated colors; such moles are usually removed and examined as a preventative action; a pigmented neoplasm that originates in the skin and is compsed of melanocytes; highly metastatic, aggressive, and lethal
Kaposi sarcoma
The most common malignancy associated with AIDS; characterized by small, purplish-brown papules that spread throughout the skin, lymph nodes, and internal organs; also associated with diabetes and malignant lymphoma
Wound
A physical injury involving a break in the skin, usually caused by an act or accident other than a disease
Intentional wounds
The result of a planned invasive therapy treatment, as in surgery; characterized by clean edges, controlled bleeding, and low risk of infection
Unintentional wounds
The result of unexcpected trauma of forcible injury as in scrapes, burns, or stabbing; characterized by jagged edges, potential uncontrolled bleeding, higher risk of infection, and longer healing time
Aseptic
Free of pathogenic organisms or infected material
Decubitus ulcers
A type of injury to the skin that occurse almost exclusively in people with limited mobility; sores that occur as a result of mechanical trauma and lack of adequate blood flow to the affected area; also called pressure ulcers or bedsores
Scar
A mark that is left by healing of a lesion where excess collagen was produced to replace the injured tissue
Keloid
Excessive overgrowth of unsightly scar tissue; occurs most commonly in black individuals
Laceration
A torn, jagged wound
Puncture
A wound made by piercing
Abrasion
A wound characterized by the scraping or rubbing away by friction of skin
Contusion
A would caused by a blow to the body that causes subcutaneous bleeding and does not disrupt the integrity of the skin; characterized by swelling, discoloration, and pain; also called a bruise
Burns
Tissue injuries resulting from excessive exposure to heat, electricity, chemicals, radiation, or gases, in which the extent of the injury is determined by the amount of exposure and the nature of the agent that causes it; magnitude based on depth and total body surface area affected
Superficial burn
Involves only the epidermis, characterized by redness, no immediate blisters; 1st degree
Deep-partial thickness
Extends into the dermis, red and moist, blistered; 2nd degree
Full-thickness
Throughout the dermis and epidermis, sometimes into subcutaneous fat layer, hard, drye, and leathery, white, deep red, yellow, brown to black; 3rd degree
Deep full-thickness
No skin layers remain, underlying bone and muscle are damaged, wound is blackened and depressed, muscle and bone exposed; 4th degree
Rule of nines
A formula for estimating the percentage of adult body surface covered by burns
Lund-Browder system
A system of calculating the total body surface area affected that takes into account the patient's age
Sepsis
Infection
Frostbite
Damage to skin, tissues, and blood vessels as a result of prolonged exposure to cold
Hypoxia
A condition in which the amount of oxygen is below normal
Necrosis
Localized tissue death that occurs in response to diesase or injury; can be caused by a jellyfish sting
Trichopathy
Any disease of the hair
Folliculitis
Superficial bacterial infection involving the hair follicles
Cellulitis
A localized bacterial invasion of subcutaneous tissue; can occur independently or be a consequence of folliculitis; characterized by pain, heat, swelling, and redness
Trichosis
Abnormal growth or development of hair
Alopecia
Baldness
Onychopathy
Any disease of the nails
Onychosis
Atrophy or other unhealthy condition of the nails, often caused by a fungal infection
Onychomycosis
A condition of the nails resulting from a fungus
Onychomalacia
Abnormal softening of the nails
Hidradenitis
Inflammation of a sweat gland; can be caused by closure of the pores with secondary bacterial infection of apocrine sweat glands, chiefly in the axillary or anogenital areas; characterized by the development of a tender red abscess that enlarges and eventually breaks through the skin or forms a cyst
Diaphoresis
Excessive sweating
Hypothermia
A condition in which the body temperature is below normal
Hyperthermia
A greatly increased body temperature that overrides or bypasses normal heat regulation (e.g. heatstroke and sunstroke)
Pyrexia
An increased body temperature that is mediated by an increase in the heat regulatory set point; fever
Thermoplegia
Heat paralysis; heatstroke or sunstroke
Wound irrigation
Flushing of an open wound using a medicated solution, water, sterile saline, or an antimicrobial liquid preparation
Antimicrobial
Pertaining to a substance that acts against microorganisms, either killing or inhibiting their growth
Antimicrobial irrigation
Flushing of an open would with an antimicrobial liquid preparation to cleanse and remove debris and excessive drainage
Superficial wounds
Often heal without suturing
Deep wounds
Generally stapled or sutured to stop the bleeding, hold the tissues together, and enhance the healing process
Adhesive sprays
Used for closing certain wounds
Negative-pressure wound therapy
Uses suction and controlled negative pressure to remove drainage and speed wound healing; pulls infections materials and other fluids from the wound via tubing; suitable for acute or traumatic wounds, ulcerated wounds, or surgical wounds that have dehisced; also called vacuum-assisted closure
Dehiscence
The rupture of a would closure or the separation of a surgical incision, typically an abdominal incision
Skin graft
Transplantation of skin to cover areas where skin has been lost through a burn or other trauma, or to replace diseased skin that has been removed
Autograft
A graft using skin from the patient's own body
Allogract
A graft of tissue between two genetically differeny individuals of the same species
Skin flap
A special type of skin graft that involves moving a section of skin to a nearby area without cutting off the end of the transplanted tissue in order to leave some of the blood circulation in tact
Dermatome
Instrument used to cut thin slices of skin for grafting
Amputation
Surgical removal of a limb or part of the body
Histocompatibility
Ability of transplanetd tissue to survive without ill effects
Topical medications
Medications placed directly on the skin
Topical antimicrobials
Agents and dressings that are applied to injured or burned tissue to prevent infection
Aseptic
Without infection
Escharotomy
Surgical incision into necrotic tissue resulting from a severe burn; done ro relieve pressure that results from severe swelling
Debridement
The removal of foreing material and dead or damaged tissue, especially from a wound
Debride
To remove by dissection
Onychectomy
Excision of the nail
Antiseptics
Medications that help clean a wound and inhibit the growth of microorganisms
Antibiotics
Medications used to treat infections
Antipruritics
Medications used to relieve or prevent itching
Aerosol
A liquid medication that is vaporized and propelled into the air by gas under pressure within the container
Ointment
A medicated, fatty, soft substance for external application to the body
Topical anesthetics
Applied to produce a lack of feeling
Salicylic acid
Used in wart treatments
Electrodesiccation
Tissue of a wart is destroyed by burning it with electricity
Cryotherapy
Exposing tissues of warts to extreme cold to preoduce well-defined areas of cell destruction
Collagen injections
Enhance lips or "plump" sagging facial skin
Rhytidoplasty
Face-lift
Dermabrasion
A treatment for removing the superficial scars on the skin or tattoos
Lipectomy
Originally meant excision of a mass of subcutaneous fat tissues, as from the abdominal wall; has been extended to mean the removal of fat from the neck, legs, arms, belly, and elsewhere by placing a narrow tube under the skin and applying a vacuum; liposuction
Lipolysis
The breakdown or destruction of fat; offers alternative treatments to liposuction (e.g. injection lipolysis and laser lipolysis)
Electrolysis
Used to destroy the hair follicles when hair is growing in an undesirable place
Retinoids
Compounds that are structurally related to substances that exhibit vitamin A activity, such as retinal and retinol; increase the sloughing of epithelial cells anc cause extrusion of blackheads
Heliotherapy
Treatment of disease by exposing the body to sunlight
Heat hydrotherapy
Use of warm water to assist in the healing of certain wounds
Diathermy
Passing high-frequency current through tissue to generate heat in a particular part of the body; used to increase circulation to an inflammed area
Ultrasound
Use of high-frequency sound waves as a deep-heating agent for soft tissue to increase circulation to an inflammed area
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
An electrical stimulation to the skin and subcutaneous tissue to offer pain relief
Transdermal drug delivery
A method of applying a drug to unbroken skin; the drug is absorbed through the skin and enters the circulatory system; used for estrogen, nicotine, and scopolamine (to prevent motion sickness)