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67 terms

Final Exam 1

STUDY
PLAY
Living things must exhibit the following general attributes...which are?
A) response to stimuli and homeostasis
B) ability to reproduce to stimuli
C) sex and violence
D) metabolism and self perpetuation
E) evolution and reproduction
metabolism and self perpetuation
We use the scientific method every day. imagine you car doesn't start one morning before school. which of these is a reasonable hypothesis regarding the problem?
A) check if your lights were left on
B) I'm out of gas
C) Kick the tires
D) add a quart of oil.
I'm out of gas
A carefully formulated scientific explanation that is based on a large accumulation of observations and is in accord with scientific principles is termed a/an
A) theory
B) fact
C) control
D) postulate
E) hypothesis
theory
One ml of an experimental drug diluted in a saline solution is injected into 20 pregnant mice to determine possible side effects. which of the following is a suitable "control" for this experiment?
A) 20 male mice injected with 1 ml of the drug
B) 20 non-pregnant mice injected with 1ml of the drug
C) 20 male mice injected with 1 ml of saline
D) 20 pregnant mice injected with 2 ml of the drug
E) 20 pregnant mice injected with 1 ml of saline
20 pregnant mice injected with 1 ml of saline
The sum total of the chemical activity at the cellular level which enables an organism to meet its nutrient and energy and synthetic demands is termed
A) growth
B) evolution
C) responsiveness
D) metabolism
E) energy
metabolism
A scientific explanation that is tentative and requires more investigation is termed a/an
A) observation
B) theory
C) control
D) fact
E) hypothesis
hypothesis
In a word, evolution mean
A) mutation
B) selection
C) improvement
D) nature
E) change
change
what determines the atomic number of an atom?
A) total number of energy shells
B) number of protons in the atomic nucleus
C) number of electrons in the outermost energy level
D) the total number of electrons and neutrons
E) arrangement of neutrons in the atomic nucleus
number of protons in the atomic nucleus
For an atom to achieve maximum stability and become chemically un-reactive. what must occur?
A) Ionization is required
B) its outermost energy shell must be filled with electrons
C) it must be inert
D) the number of electrons must be equal to the number of protons
E) sharing of electrons pairs is necessary
It's outermost energy shell must be filled with electrons
Sodium, automic number 11, has a tendency to lose an electron in teh presence of chlorine. After losing the electron, Na will have _?_ protons in its nucleus.
11
An atom's nucleus is composed of ?
Protons and neutrons
Atoms or molecules which have gained or lost electrons are termed?
Ions
Why might an atom be chemically unreactive?
The atoms outer energy levels are completely full.
A single covalent chemical bond represents the sharing of how many electrons?
2
The hydrogen bond between two water molecules arises because water is....
Polar
What happens when hydrochloric acid is added to pure water?
The HCL molecules seperate into H+ and Cl- ions.
If a substance measures 7 on the pH scale, that substance has what?
Has equal concentration of H+ and OH- ions.
Relative to a pH of 6, a pH of 4 has how much more H+concentration?
100 times higher H+ concentration
What name is given to substances that resist changes in pH?
Buffers
Why are water molcules cohesive?
Because they are repelled by nonpolar molecues.
Large biological molecules, polymers, are synthesized by dehydration synthesis which involves making what as a byproduct?
Water
What do carbohydrates, lipids and proteins have in common?
1. Monomers of these organic molecules form polymers by way of dehydration synthesis
2. Covalent bonding holds these molecules together
3. Each of these organic molecules has a carbon backbone with various functional groups attached
4. All are important components of an animal's diet
What type of chemical reaction results int eh breakdown of organic polymers into their respective subunits?
Hydrolysis
What is the fiber in our diet?
Cellulose
Where is glycogen stored in humans?
Liver
Which of the following provides long-term energy storage for plants?
Starch
The relationship between dehydration reactions and hyrdrolysis can be summarized as...
Dehydration reactions assemble polymers and hydrolysis breaks them down.
Which type of lipid is most important in biological membranes?
phospholipids
Of what are triglycerides composed?
Three fatty acids and one glycerol.
Specifically, a peptide bond forms between which groups?
Carboxyl and amino groups
How is a denatured protein different from a normal protein?
a denatured protein has an altered tertiary structure
The plasma membrane allows the passage of some molecules while prohibiting the passage of others. Thus the membrane is said to be...
Semipermeable
Proteins in the plasma membrane of the cell are responsible for all of the following membrane properties
adhesion, recognition, signaling, transport
The energy to move things into a cell by active transport is generally provided by breaking down
ATP
Which process accounts for the movement of bulk solids into some animal cells
phagocytosis
The net movement of molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration is best described by which of the following?
diffusion
In order for diffusion to occur, there must be
a gradient
The rate of simple diffusion of a molecule across a plasma membrane is determined by the following?
concentration gradient, charge of the molecule, size of the molecule, solubility in lipid
The diffusion of water molecules across a differentially semi-permeable membrane is termed
facilitated diffusion
The movement of small molecules across a membrane against the concentration gradient, using the energy of the hydrolysis of a molecule of ATP.
osmosis
The movement of small lipid soluble molecules form regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration by passing freely through the lipid bilayer
Diffusion
The movement of water across a membrane from regions of high water concentration to regions of low water concentration
osmosis
The movement of small protein molecules from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration by binding to and being transported by membrane proteins
Facilitated diffusion
Solutions that cause water to enter cells by osmosis are termed
hypotonic
Active transport requires....
ATP, transport proteins, a membrane, a gradient
When a cell secretes a hormone, it is performing
endocytosis
All cells must possess all of the following
cytoplasm, genetic material, ribosomes, plasma cell membrane
Which of the following is not required for cell function
mitochondria
The nuclear envelope
is composed of two separate lipid bilayer membranes, contains pores which allow water, ions, and small molecules to pass between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, regulates the movement of ribosomal subunits between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and separates the genetic material from the cytoplasm
Which of the following is associated with rough ER
ribosomes
The golgi processes and packages materials into ____ for transport or export.
vesicles
Which cellular component packages hydrolytic enzymes into lysosome vesicles?
golgi complex
What primarily determines the shape of animal cells?
Cytoskeleton
Which organelle extracts energy from food molecules and stores it in the high energy bond of ATP?
Mitochondria
What is one of the things that prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have in common?
ribosomes
Which of the following cell structures would be found in an animal cell, but no in a bacterial cell?
endoplasmic reticulum
Which of the following has the greatest amount of kinetic energy?
a moving car, compared to an unlit firecracker, a hot car engine, and the cool air surrounding the engine
Which of the following has potential energy?
a diver on a springboard, a water droplet on top of a waterfall, a 9V battery, and a glucose molecule
Entropy is a measure of
randomness or disorder
Each of the following contains twelve carbon atoms. Which of the arrangements demonstrate carbon atoms with the greatest entropy?
twelve molecules of CO2
Energy that is not converted to useful energy is usually given off as
Heat
Which of the following is part of the first law of thermodynamics?
energy cannot be created or destroyed
What is the ultimate source of energy for most forms of life on Earth?
solar energy
When a solid sodium hydroxide is added to water, the solution gets hot. This is an example of
an exergonic reaction
All the following statements pertaining to catalysts are true
biological catalysts are specific enzymes, catalysts can be use over and over again, catalysts are not permanently altered during reaction, catalysts increase reaction rate
The reactant molecule involved in the reaction in an enzyme catalyzed reaction is called the
substrate
Which of these statements regarding enzymes is False?
enzymes provide energy for the reactions they catalyze