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Living things must exhibit the following general attributes...which are?
A) response to stimuli and homeostasis
B) ability to reproduce to stimuli
C) sex and violence
D) metabolism and self perpetuation
E) evolution and reproduction

metabolism and self perpetuation

We use the scientific method every day. imagine you car doesn't start one morning before school. which of these is a reasonable hypothesis regarding the problem?
A) check if your lights were left on
B) I'm out of gas
C) Kick the tires
D) add a quart of oil.

I'm out of gas

A carefully formulated scientific explanation that is based on a large accumulation of observations and is in accord with scientific principles is termed a/an
A) theory
B) fact
C) control
D) postulate
E) hypothesis


One ml of an experimental drug diluted in a saline solution is injected into 20 pregnant mice to determine possible side effects. which of the following is a suitable "control" for this experiment?
A) 20 male mice injected with 1 ml of the drug
B) 20 non-pregnant mice injected with 1ml of the drug
C) 20 male mice injected with 1 ml of saline
D) 20 pregnant mice injected with 2 ml of the drug
E) 20 pregnant mice injected with 1 ml of saline

20 pregnant mice injected with 1 ml of saline

The sum total of the chemical activity at the cellular level which enables an organism to meet its nutrient and energy and synthetic demands is termed
A) growth
B) evolution
C) responsiveness
D) metabolism
E) energy


A scientific explanation that is tentative and requires more investigation is termed a/an
A) observation
B) theory
C) control
D) fact
E) hypothesis


In a word, evolution mean
A) mutation
B) selection
C) improvement
D) nature
E) change


what determines the atomic number of an atom?
A) total number of energy shells
B) number of protons in the atomic nucleus
C) number of electrons in the outermost energy level
D) the total number of electrons and neutrons
E) arrangement of neutrons in the atomic nucleus

number of protons in the atomic nucleus

For an atom to achieve maximum stability and become chemically un-reactive. what must occur?
A) Ionization is required
B) its outermost energy shell must be filled with electrons
C) it must be inert
D) the number of electrons must be equal to the number of protons
E) sharing of electrons pairs is necessary

It's outermost energy shell must be filled with electrons

Sodium, automic number 11, has a tendency to lose an electron in teh presence of chlorine. After losing the electron, Na will have _?_ protons in its nucleus.


An atom's nucleus is composed of ?

Protons and neutrons

Atoms or molecules which have gained or lost electrons are termed?


Why might an atom be chemically unreactive?

The atoms outer energy levels are completely full.

A single covalent chemical bond represents the sharing of how many electrons?


The hydrogen bond between two water molecules arises because water is....


What happens when hydrochloric acid is added to pure water?

The HCL molecules seperate into H+ and Cl- ions.

If a substance measures 7 on the pH scale, that substance has what?

Has equal concentration of H+ and OH- ions.

Relative to a pH of 6, a pH of 4 has how much more H+concentration?

100 times higher H+ concentration

What name is given to substances that resist changes in pH?


Why are water molcules cohesive?

Because they are repelled by nonpolar molecues.

Large biological molecules, polymers, are synthesized by dehydration synthesis which involves making what as a byproduct?


What do carbohydrates, lipids and proteins have in common?

1. Monomers of these organic molecules form polymers by way of dehydration synthesis
2. Covalent bonding holds these molecules together
3. Each of these organic molecules has a carbon backbone with various functional groups attached
4. All are important components of an animal's diet

What type of chemical reaction results int eh breakdown of organic polymers into their respective subunits?


What is the fiber in our diet?


Where is glycogen stored in humans?


Which of the following provides long-term energy storage for plants?


The relationship between dehydration reactions and hyrdrolysis can be summarized as...

Dehydration reactions assemble polymers and hydrolysis breaks them down.

Which type of lipid is most important in biological membranes?


Of what are triglycerides composed?

Three fatty acids and one glycerol.

Specifically, a peptide bond forms between which groups?

Carboxyl and amino groups

How is a denatured protein different from a normal protein?

a denatured protein has an altered tertiary structure

The plasma membrane allows the passage of some molecules while prohibiting the passage of others. Thus the membrane is said to be...


Proteins in the plasma membrane of the cell are responsible for all of the following membrane properties

adhesion, recognition, signaling, transport

The energy to move things into a cell by active transport is generally provided by breaking down


Which process accounts for the movement of bulk solids into some animal cells


The net movement of molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration is best described by which of the following?


In order for diffusion to occur, there must be

a gradient

The rate of simple diffusion of a molecule across a plasma membrane is determined by the following?

concentration gradient, charge of the molecule, size of the molecule, solubility in lipid

The diffusion of water molecules across a differentially semi-permeable membrane is termed

facilitated diffusion

The movement of small molecules across a membrane against the concentration gradient, using the energy of the hydrolysis of a molecule of ATP.


The movement of small lipid soluble molecules form regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration by passing freely through the lipid bilayer


The movement of water across a membrane from regions of high water concentration to regions of low water concentration


The movement of small protein molecules from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration by binding to and being transported by membrane proteins

Facilitated diffusion

Solutions that cause water to enter cells by osmosis are termed


Active transport requires....

ATP, transport proteins, a membrane, a gradient

When a cell secretes a hormone, it is performing


All cells must possess all of the following

cytoplasm, genetic material, ribosomes, plasma cell membrane

Which of the following is not required for cell function


The nuclear envelope

is composed of two separate lipid bilayer membranes, contains pores which allow water, ions, and small molecules to pass between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, regulates the movement of ribosomal subunits between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and separates the genetic material from the cytoplasm

Which of the following is associated with rough ER


The golgi processes and packages materials into ____ for transport or export.


Which cellular component packages hydrolytic enzymes into lysosome vesicles?

golgi complex

What primarily determines the shape of animal cells?


Which organelle extracts energy from food molecules and stores it in the high energy bond of ATP?


What is one of the things that prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have in common?


Which of the following cell structures would be found in an animal cell, but no in a bacterial cell?

endoplasmic reticulum

Which of the following has the greatest amount of kinetic energy?

a moving car, compared to an unlit firecracker, a hot car engine, and the cool air surrounding the engine

Which of the following has potential energy?

a diver on a springboard, a water droplet on top of a waterfall, a 9V battery, and a glucose molecule

Entropy is a measure of

randomness or disorder

Each of the following contains twelve carbon atoms. Which of the arrangements demonstrate carbon atoms with the greatest entropy?

twelve molecules of CO2

Energy that is not converted to useful energy is usually given off as


Which of the following is part of the first law of thermodynamics?

energy cannot be created or destroyed

What is the ultimate source of energy for most forms of life on Earth?

solar energy

When a solid sodium hydroxide is added to water, the solution gets hot. This is an example of

an exergonic reaction

All the following statements pertaining to catalysts are true

biological catalysts are specific enzymes, catalysts can be use over and over again, catalysts are not permanently altered during reaction, catalysts increase reaction rate

The reactant molecule involved in the reaction in an enzyme catalyzed reaction is called the


Which of these statements regarding enzymes is False?

enzymes provide energy for the reactions they catalyze

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